CBSE Class 6 Social Science History Revision Notes Chapter 6

Class 6 History Chapter 6 Notes

CBSE Class 6 History Chapter 6 Notes – New Questions and Ideas

Class 6 History Chapter 6 Notes discuss kings such as Mahajanapadas, who grew more powerful as new cities were built and village life changed. People’s thought processes changed during this period as they tried to discover the true meaning of life. Throughout history, particularly in India, divine saints have changed the world. The two most powerful people who attained enlightenment and spread the meaning of true life are Buddha and Mahavir.

The Class 6 History Chapter 6 Notes are extremely helpful for learning various aspects of history. Students can utilise these notes to quickly revise the chapter and improve their exam preparations. Buddhism, Upanishads, Jainism, and other religions are covered in Class 6 Social Science History Chapter 6. Learning about them will help students understand how these religions function and their importance.

New Questions and Ideas Class 6 Notes History Chapter 6

Access Class 6 Social Science (History) Chapter 6 New Questions and Ideas Notes

Class 6 Social Science History Chapter 6 Questions and Ideas

Through the chapter New Questions and Ideas, students learn about how Mahajanapadas kings grew in power. They will also understand how Buddha and Mahavira attained enlightenment and disseminated their knowledge during this time period. New cities began to emerge, and the life of ordinary people was changing.

This chapter is broken down into three sections:

  • Upanishads
  • Jainism and
  • Buddhism

The first part of the chapter focuses on the Upanishads. It explains the Vedic period, arrival of Aryans and Rigvedic states.

The second and third parts of this chapter explains the society, economic life, and Buddhist and Jain teachings. The sub-topics covered in this chapter are listed below.

  • The advent of Aryans and Rigvedic States
  • Introduction to Vedic Period and its sources
  • Polity and Administration
  • Society During the Vedic Period
  • Economic life During the Vedic Age
  • Impact of Jainism
  • Introduction to Jainism
  • Doctrines and teachings of Jainism
  • Doctrines and Teaching of Buddhism

The Origin of Buddhism

Siddhartha, also known as Gautama Buddha, was the founder of Buddhism and was born 2500 years ago. He belonged to the “Sakya Gana” sect and was a “Kshatriya.” As he grew into a young adult, he abandoned all of his possessions and embarked on a journey in search of knowledge, about existence and its sufferings, and test those theories. He wandered for many years and during those years, he met and discussed with other thinkers in a variety of settings and he was enriched by their insights.

His spiritual journey began when he began meditating under the Peepal Tree in Bodh Gaya, Bihar and attained enlightenment. Enlightenment is a stage in the life of Buddha Shakyamuni. He was called the Buddha after being enlightened, which means “Wise Man”. He first began to teach disciples in Sarnath, which is close to Varanasi. He used to travel barefoot to teach people about life until his journey came to an end at Kushinagar, where he died. People’s social lives changed dramatically when Buddha Shakyamuni arrived. Indeed, few other kings reached the same pinnacle of power and influence.

His teachings: He taught that life is full of pain and suffering. He also stated that humans were always dissatisfied, no matter how much they received from life. This refers to the “Tanha,” which means “thirst.” Cravings and desires are the primary causes of misery and unhappiness. To alleviate this constant thirst, he taught people to moderate their thirst. He urged people to be kind and respect the lives of others, including animals. According to the Buddha, the lives before one’s present life and the lives after death is affected by human behaviour. He explained that if one does any good,he/she shall receive good in return, which is commonly referred to as “Karma.”

The Buddha’s teachings have spread throughout the country because they are taught in a colloquial language,  which made it easy for the ordinary people to understand. The Buddha also taught them about self-esteem and self-evaluation.

The Upanishads

People were struggling to find solutions to complex problems prior to the Buddha’s time. People were interested in life after death and the reason for sacrifices and rituals.

Most thinkers believed in eternal souls after death. This phenomenon is known as atman, or individual soul, and the Brahman, or universe soul. They were convinced that Atman and Brahman are the same. The Upanishads recorded the thoughts of such thinkers. These are from the Vedic texts that came after.

Upanishad literally means “near, sit near.” Conversations between teachers and students were recorded in the “Upanishads.” A very indulgent conversation often led to novel ideas. Men, particularly Brahmins and Rajas, dominated the teaching profession. Women took part in various debates, the most well-known of whom is “Gargi.” Later, the Upanishads were developed with the help of the famous thinker “Sankaracharya.”

