CBSE Class 6 Social Science History Revision Notes Chapter 2

CBSE Class 6 History Chapter 2 Notes – From Hunting-Gathering to Growing Food

Hunters and gatherers had to be constantly on the move during prehistoric times to save themselves and find food. They were discovering new lands as well as different resources. Chapter 2 of Class 6 History explains how people went in search of food, how farming practices began and so on. Students must understand why people moved from place to place because it demonstrated the discovery of land and how people began to occupy different areas. Roads and trails were created so that people can travel along regularly.

Extramarks Revision Notes for Class 6 History Chapter 2 is a concise and comprehensive guide written by subject matter experts. It is a useful tool to study with as it helps students learn and memorise the chapter effectively with its easy-to-understand language. These Revision Notes are also available from the website which can be accessed at students’ convenience.

From Hunting-Gathering to Growing Food Class 6 Notes History Chapter 2

Access CBSE Class 6 History Chapter 2 – From Hunting-Gathering to Growing Food

  1. Lives of the Earliest People:

Two million years ago, the only purpose of hunting and gathering was to obtain food. Wild animals were hunted, and fishes and birds were caught. Aside from that, humans gathered fruits, roots, nuts, seeds, leaves, stalks and eggs as well. 

People used to travel from one location to another at the time. The following are the reasons for travelling:

  1. Certain resources were restricted to  single location. When these resources were depleted, they relocated to another location.
  2. Humans, like animals, move from one location to another in search of food. They were mostly dependent on other animals. 

iii. Water is an essential requirement for plants, humans, and animals to survive. At that time, rivers, lakes, and streams served as water sources. As a result, during the dry season, humans had to travel long distances in search of water.

  1. Sources of Information About the Earliest People

  2. Archaeologists discovered items resembling weapons and tools used by hunters and gatherers.
  3. Early humans designed hunting and gathering tools using stones, woods and bones.

iii. Archaeologists have also discovered stone tools that reveal the lifestyle of the first people.

  1. Some of the stone tools were used to cut down wood. Wood was used to start a fire.
  2. They used wood for their huts and tools.
  3. Archaeological evidence indicates that people lived on the banks of rivers, lakes, and streams at the time. 

vii. They used to look for a location with a plentiful supply of stones, wood and food.

  1. Hunting-Gathering to Herding

A change in the world’s climatic conditions around 12,000 years ago made the weather warmer than before. Grasslands have grown in many parts of the world. The expansion of grasslands resulted in an increase in the number of animals such as deer, goats, sheep and cattle. People had learned about the eating habits of these animals and their breeding seasons. Fishing was also a popular activity at the time.

  1. Development of Farming and Herding:

Various grain-bearing grasses, primarily wheat, barley, and rice, grew naturally on the subcontinent. Men, women and children most likely harvested these grains for food and learned their locations and ripening seasons. This may have prompted people to consider cultivating plants on their own. In this manner, people started farming.

People were responsible for animal taming. The dog was the first animal that humans domesticated. Later, they began domesticating sheep, goats and cattle, and began herding.

  1. Starting of a New Era

Humans realised the importance of storing food grains after learning to grow them. The grains were gathered and stored so they could consume or cultivate them later. They stored their belongings in large clay pots, woven baskets or dug pits.

Animals such as cows, goats and cattle were better cared for, and they provided milk and meat as needed. Milk was one of the most important food sources at the time. Scientists discovered plants and animal bones, confirming the settlements of farmers and herders. The remains of burnt grain were a major source for archaeologists to understand prehistoric times by providing insight into people’s lifestyles.

Archaeologists discovered traces of huts and houses in various parts of the subcontinent. They also discovered cooking hearths both inside and outside the huts, implying that people cooked food either indoors or outdoors depending on the weather.

Stone tools from the Neolithic period differed from those of the Palaeolithic period. The tools of the Neolithic period were polished and had a precise cutting edge. Some tools were made from bones from the Palaeolithic period.

Earthen pots were discovered at the start of the Neolithic period. These earthen pots were used for cooking. They also learned to weave clothes at the time, as cotton was the primary fabric used by the Neolithic people.

