CBSE Class 6 Social Science History Revision Notes Chapter 5

Class 6 History Chapter 5 Notes

CBSE Class 6 History Chapter 5 Notes – Kingdoms, Kings and an Early Republic

Chapter 5 of CBSE Class 6 History is an important chapter from an exam point of view. This chapter explains how rulers ascended the throne and the establishment of a state leadership. Having notes that effectively summarise this extensive chapter is crucial for quicker revisions. The Extramarks Class 6 History Chapter 5 Notes are accurate as they are put together by subject matter experts. These concisely written Class 6 History Chapter 5 Notes cover every aspect of the chapter in bullet points.

Kingdoms, Kings and an Early Republic Class 6 Notes History Chapter 5

Access Class 6 Social Science (History) Chapter 5 Kingdoms, Kings and an Early Republic

Kingdoms, Kings and an Early Republic

India has the world’s oldest history. Most of this history emerged from the kingdoms that ruled the subcontinent throughout its golden periods. Chapter 5 History Class 6 Notes explains how the kings, or “rajas,” were chosen. Taxes were collected as the kingdoms expanded. The process of selecting the leader has advanced significantly from the early days of Ashvamedha to the present. People have moved away from the rule of kings to a republic, where they elect the leader of the government.

How were the Rulers Chosen

There is a significant difference between how the people of India chose the rulers of their provinces 3000 years ago and how the Rajas were elected around 50 years later.

The practice of electing a city’s ruler or leader by popular vote, as it is known today, was not prevalent in the Indian subcontinent until about 50 years ago.

Approximately 3000 years ago, a variety of rituals were used to select the rulers and Rajas.

Certain sacrifices were to be made during that time to be recognised as a Raja.

One such ritual that determined a Raja or ruler was the Ashvamedha or horse sacrifice.

The Raja’s men kept watch over a horse that was allowed to roam free.

If the horse entered the area of another Raja and he stopped it, the two Rajas would have to fight.

If the other Raja did not stop the horse, it was assumed that they recognised the sacrifice’s more powerful Raja as superior.

The sacrifice was then performed by priests, and the rajas were invited.

These priests received additional rewards.

The chief organiser, the Raja, was gifted by others and regarded as the most powerful.

The Raja served as the focal point of the rituals.

The Raja sat separately on a throne, a tiger skin or both.

The Shudras were not allowed to participate in these rituals, but the common people or the Vaishya brought gifts.


The Rajas of the Janapadas, as opposed to the Jana or people, were acknowledged for their tremendous sacrifices, such as that of the Ashvamedha.

The phrase “Janapada” refers to the place where the Jana or people first set foot and eventually made their home.

Therefore, these Rajas also ruled over the land and its people.

In these Janapadas, archaeologists have uncovered a number of settlements.

They are the Purana Qila in Delhi, Hastinapur in the vicinity of Meerut, and Atranjikhera in the vicinity of Etah in Uttar Pradesh.

It has been discovered that the inhabitants of those times lived in huts and kept cattle and other animals.

Additionally, people cultivated crops, including rice, wheat, barley, pulses, sugarcane, sesame and mustard.

They also  produced earthen pots, some of which were red and grey.

A specific kind of pottery made in these regions is called Painted Grey Ware. It is grey in colour with simple geometric patterns and lines painted on it.


Around 2500 years ago, the Janapadas, also known as Mahajanapadas, played a major role in the Indian subcontinent.

The majority of these Mahajanapadas contained a unique, fortified city.

Fortification is the act of enclosing a plot of land with high walls made of wood, brick or stone.

These forts were built to protect the people from attacks from other rival kings.

Fortification also made it easier for the land’s rulers to maintain control over the inhabitants.

The construction of forts required extensive planning and the preparation of thousands to lakhs of bricks.

As a result, fortifications required a tremendous amount of labour, including the work of thousands of men, women and children.

The more recent Rajas also started maintaining armies and paying their soldiers on a regular basis.

All year long, the Raja kept the soldiers in continuous service.

Silver or copper coins with punch marks were used for some of the payments.


The Mahajanapadas’ rulers, or Rajas, funded their affluent lifestyle with taxes from people.

Landowners were obligated to pay taxes to the rulers because it took more resources to construct forts and maintain large armies.

Officials regularly and systematically collected these taxes.

Since most people were farmers, crop-related tariffs were of the utmost importance.

The tax, known as the Bhaga or Share, amounted to one-sixth of the crops that were produced.

The labour of craftspersons was also considered a form of taxation.

Animals and animal-based products were once considered taxes by herders.

Traded goods are also taxed.

Taxes were paid by hunters and gatherers to the Raja in the form of forest goods.

Changes in Agriculture

Agriculture in ancient India underwent two significant changes.

The first notable modification was the use of ploughshares. It was simple to easily turn over heavy, clayey soil with a wooden ploughshare. This resulted in an increase of grain production.

Transplanting paddies was the second significant change. This meant that paddies were grown into saplings and then planted in fields. As a result, there was a significant increase in the production as plants could survive longer. These tasks were performed by slave men and women known as Dasas and Dasis.

A Closer Look- Magadha

The most significant Mahajanapada in the past two hundred years was Magadha.

It was traversed by numerous rivers, including the Son and the Ganga.

The rivers were crucial for land fertility, transportation, and providing water to the cities.

There were also some forested areas in Magadha. Elephants living there were captured and trained for the army.

The wood from forests was also used by people to construct their homes, carts and chariots.

