CBSE Class 6 Social Science History Revision Notes Chapter 9

Class 6 History Chapter 9 Notes

CBSE Class 6 History Chapter 9 Notes – Traders, Kings and Pilgrims

Chapter 9 describes the southern part of India, which is famous for gold, spices, pepper and precious stones. In the Roman Empire, pepper was highly prized and was referred to as “black gold.” Gold, pepper, precious stones, and spices are well-known exports from South India. This indicates that there were transactions between the two countries for such goods.

Traders transported these goods from their source locations and sold them elsewhere. They studied various sea routes with sailors. While some of these routes followed the coastlines, there were other routes that sailors used to swiftly cross the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. This was done with the help of the monsoon winds and sturdy ships on their long voyages.

The important historical occurrences involving the traders, kings, and pilgrims of the Indian subcontinent are covered under Class 6 History Chapter 9 Notes. Students can refer to these notes provided by Extramarks to effectively grasp and learn the concepts involved in the chapter “Trade, Kings, and Pilgrims”.

Traders, Kings and Pilgrims Class 6 Notes History Chapter 9

Access Class 6 History Chapter 9 – Traders, Kings and Pilgrims

How to Find Out About Trade and Traders

Historians investigate trade and trade routes using the following evidence like literature, objects such as pottery, bowls, and plates discovered at various archaeological sites and from Roman gold coins discovered in southern India.

Students will discover more about trade and trader in Class 6 History Chapter 9 Notes as the chapter covers fine pottery, bowls, plates, and other items that have been discovered in several archaeological sites across the subcontinent. A variety of goods, including gold, gems, spices, and pepper, are transported by traders and sold in other regions of the subcontinent.

Caravans and ships were used to transport various goods over land and the sea. Discoveries show items from various parts of the world present in the Indian subcontinent.

The New Kingdom along the Coasts

The southern half of the subcontinent, with its hills, plateaus, and river valleys, is characterised by long coastlines. The most fertile areas are along the Kaveri River’s banks.

Mu Wenda was one of the three heads of the three ruling families in the poem “Shanggan.”

The Cholas, Cheras, and Pandyas, who came to power in South India around 2300 years ago, were the ruling clans.

Puhar, or Kaveripattinam, and Madurai, one on the mainland and one on the coast, were the two centres of power.

People gave the chiefs gifts in the form of taxes. In return, the chiefs went on military campaigns.

This wealth was distributed among the chief’s family, followers, poets, and soldiers.

The Satavahanas Dynasty took control of the western part of India 200 years later.

Gautamiputra Shri Satkarni was the most well-known, powerful, and significant ruler. He adopted this name in honour of his mother, Gautami Balashri. Her writings provide significant information about him.

The Satvahanas were referred to as the “Lords of this region” because they controlled the “Dakshinapatha,” which is the route or road leading to the vast southern part of India. However, the Satavahana army did reach the Western and Eastern coasts.

The main cause of this was the fact that India was successfully conducting business with other nations via its ports and waterways.  As a result, keeping control of the coasts meant keeping control of the trade, which meant becoming richer and more powerful than others.

The Story of the Silk Route

In most societies, silk is one of the best-known fabrics. It has a smooth texture, rich colours with vibrant hues.

Silk became fashionable among Rome’s affluent and ruling classes around 2000 years ago.

The Kushans were the ruling class that ruled the Silk Road. They held power over Northwest India and Central Asia.

The Spread of Buddhism

The most well-known Kushan emperor, Kanishka, convened a Buddhist council to discuss significant issues and events.

The writings of Ashvaghosha and other Buddhist scholars gave rise to the Mahayana School of Buddhism, a new branch of Buddhism.

Some of the changes during this time included the evolution of the Buddha’s presence as it is represented in artwork or statues.

Bodhisattvas were people who attained enlightenment. They decided to preach and teach other people rather than meditate and spend their lives in isolation.

The southern and western parts of India were colonised by Buddhism.

The Quest of Pilgrims

Men and women who visit sacred locations to offer worship to their gods are known as pilgrims.

Chinese Buddhist pilgrims Fa Xian and Xuan Zang arrived on the Indian subcontinent around 1600 and 1400 years ago, respectively.

The narrative of the pilgrims’ journey was left behind, which included their perils, misadventures, and tales of the nations and monasteries they visited.

An exceptional and well-known centre of Buddhist learning was Nalanda.

The Beginning of Bhakti

Hinduism rose in prominence during this time. People began to worship Gods Shiva and Vishnu, and Goddess Durga.

Bhakti was the worship of different deities. It is a person’s devotion to their chosen deity.

Anyone can follow the path of Bhakti, regardless of wealth, caste, or gender. This includes people from both the so-called “high” and “low” castes.

