CBSE Class 7 Science Syllabus

CBSE Syllabus for Class 7 Science 2023 – 2024 Exam

Class 7 is a crucial year for every student. It is the time when you are able to build the concepts of science on your own with a consistent and analytical approach to the subject. The CBSE Class 7 Science Syllabus comprises a rudimentary knowledge  of learning and understanding Biology, Chemistry and Physics. The accumulation of the various sub-topics allows the CBSE students to get a better idea of the subject and that entails theory-based topics and experiments-based application of multiple concepts. 

CBSE Class 7 Science Syllabus for 2023 – 2024 Examination – Free PDF Download

The students can download the CBSE Class 7 Science Syllabus PDF given below and save it for their ready reference. In order to ace the science subject, the students need to have a complete idea of the CBSE Class 7 Science Syllabus 2023-24 to plan and prepare more effectively at the beginning of the new academic session.


Class 7 Science Syllabus NCERT- Free PDF Download

The Syllabus of CBSE Class 7 Science is crafted by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE). The chapter and topics are balanced with various aspects of Biology, Physics and Chemistry.  In addition to 18 chapters from the NCERT Books, the syllabus also has three sets of topics which are based on practical experiments.

Class 8 Science subject carries both theoretical and practical references of the studies learnt in Class 7. Therefore, the students of CBSE class 7 are encouraged to study Science with greater interest and assess themselves with CBSE Previous Year Question Papers. Solving more CBSE Sample Papers can help boost the confidence level of the students while enhancing their learning through practical experiments.

Class 7th Science Syllabus

The CBSE Syllabus for Class 7 Science contains a total of eighteen chapters.

Chapter Number Name of the Chapter
Chapter: 1 Nutrition in Plants
Chapter: 2 Nutrition in Animals
Chapter: 3 Fibre to Fabric
Chapter: 4 Heat
Chapter: 5 Acids, Bases, and Salts
Chapter: 6 Physical and Chemical Changes
Chapter: 7 Weather, Climate and Adaptations of Animals to  Climate
Chapter: 8 Winds, Storms and Cyclones
Chapter: 9 Soil
Chapter: 10 Respiration in Organisms
Chapter: 11 Transportation in Animals and Plants
Chapter: 12 Reproduction in Plants
Chapter: 13 Motion and Time
Chapter: 14 Electric Current and its Effects
Chapter: 15 Light
Chapter: 16 Water: A Precious Resource
Chapter: 17 Forests: Our Lifeline
Chapter: 18 Wastewater Story

 Each of the chapters holds a special significance. Let’s take a better look at the topics based on each chapter.

  1. Nutrition in Plants

This chapter is based on photosynthesis and how trees churn out nutrition through the soil, water and sunlight. The various topics are

1.1: Mode of Nutrition In Plants

1.2: Photosynthesis — Food Making Process in Plants

1.3: Other Modes of Nutrition in Plants

1.4: Saprotrophs

1.5: How Nutrients are Replenished in the Soil.

  1. Nutrition in Animals

In this chapter, the students get to learn how humans intake food and how digestion takes place. The students will get to know about the process of churning out nutrition in the human body and for other animals as well.

2.1: Different Ways of Taking Food

2.2: Digestion in Humans

2.3: Digestion in Grass-Eating Animals

2.4: Feeding and Digestion In Amoeba.

  1. Fibre to Fabric

It is based on the concepts of wool and silk and how it is being organically produced.

3.1: Wool

3.2: Silk.

  1. Heat

This chapter is based on the concepts of heat and temperature along with heat transfer and other attributes based on seasons.

4.1: Hot and Cold

4.2: Measuring Temperature

4.3: Laboratory Thermometer

4.4: Transfer of Heat

4.5: Kinds of Clothes We Wear in Summer and Winter.

  1. Acids, Bases, and Salts

This chapter emphasizes the characteristics of Acids, bases and different types of topics along with concepts of neutralization.

