CBSE Class 6 Social Science Political Science Revision Notes Chapter 9

Class 6 Social and Political Life Chapter 9 Notes

CBSE Class 6 Social Science (Social and Political Life) Chapter 9 Notes – Urban Livelihoods

In India, there are 27 cities and over 5000 towns. Kolkata, one of the busiest and most populous cities in the world, has a population of 14 million. Chapter 9 of Class 6 Social and Political Life explains what urban livelihood means. Students will learn about life in cities and means of subsistence. They will also understand how an urban city functions with the help of

Class 6 Social and Political Life Chapter 9 Notes

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Urban Livelihoods Class 6 Notes Social and Political Life (Social and Political Life) Chapter 9

Access Class 6 Social Science – Social and Political Life Chapter 9 – Urban Livelihoods

Millions of people live in India’s 27 major cities and thousands of towns. There are many Tier II cities like Chandigarh, Pune, and Hyderabad as well as large cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, and Chennai. All these  cities  have a thriving nightlife. People in this area work in factories, small offices, and MNCs. Self-employed individuals include small business owners, shop owners, and street vendors. They each have various employment and income opportunities. Let’s examine each of them in Chapter 9 of the Social and Political Life for Class 6 of the CBSE.

  1. Working on the Streets

  1. Students can imagine a day on a city’s bustling streets. They can visualise that when one leaves the house in a city, they can see:
  2. People set  up shops along the roadside  to sell a variety of goods, including vegetables, fruits, flowers, and newspapers.
  3. Street vendors push their carts through the city, peddling goods like plastic bottles, vegetables, hairpins, and clips.
  4. Barbers and cobblers, stationed on the side of the road with their supplies and tools ready for clients.
  5. Rickshaw pullers driving and offering rides around.
  1. According to a survey, 12 out of every 100 city residents work on the streets.

iii. These individuals are self-employed. They plan, organise, and decide from where to purchase items, how much to purchase, where to sell them, and how to set up their stores.

  1. The majority of street stalls and shops are temporary structures; some may only have a few sheets spread out on the pavement to keep their goods in while others may have a cart.
  1. The police frequently check  these street vendors to remove  their setups because these are improper selling spaces.
  1. There is no security for street vendors, and some areas of the city forbid their entry.

vii. Street vendors typically cook the food they sell at their homes with the assistance of their families.

viii. Street vending is  considered an obstruction to traffic on the road, but it is now acknowledged as a legitimate source of income.

  1. The government previously outlawed street vendors, but it is currently reexamining this law and attempting to make it easier for vendors to sell without impeding traffic.
  1. Appropriate hawking zones are being established, and committees to include them in such decisions are being formed.
  1. The Story of Bachchu Manjhi – A Cycle-Rickshaw Puller

  1. This is the tale of a mason who left his home village in search of employment in the city because his family’s needs were not being met by his income there.
  1. He purchased an old cycle rickshaw in instalments many years ago when he had just moved to the city.

iii. His current daily schedule is as follows:

He leaves in the morning to pull the rickshaw and take customers to their destinations.

  1. He rides for about 6 kilometres until 8:30 in the evening.
  1. He receives between 5 and 10 rupees for a single trip, but he earns no money  on his sick days.
  1. He makes between Rs. 80 and Rs. 100 a day and spends between Rs. 50 and Rs. 60 on food and rent. He sends his family in the village some and keeps the  rest.
  1. His wife manages with this cash and occasionally helps out on the field.
  1. In the Market

  1. Many people in urban areas own businesses, some of which are described below.
  1. These are stores that sell a range of goods, including confections, clothing, accessories, utensils, electronics, etc.
  1. Independent shop owners who run these businesses on their own and hire staff members as helpers own them.
  1. These businesses are permanent and granted licences by municipal corporations to operate legally, setting them apart from hawkers and vendors.
  1. They continue to be closed on days set by the local municipal corporation.
  1. There are also large showrooms with multiple floors where products are exquisitely displayed for various customer types.
  1. The Story of Harpreet and Vandana: Businesspersons

  1. After graduating from college, Harpreet, a dress designer, co-founded a showroom with Vandana.
  1. Vandana points out that having an appealing display is crucial because more and more people choose  to buy ready-made clothes. .

iii. The pair employs the following strategies to manage their company:

  1. They purchase materials from all over the nation and even from other nations.
  1. In order to attract new clients, they frequently advertise their showroom in newspapers, movie theatres, and on radio stations.
  1. The showroom space is currently rented, but they intend to purchase it soon.

The couple made some good profits from the showroom recently and used those funds to purchase a car and a nearby apartment.

  1. In the Factory-Workshop Area

  1. In India, there are a number of places known as labour chowks where semi-skilled day labourers looking for a job congregate every day. In every city, there are countless casual workers who bring their tools to these chowks and wait for people to hire them for the day.
  1. You can find a lot of workshops where many people work as skilled workers in factory areas.

iii. Nirmala is one such employee, and the following is an explanation of her way of life:

  1. Nirmala is employed as a tailor in a factory that produces summer clothing for residents of the United States, Germany, and the Netherlands.
  1. From December to April, she puts in a lot of overtime for an hourly wage of Rs 80.
  1. She receives an additional Rs. 40 in pay if she stays late at work.
  1. When Nirmala is unemployed in other months, she must find other sources of income.
  1. The following information about factory workers is deduced from Nirmala’s story:
  1. People typically put in long hours at factories, especially during times of high demand or when there is a sizable order that needs to be filled.
  1. The typical day starts around 9 am and goes until 10 pm. They also work on the weekends if necessary. Their shifts can last up to 12 hours at times.
  1. People are hired when demand is higher, and once that demand is met, the staff is reduced and the people lose their jobs or go unemployed.
  1. These employees work long hours for low pay and little to no benefits. They also lack job security.
  1. They are even forbidden from criticising their pay or working conditions for fear of losing their jobs.
  1. In the Office Area