The sacred Hindu text known as the Bhagavad Gita contains the concept of Bhakti. The concept emphasises the worship of specific Gods and Goddesses rather than requiring complex sacrifices.

Derived from the Sanskrit word “bhaj,” which means to divide or share and alludes to a reciprocal relationship between the worshipper and the god.

According to Bhakti, if a devotee worships a chosen deity with a pure heart, the deity will appear in the form he or she may desire.

Interesting Facts

Using carts on the Silk Road became a very primitive option that was discontinued. This route crosses flat roads, deserts, and hills. Additionally, businesses frequently had to pay extra fees to residents who lived nearby. Bandits and Dakota frequently attacked shopkeepers. Consequently, using a cart was not in favour.

Shipping was more advantageous as the transportation distance was short and the ruler could not levy taxes on the people who lived along the Silk Road.

However, there were drawbacks to sending silk across the seas as well. Ships could be attacked by pirates. In addition, natural disasters, maritime storms, and rough waters impeded efficient business operations.

Important Questions and Answers

Q.1  Why do Chinese pilgrims come to India?

Ans: Around 1600 years ago, three Chinese pilgrims named FaXian, Xuan Zang, and IQing travelled to India.

They travelled throughout India to locations that were significant to the Buddha’s teachings and life. They also visited Buddha’s well-known monasteries.

The pilgrims brought back Buddhist texts, books, and Buddha statues from India because they were so interested in studying Buddhism.

Pilgrims like Xuan Zang spent a lot of time studying at Nalanda in Bihar, the most well-known Buddhist monastery of the time.

All of the pilgrims brought books back with them. They also made a significant contribution to the spread of Buddhism throughout parts of China and other regions of the world.

Q.2  How did the traders and sailors use sea routes earlier, and how did this impact the discovery of new places?

Ans: Every trader and sailor contributed greatly to the discovery of new places in antiquity by using sea routes.

They investigated several sea routes while moving from one nation to another to get to the coast and see new places.

The monsoon winds were used by traders travelling from the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea to quickly cross the oceans.

If they wanted to get to the subcontinent’s Western coast, traders from East Africa or Arabia used the Southwest monsoon winds as a guiding force. Additionally, this resulted in the exchange of goods between various nations.

For example, the traders transported items like pearls, black pepper, and sandalwood to the port of Puhar on the East coast.

Q. Give some evidence about the trade of goods in Puhar.

Ans: The exchange of goods and trade in Puhar is depicted in great detail in Sangam’s poetry. On the East Coast, Puhar is a significant port.

The poem describes the crops yielded on the banks of the river Kaveri, the outlets of the river Ganges, how horses were traded across the sea, the production of sandalwood on the Western hills, various food workers in Sri Lanka, and the transportation of black pepper using carts.

Furthermore, there is also evidence that corals in the east are traded for pearls in the south.

Finally, both common and uncommon materials were imported. Burmese pottery, for instance, was very well-liked.

Q. Define the Idea of Bhakti.

Ans: Bhakti is the concept of devotion to a particular deity. The Hindu holy book, the Bhagavad Gita, presents it.

The Mahabharata epic serves numerous examples of devotion. For example, God asked Arjuna to take refuge in him and abandon all Dharmas to free himself from evil, just as Krishna did.

People who adhered to this ideology worshipped specific Gods and Goddesses. People were drawn to Hinduism because of the idea of devotion, which was a fundamental aspect of the religion.

The deities that were worshipped through the method of Bhakti included goddesses like Durga, Kali, Laxmi, and gods Shiva and Vishnu.

Q. Why were people attracted to Bhakti?

Ans: The most potent part of the concept of Bhakti was that the saints used the language of ordinary people.

It was easy to understand as the concepts explained were simple. This attracted the attention of regular people.

Saints also emphasised the importance of worshipping particular deities like Vishnu, Shiva, Durga, and other such deities. This later evolved into a key component of Hinduism.

Additionally, the path of Bhakti was open to all. To be a part of this ideology, a person could be from any background—high caste or low caste, wealthy or impoverished, man or woman.

A sizable number of people were drawn to practise this religion because of how straightforward the idea was.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Why did kings want to rule over the Silk Road?

By gaining control over the Silk Road, the kings would be able to collect taxes and have another source of income. In addition to this, traders gave gifts and tributes to the kings.

2. Give reasons why Chinese pilgrims came to India.

Chinese pilgrims visited several renowned monasteries as well as locations in India connected to the life of Lord Buddha. They spent their time  studying at  Nalanda.


3. What evidence do historians use to find trade and trade routes?

The historians used a variety of sources to find evidence, such as:

  • the literature from the relevant era.
  • ancient currency.
  • bowls, plates, and pottery.