5.1: Acids and Bases

5.2: Natural Indicators Around Us

5.3: Neutralisation

5.4: Neutralisations in Everyday Life.

  1. Physical and Chemical Changes

This chapter sheds light on the aspects of physical and chemical changes along with the concepts of crystallization and rusting of iron. .

6.1: Physical Changes

6.2: Chemical Change

6.3: Rusting of Iron

6.4: Crystallization.

  1. Weather, Climate and Adaptations of Animals of Climate

It is based on the concepts of various weather conditions, climate and its changes and along with adaptation.

7.1: Weather

7.2: Climate

7.3: Climate and Adaptation.

  1. Winds, Storms and Cyclones

This chapter concentrates on the attributes of air like pressure, temperature etc along with the concepts of thunderstorms and cyclones.

8.1: Air Exerts Pressure

8.2: High-Speed Winds Are Accompanied by Reduced Air Pressure

8.3: Air Expands on Heating

8.4: Wind Currents Are Generated Due to Uneven Heating on the Earth

8.5: Thunderstorms and Cyclones

8.6: Destruction Caused by Cyclones

8.7: Effective Safety Measures

8.8: Advanced Technology Has Helped

  1. Soil

Types and properties of soil, its water absorption power and how it puts an effect on agriculture.

9.1: Soil Teeming with Life

9.2: Soil Profile

9.3: Soil Types

9.4: Properties of Soil

9.5: Moisture in Soil

9.6: Absorption of Water by Soil

9.7: Soil and Crops.

  1. Respiration in Organisms

This chapter explains the concepts of breathing and respiration among humans, plants and animals.

10.1: Why Do We Respire?

10.2: Breathing

10.3: How Do We Breathe?

10.4: What Do We Breathe Out?

10.5: Breathing in Other Animals

10.6: Breathing Underwater 

10.7: Do Plants Also Respire?

  1. Transportation in Animals and Plants

This chapter talks about the circulatory and excretory systems among plants and animals.

11.1: Circulatory System

11.2: Excretion in Animals

11.3: Transport of Substances in Plants

  1. Reproduction in Plants

The concepts of reproduction in plants are discussed in this chapter along with the formation of seeds and fruits.

12.1: Modes of Reproduction

12.2: Sexual Reproduction

12.3: Fruits and Seed Formation

12.4: Seed Dispersal.

  1. Motion and Time

 Explaining a wide range of topics such as speed, distance and time are discussed in this chapter. The students can learn about new Formulas r along with distance-time graphs.

13.1: Slow or Fast

13.2: Speed

13.3: Measurement of Time

13.4: Measuring Speed

13.5: Distance-Time Graph.

  1. Electric Current and its Effects

The students can learn about different electronic components through this chapter. The heating effects and magnetic effects of electricity and electromagnet are also discussed.

14.1: Symbols of Electronic Components

14.2: Heating Effect of Electric Current

14.3: Magnetic Effect of Electric Current

14.4: Electromagnet

14.5: Electric Bell.

  1. Light

The direction of light and speed is discussed in this chapter. The students can also know about the applications of lenses and spherical mirrors.

15.1: Light Travels Along A Straight Line

15.2: Reflection of Light

15.3: Right or Left!

15.4: Playing with Spherical Mirrors

15.5: Images Formed by Lenses

15.6: Sunlight — White Or Coloured?

  1. Water – A Precious Resource

This chapter provides information regarding the importance, availability and depletion of water and its management. The student will also learn about groundwater levels and their importance as a resource.

16.1: How Much Water Is Available

16.2: Forms of Water

16.3: Groundwater as An Important Source of Water

16.4: Depletion of Water Table

16.5: Distribution of Water

16.6: Water Management

16.7: What Role You Can Play

16.8: Effect of Water Scarcity on Plants.