Iron ore mines were also present in these areas.

In Magadha, iron was taped to make powerful tools and weapons.

Bimbisara and Ajatashatru were two strong rulers of Magadha, who conquered other Janapadas.

Mahapadma Nanda was a crucial ruler who expanded his rule to the Northwest.

For a while, the capital of Magadha was Rajagriha in the state of Bihar.

Later, Pataliputra (modern-day Patna) was regarded as the capital.

Alexander the Great, an emperor from Europe, arrived in India more than 2300 years ago to conquer Magadha. However, his soldiers resisted the order in response to the Indian emperors’ use of sizeable armies of foot soldiers, elephants and chariots.

A Closer Look- Vajji

Even though Magadha rose to prominence in ancient India, Vajji was another significant kingdom on the continent.

The Gana or Sangha ruled in Vaishali (Bihar), which served as Vajji’s capital.

There were numerous rulers in charge of a Gana or Sangha.

Each of these rulers was referred to as a Raja even when thousands of them jointly ruled a region.

Together, they carried out rituals, attended gatherings, discussed and debated about the necessary actions to be taken.

Dasas, Kammakaras and women were not permitted in the assemblies.

Gautama Buddha and Mahavira belonged to these Ganas or Sanghas.

The most vivid descriptions of Sangha life can be found in Buddhist writings.

The Rajas of strong kingdoms on the Indian subcontinent attempted to subdue the Sanghas.

However, Sanghas existed up until 1500 years ago.

The Guptas subdued the last of the Ganas.

Class 6 History Chapter 5 – Kingdoms, Kings and an Early Republic Notes

Students can learn and review information about kingdoms, kings, and an early republic with the aid of Chapter 5 History Class 6 Notes. Students can access these notes from the Extramarks website. They can now study Chapter 5 of the Social Science textbook for Class 6 History at their own pace and quickly revise its contents, thanks to these clear and concise Class 6 History Chapter 5 Notes.

Chapter 5 – Social Science

Class 6 History Chapter 5 Notes covers all of the information on Kingdoms, Kings, and the Early Republic. These topics are discussed below:

How Men Became Rulers

In this subsection, students will learn the various strategies that were implemented by rulers for dominating others. The rituals performed by such rulers are also discussed. The Ashvamedha, also known as the Horse Sacrifice, was one such ritual. The duties of the rulers’ family members were also covered in this section. The section concludes by discussing how people were classified and the creation of the caste system.


The hierarchical divisions of the rulers were discussed in this section. The Janas or the rulers first stepped foot on the Janapadas. Janapada settlements were discovered by various archaeological expeditions in Hastinapura (near Meerut), Purana Qila (near Delhi), and Atranjikhera (near Etah). The Janapadas continued to live in huts and were engaged in agriculture and animal husbandry, according to these excavations. Even earthen pots similar to painted Grey Ware were produced.


Some of the Janas grew in strength and began to rule over a wide area known as the Mahajanapadas. The Mahajanapadas built concrete walls to enclose their capital city. In this section, students will learn about the way of people’s life, the planning involved in making such magnificent structures, and most importantly, the idea of the king of a region. People held this type of justice and protection in high regard. In this section, the ideas of kingdoms, kings and an early republic are introduced.


Taxes that were common during those times are examined in this section. It discusses the justifications proposed for tax collection. There were different types of taxes levied on individuals, i.e., different tax obligations apply to different taxpayers. Farmers must pay taxes in the form of crops, herders must pay taxes in the form of animals and animal products, and traders must pay taxes in the form of the goods they exchange. The revision notes focus on the distinctiveness of such a tax system. Additionally, it covered the idea of shares, or “Bhagas.”

Changes in Agriculture

This section explains the two significant changes that occurred in agricultural practices during the reign of the Mahajanapadas. They were the practice of paddy transplantation and the use of iron for ploughing. These novel methods are covered in the revision notes in-depth.

A Closer Look – Magadhas

The Magadhas were the most well-known of the Mahajanapadas. These Class 6 History Chapter 5 Kingdoms Kings And An Early Republic Notes discuss the role of rivers when Magadha ascended to prominence. It also focuses on how iron was used to create chariots, weapons and tools. The lives and contributions of significant Magadha kings, as well as the contemporary relevance of such an empire, were also covered in these notes.

A Closer Look – Vajji

The Gana, also known as the Sangha, which was common in Vajji is an exception to the concept of Janas. It introduced the idea of multiple rulers working together to conduct all ceremonies, gatherings, and assemblies. It can be said that the democratic government that rules today is primitive.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is the need to study about Janas and Janapadas from NCERT solutions?

The concept of Janas and Janapadas is introduced to the students in CBSE Class 6 History Chapter 5. This chapter demonstrates the development of the rulers’ concept and how it altered Indian society. All of the chapter’s key ideas are covered in the solution set. In order to help the students understand, they present these points while a story is in progress. In addition, the solutions contained problems that the students could resolve in order to get ready for any test.

2. Why is Chapter 5 of the NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Social Science required reading material?

In Indian history and culture, the Magadha culture has a significant influence. These empires must be studied by the students. All of the critical points mentioned in the CBSE chapter are covered in the solution set. The influence of the rivers on the Magadha culture has received particular attention. Additionally, the use of irons is emphasised. Finally, the solution also referred to the significance of the Magadha empire’s important kings. The NCERT solution sets have been updated to reflect the Magadha empire’s significance in the modern world.