Class 6 Social Science History Chapter 2 From Hunting Gathering to Growing Food

This chapter describes the evolution of how humans began gathering food. This transformation began with hunting and gathering food, which then progressed to food  cultivation. People used to gather food by hunting and gathering in the early days. They relied on other animals and plants to meet their food needs. People gradually realised the importance of growing food as civilisation progressed. Hunting and gathering were the only ways to get food. As a result, they learned how to grow food.

From Gathering to Growing Food Summary

This is an important chapter for Class 6 students because it emphasises the significance of migration and how it shaped people’s travel. The people that inhabited Earth after the cavemen are known as hunters and gatherers. They were named after their hunting practices, in which they would hunt for wild animals, fish, birds, nuts, fruits and so on. People had to travel from one place to another as and when the land’s resources were depleted after a certain period of time. Another reason for them to move around frequently was to hunt animals that were on the move. They tried to not exhaust the water in one location because acquiring fresh water was a problem at the time.

How Do We Know about Their Existence?

Archaeologists discovered various tools made of wood, stone and bone that have withstood the test of time. These tools were used for hunting, chopping meat, making clothing out of animal fur and chopping plants. These resources were mostly found near bodies of water and caves because these areas had more stone for them to make tools out of. Traces of ash have also been discovered, indicating that they discovered fire and most likely used it to scare away animals, provide heat and cook their food.

Beginning of Farming and Herding

According to one study, there has been a significant climatic change in the world, which has resulted in the creation of many grasslands all over the world. As a result, several animals were able to survive on the grasslands. This is when people began to practise herding and farming.

People began farming after discovering all of the crops that could be grown on these lands, such as wheat, barley, and rice. Dogs were the first animal to be properly tamed, and they were trained to protect the cattle. People began herding and rearing other animals such as sheep, goats and cows.

A Settled Life

Archaeologists have discovered various types of huts and houses in these locations, indicating that these people led sedentary lives. Cooking hearths were discovered both inside and outside the house, and archaeologists believe they cooked wherever the weather permitted. The tools discovered were well-cut, polished, and designed for people to hunt down animals as well as to cut up things. Different types of cooking utensils, such as earthen pots, were also discovered and must have been used for storing items or as a decorative item.


This was one of the first places where people began to farm and cultivate crops on a large scale. For the first time, various animals were also reared. Crops such as barley and rice were grown while rearing animals like goats and sheep. People used to perform rituals for the dead here, and goats were buried alongside them. Mehrgarh has a large number of burial sites. The houses in this area were cubical in shape.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. How did climate affect the lives of humans?

Climate change was first observed around 12,000 years ago. The climate began to warm up. Many grasslands, along with animals and plants, emerged from the surface. Early humans discovered some areas where edible plants could be grown. They discovered how seeds separated from stalks and floated to the surface. They were curious about how new plants sprouted and developed. With the knowledge they gained, they began cultivating their food and became farmers. They became skilled hunters over time and began to raise animals such as sheep and goats.

2. Why were the earliest people on the move?

People moved around for a variety of reasons. The following are the reasons:

  • The method of extracting resources was very primitive, which meant that a large portion of these resources would be lost. Whatever was recovered was inadequate and would deplete quickly. Therefore, they migrated from place to place to save resources and gather them to ensure they never ran out of consumable resources.
  • Their main source of survival was hunting, and animals migrated frequently. To keep up with the animals, they would move around and try to follow them.
  • They would relocate based on the season and weather conditions in the area.
  • Many hunters would settle on the banks of bodies of water. They would relocate when the water dried up in the summer.

3. How were farmers and herders different from hunter-gatherers?

Farmers and herders differed from hunters and gatherers in the following ways:


  • Farmers and herders lived a settled life, while hunters and gatherers lived nomadic lives.
  • Farmers began to grow their own food. Domestication of animals and plants became a way of life for herders. On the other hand, hunters and gatherers depended on resources they could find and hoarded them. 
  • Farmers and herders built a variety of houses in their community. Various tools were used by the people since the early Palaeolithic period. These tools had been polished and sharpened to cut things. They crushed and ground materials with mortars and pestles.
  • Farmers used to cook their food before eating it. Hunter-gatherers, on the other hand ate raw food.

4. Why do archaeologists think that the people of Mehrgarh were hunters?

Archaeologists believe that people who lived in Mehrgarh were hunters because they discovered bones and other dead remains of wild animals such as pigs and deer while excavating on the lowest levels of the ground. They did, however, discover skeletons of sheep and other cattle on the ground’s surface.