  1. The majority of those who work in formal offices are regular, long-term employees.
  1. Their monthly income is reliable, and they can count on it to last for several months or years.

iii. This type of employment offers job security and a number of perks, including:

  1. Savings for old age: A portion of the salary is placed in a government-run fund. After retiring, employees receive this money to enjoy their golden years.
  1. Holidays: Office workers are entitled to paid annual leave in addition to national and state holidays.
  1. Family medical facilities: Businesses frequently cover an employee’s medical costs up to a certain dollar amount. Additionally, they are entitled to paid medical leave for when they become ill and to maternity leave when required. .
  1. Sudha is one such employee, and the following is an explanation of her job position and way of life:
  1. She oversees 50 salespeople while working as a marketing manager in a biscuit factory.
  1. She monitors their development and talks about the problems they encounter.
  1. She receives a regular salary and can count on having a job for a very long time. She also enjoys a number of advantages, such as those outlined above.

Important Questions and Answers

Q1. Write a note on the living conditions of workers who come to the labour chowk.

Ans. Low skilled workers are those who visit labour chowk. They come here every day to wait in the hopes of getting a job.

  1. They typically slumber and live on the streets.
  2. They occasionally receive a bed at a municipal corporation-run night shelter for a fee of Rs. 6 per night.
  3. When they need money, the nearby tea and pan shops lend it to them.
  4. In addition, they lack adequate storage space for their tools and materials, which they frequently store inside these roadside tea shops and pan shops for security.
  5. In general, these workers’ living situations are quite miserable and earn their livelihood on a day today basis.

Q2. Why did Bachchu Manjhi come to the city?

A2. The following are the reasons why Bachchu Manjhi, a rickshaw puller in the city, came here:

  1. He was in desperate need of new employment.
  2. He was employed as a mason in the village, but he did not frequently receive masonry work.
  3. When he did find work, the pay was inadequate.
  4. With such a meagre income, he found it challenging to support and feed a family of four.

Class 6 Social Science – Social and Political Life Chapter 9 Urban Livelihoods Notes

Urban Livelihood: Class 6 CBSE Social and Political Life Chapter 9 Summary

Chapter 9 of Class 6 Social and Political Life will introduce the various components of a hectic urban lifestyle. Students will study the homes, workplaces, and daily necessities of a city. An urban settlement is meticulously designed and built by city planners so that everyone residing there can take advantage of all the benefits and amenities without exerting themselves. The various facets of urban society will be covered in this chapter, along with an explanation of their functions.

Students will also learn that almost 12% of city dwellers are employed by the streets. What they do determines how they will live. They might run a small business, sell goods, fix things, or work for another company. Most of the time, they are either self-employed or lack a long-term employment solution. They are referred to as vendors..

Showrooms and Market Areas

The markets are the locations where people can find permanent or transient stores where customers purchase items they need on a daily basis, including food, stationery, shoes, utensils, electronics, medicines, and other necessities. Owners of these stores, which provide for the populace’s daily needs, are business people. The amount of investment determines the size of their businesses. They could be a small-business proprietor or a wealthy entrepreneur with well-known brands or showrooms

People are employed by the showrooms in the markets. These locations have employees and managers who work for the business owner. One needs a legitimate licence from the municipal corporation of a city in order to conduct business. The market is home to a variety of stores. A market is typically found near or inside of an urban area. People can get their daily necessities right on time thanks to the location. Almost everything needed can be found in an urban market, including prescription drugs, medical facilities, groceries, and office supplies.

Factory Area

A factory area is a designated area in an urban settlement that is removed from the populated areas. A factory typically receives a licence from the relevant regulatory body to manufacture products. Urban areas can contain small factories. Only those factories that pose a risk to air quality and waste disposal will be relocated. Small businesses like bakeries, tailoring, and other establishments can be found nearby.

On the other hand, the workshop areas are located away from populated areas. The labourers come here each day to look for work. Employees need not  look for work every day. These labourers may also enjoy lifting heavy objects, building roads, unloading or loading carriers, digging pipelines, erecting buildings, etc. This population segment relies on manual labour. To achieve both goals, they must work in unhygienic conditions. Additionally, they receive very meagre payments. .

Office Areas

The individuals who work in offices and contribute mental labour to make ends meet are described in this section of the urban way of life. They have a long-term employment arrangement and receive a monthly salary in return for their daily labour. You can learn more about how they spend money on their families, their education, and how they save money so they can buy a future asset if you read the Urban Livelihood Class 6 Notes. They also make investments in various financial avenues in order to generate income and gain advantages to maintain their expensive lifestyle..

A national calendar designates their holidays. Weekends and public holidays are celebrated in various ways. They either go shopping, go to the movies with friends and family, or stay home and relax. The employer takes care of their medical needs according to certain guidelines imposed by the government. They receive a variety of leaves from the employer under specific terms and conditions.

People’s urban livelihoods vary depending on their profession. Despite the fact that these individuals share the same city, there is a clear distinction between their lifestyles.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Why do we need workers or labourers?

Without workers or labourers, a society cannot function. This group of city dwellers performs all the strenuous physical labour. Many businesses will find it difficult to operate without their help. The entire societal and economic structure will eventually fall apart.

2. Why do we need office workers?

Employees in offices perform mental labour. They put their skills to work for an employer and work as a team to complete a worthwhile task. The development of urban areas is the result of this. The livelihood of other sections is also influenced by their costs.