The majority of debates and discussions exclude the poor. One exception exists. Satyakama Jabala, a wretched slave, was one of the best thinkers at the time. He was taught by Gautama, a Brahmin teacher. In the final section of the Upanishads, the famous thinker Shankaracharya advanced several crucial ideas.

A Brief View of Jainism

Vardhamana Mahavira was the 24th “Tirthankara” of the Jain religion. Vardhamana Mahavira delivered his discourse at the same time as Buddha Shakyamuni, the last of Jainism and the 24th generation Tirthankara. He, too, was a “Kshatriya” prince like “the Buddha.” Mahavira belonged to the Vajji Sangha sect and was a prince of the Lichchhavis. When Mahavira was 30, he left his home and spent 12 years in the forest before attaining enlightenment.

He preached that people who wanted to know the truth about life should leave their homes and follow the rules of “Ahimsa,” which means nonviolence and not causing harm to living beings.

Mahavira preached his doctrine in Prakrit so that ordinary people could understand it. Prakrit has 4,444 different names in various parts of the world.

Jainism refers to Mahavira’s followers. They have a brief existence. They used to collect food by begging for alms. Jains practised honesty and celibacy; all items, including clothing details, must be handed over by these people.

Most men and women found it difficult to adhere to these stringent rules. Despite this, thousands of people left their homes to learn and teach this new way of life. Many more stayed behind and helped those who became monks and nuns by providing food.

Jainism was primarily supported by traders. Farmers who needed to kill insects to protect their crops found it more difficult to adhere to the rules..

Jainism was preached in several Indian states, including Karnataka, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu. For a long time, Mahavira gave his teachings through oral instructions. The format of Jainism preaching is in Valabhi, Gujarat.

The Sangha

“Sangha” were the people who left their homes. Vinaya Pitaka is a collection of rules written by the Buddha, which establishes separate sectors for men and women. Men and women from the Sanghas sect begged for food and were dubbed “Bhikkhus.”

Meditation was one of the primary forms that the Buddha practised. Aside from that, there was only a limited amount of time to organise the city and village. Bhikkhus held meetings to resolve any quarrels if they arose. Sanghas were attended by members of various sects, including Brahmins, Kshatriyas, merchants, labourers and barbers.


People could not travel to preach during the rainy season as they faced difficulties to find shelter. Both Buddha and Mahavira were accompanied by a group of followers, both men and women, who would construct temporary shelters in gardens or caves in hilly areas. “Monasteries” or “Viharas” were permanent shelters. The monastery is where Buddhist and Jain monks, and nuns used to practise. Monks and nuns had permanent quarters here. The majority of the land on which monasteries were built was donated by wealthy merchants. The viharas were constructed of wood and brick. The Buddhist monks spread the practise of Buddhism throughout the world over time.

Class 6 Social Science History 

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FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What were the main teachings of the Buddha?

According to the Buddha’s main teachings, life is full of suffering and unhappiness because of cravings, unfulfilled desires and dissatisfaction. The Buddha proposed that moderation in everything can alleviate this constant desire. He taught people to be kind, to love and respect all living things, including animals. He believed that actions, or ‘Karma,’ whether good or bad, would affect the present and future lives. In addition, the Buddha encouraged people to think for themselves rather than simply following his teachings.

2. Why was Jainism less accepted or practised among people?

Jainism was less popular because most men and women found it difficult to strictly adhere to the main principles or rules as desired by the founders and preachers of Jainism. For example, the majority of Indian farmers found it difficult to comply with the rules because they needed to kill insects to protect their crops. However, thousands of Jain preachers left their homes to learn and teach the new way of life. Many people remained and were supported by those who became monks and nuns by providing food. Traders were the primary supporters of Jainism.

3. Describe Buddha’s life in brief.

Buddha’s original name was Siddhartha Gautama, and he was a Kshatriya from a small Gana. He left the comforts of home at a young age to seek knowledge. For several years, He travelled, met and discussed with other contemporary thinkers. There was a place in Bihar called Bodh Gaya where He meditated for several days under a Peepal tree. After meditation, He attained enlightenment and was given the prophetic title “the Buddha,” which means “the Wise One.” He also went to Samath and taught people about ‘Tanha,’ ‘Karma’ and other concepts. He travelled and preached for the rest of his life until he died in Kusinara.