  1. Forests – Our Lifeline

This is more of a real-life experience of the forests and their importance in human life and the ecosystem. There is only one topic,

17.1: Visit a Forest

  1. Wastewater Story

Water is the lifeline of human civilization. This chapter talks about the treatment of wastewater and how it can be disease free and sanitized.

18.1: Water, Our Lifeline

18.2: What Is Sewage?

18.3: Water Freshens Up – An Eventful Journey

18.4: Wastewater Treatment Plant

18.5: Better House Keeping Practices

18.6: Sanitation and Disease

18.7: Alternative Arrangement for Sewage Disposal

18.8: Sanitation at Public Places.

Benefits of Referring Class 7 CBSE Science Syllabus

Referring to the Class 7 Science syllabus of CBSE allows students to make an analytical approach to embark on their preparation. A good grasp of the syllabus facilitates the path of effective strategic preparation. Here are some of the benefits:

  • The syllabus provides better guidance to figure out the weightage of each chapter and topic as well
  •  Extramarks subject experts strictly adhere to the CBSE syllabus and thus prepare a   set of CBSE Important Questions that can help them understand the important points easily and make them revise quickly.  It saves time for preparing other subjects as well.

Other Science Exams – For Class 7 Students

Other than the final examination for class 7, the students also appear in different examinations besides the semester I & II, half yearly & final exams. There are many examinations such as  the National Science Olympiad (NSO), NCO, IMO, ISO, etc to name a few. . The students of Class 7 can appear for such examinations to experience their competitiveness and level of proficiency required. The CBSE Revision Notes and CBSE Extra Questions can help students to crack these tests with ease. Extramarks provides one-stop solutions to all your problems. To enjoy the maximum benefit of these resources, students just need to register themselves at Extramarks’ official website and stay ahead of the pack.


There are many chapters in Class 7 Science. However, the students can download the whole syllabus from the website of Extramarks. We also provide authentic and reliable study materials based on NCERT books which are curated by experienced subject matter experts. The updated syllabus is provided on the website for the current academic session. 

The exercise of revising the syllabus for Science – or Science and Technology – has been carried out with “Learning without burden” as a guiding light and the position papers of the National Focus Groups as points of reference. The aim is to make the syllabus an enabling document for the creation of textbooks that are interesting and challenging without being loaded with factual information. Overall, science has to be presented as a live and growing body of knowledge rather than a finished product.

Very often, syllabi – especially those in Science – tend to be at once overspecified and underspecified. They are overspecified in that they attempt to enumerate items of content knowledge which could easily have been left open, e.g., in listing the families of flowering plants that are to be studied. They are underspecified because the listing of ‘topics’ by keywords such as ‘Reflection’ fails to define the intended breadth and depth of coverage. Thus there is a need to change the way in which a syllabus is presented.

The position paper on the Teaching of Science – supported by a large body of research on Science Education – recommends a pedagogy that is hands-on and inquiry-based. While this is widely accepted at the idea level, practice in India has tended to be dominated by chalk and talk methods. To make in any progress in the desired direction, some changes have to be made at the level of the syllabus. In a hands-on way of learning science, we start with things that are directly related to the child’s experience, and are therefore specific. From this we progress to the general. This means that ‘topics’ have to be reordered to reflect this. An example is the notion of electric current. If we think in an abstract way, current consists of charges in motion, so we may feel it should treated at a late stage, only when the child is comfortable with ‘charge’. But once we adopt a hands-on approach, we see that children can easily make simple electrical circuits, and study several aspects of ‘current’, while postponing making the connection with ‘charge’.

Some indication of the activities that could go into the development of a ‘topic’ would make the syllabus a useful document. Importantly, there has to be adequate time for carrying out activities, followed by discussion. The learner also needs time to reflect on the classroom experience. This is possible only if the content load is reduced substantially, say by 20-25%.

Children are naturally curious. Given the freedom, they often interact and experiment with things around them for extended periods. These are valuable learning experiences, which are essential for imbibing the spirit of scientific inquiry, but may not always conform to adult expectations. It is important that any programme of study give children the needed space, and not tie them down with constraints of a long list of ‘topics’ waiting to be ‘covered’. Denying them this opportunity may amount to killing

their spirit of inquiry. To repeat an oft-quoted saying: “It is better to uncover a little than to cover a lot.” Our ultimate aim is to help children learn to become autonomous learners.

Themes and Format

There is general agreement that Science content up to Class X should not be framed along disciplinary lines, but rather organised around themes that are potentially cross-disciplinary in nature. In the present revision exercise, it was decided that the same set of themes would be used, right from Class VI to Class X. The themes finally chosen are: Food, Materials, The World of the Living, How Things Work, Moving Things, People and Ideas, Natural Phenomena and Natural Resources. While these run all through, in the higher classes there is a consolidation of content which leads to some themes being absent, e.g., Food from Class X.

The themes are largely self-explanatory and close to those adopted in the 2000 syllabus for Classes VI-VIII; nevertheless, some comments may be useful. In the primary classes, the ‘science’ content appears as part of EVS, and the themes are largely based on the children’s immediate surroundings and needs: Food, Water, Shelter etc. In order to maintain some continuity between Classes V and VI, these should naturally continue into the seven themes listed above. For example, the Water theme evolves into Natural Resources (in which water continues to be a sub theme) as the child’s horizon gradually expands. Similarly, Shelter evolves into Habitat, which is subsumed in The World of the Living. Such considerations also suggest how the content under specific themes could be structured. Thus clothing, a basic human need, forms the starting point for the study of Materials. It will be noted that this yields a structure which is different from that based on disciplinary considerations, in which materials are viewed purely from the perspective of chemistry, rather than from the viewpoint of the child. Our attempt to put ourselves in the place of the child leads to ‘motion’, ‘transport’ and ‘communication’ being treated together as parts of a single theme: Moving things, people and ideas. More generally, the choice of themes – and sub themes – reflects the thrust towards weakening disciplinary boundaries that is one of the central concerns of NCF 2005.

The format of the syllabus has been evolved to address the underspecification mentioned above. Instead of merely listing ‘topics’, the syllabus is presented in four columns: Questions, Key concepts, Resources and Activities/Processes.

Perhaps the most unusual feature of the syllabus is that it starts with questions rather than concepts. These are key questions, which are meant to provide points of entry for the child to start the process of thinking. A few are actually children’s queries (“How do clouds form?”), but the majority are questions posed by the adult to support and facilitate learning (provide ‘scaffolding’, in the language of social constructivism). It should be clarified here that these questions are not meant to be used for evaluation or even directly used in textbooks.

Along with the questions, key concepts are listed. As the name suggests, these are those concepts which are of a key nature. Once we accept that concept development is a complex process, we must necessarily abandon the notion that acquisition of a specific concept will be the outcome of any single classroom transaction, whether it is a lecture or an activity. A number of concepts may get touched upon in the course of transaction. It is not necessary to list all of them.

The columns of Resources and Activities/Processes are meant to be of a suggestive nature, for both teachers and textbook writers. The Resources column lists not only concrete materials that may be needed in the classroom, but a variety of other resources, including out-of-class experiences of children as well as other people. Historical accounts and other narratives are also listed, in keeping with the current understanding that narratives can play an important role in teaching science. The Activities column lists experiments, as normally understood in the context of science, as well as other classroom processes in which children may be actively engaged, including discussion. Of course, when we teach science in a hands-on way, activities are not add-ons; they are integral to the development of the subject. Most experiments/activities would have to be carried by children in groups. Suggestions for field trips and surveys are also listed here. Although the items in this column are suggestive, they are meant to give an idea of the unfolding of the content. Read together with the questions and key concepts, they delineate the breadth and depth of coverage expected.

The Upper Primary or Middle Stage

When children enter this stage, they have just completed their primary schooling. It is important to start with things that are within the direct experience of the child. The need for continuity within thematic areas, and the effect this has on the structure, has already been mentioned above.

This is the stage where children can and should be provided plentiful opportunities to engage with the processes of science: observing things closely, recording observations, tabulation, drawing, plotting graphs – and, of course, drawing inferences from what they observe. Sufficient time and opportunities have to be provided for this.

During this stage we can expect the beginnings of quantitative understanding of the world. However, laws such as the universal law of gravitation, expressed in mathematical form, involve multiple levels of abstraction and have to be postponed to the next stage.

One of the major structural problems that plagues science education at this level is the lack of experimental facilities. Children of these classes usually have no access to any equipment, even if the school has functional laboratories for higher classes. While many experiments can be performed with ‘zero-cost’ equipment, it is unfair to deny children the opportunities of handling, e.g., magnets, lenses and low-cost microscopes. This syllabus is based on the assumption that a low-cost science kit for the middle classes can and will be designed. The Syllabus Revision Committee recommends that governments and other agencies make enough copies of such kits available to schools, assuming that children will perform the experiments themselves, in groups. Until a kit is designed and provided, specific items that are needed should be identified and procured. Glassware, common chemicals, lenses, slides etc. are items that will be in any such list. Such items are referred to as ‘kit items’ in the resources column of the syllabus.

At this stage, many children enter puberty. They are curious about their own bodies and sexuality, while being subject to social restrictions and taboos. Thus it is important that the topic of human reproduction not be treated merely as a biological process. Thus the syllabus provides space for addressing social taboos, and for making counselling on these matters part of the classroom process.

Questions Key Concepts Resources Activities/ Processes

1. Food

Sources of food


(Periods – 20)

What are the various Plant parts and animal Examples of food from Germination of seeds
sources of our food? products as sources of different parts of plants such as mung, chick pea
What do other animals food;        herbivores, and of food from animals etc.; preparing a chart on
eat? carnivores, omnivores. sources. food habits of animals
and food culture of
different regions of India.
Components of food
What is our food made Carbohydrates,   fats, Mid Day Meal; Charts, Studying the variety of
up of ? Why do we eat a proteins,     vitamins, pictures/films of children food in different regions
variety of food? minerals, fibres, their suffering  from   food in India; preparing a menu
sources and significance deficiencies and disabilities. of balanced  diet in  the
for     human    health; context of the diversity of
balanced diet; diseases and foods eaten in different
disabilities due to food parts of the country.
deficiencies. Classifying foods according
to food components; test
for starch, sugars, proteins
and fats.
Cleaning food
How do we separate the Threshing, winnowing, Talking to  some elders Discussion on threshing,
grains after harvesting the hand             picking, about practices after winnowing, handpicking;
wheat /rice crop? sedimentation, filtration. harvesting the crop; kit experiments          on
materials. sedimentation, filtration.
Separating mixture of salt
and sand.
2. Materials

Materials of daily use

(Periods – 26)
What are our clothes Different types of cloth Sharing     of       prior Whole class discussion.



Questions Key Concepts Resources Activities/ Processes

made   of ?    How    did


materials – cotton, wool,


knowledge with parents


Simple   activities  to

people manage when there silk and synthetics. and community. distinguish      among
were no clothes? Development of clothing Archaeological     and different types of cloth.
materials. historical accounts.
Are some of our clothes Plant fibre, especially Sharing of prior Whole class discussion.
made    of     materials cotton     and       jute; knowledge with parents Field survey/ collecting
obtained from plants? production of cotton, jute and community. information on locally
In what kinds of places and other locally available available plant fibres
do these plants grow? plant fibres; types of soil (coconut, silk cotton, etc.)
Which parts of the plants required for the growth of
are used for making clothes? different fibrous plants.
Different   kinds    of materials
What kinds of things do Grouping things on the Materials, kit items. Collecting and grouping
we see around us? basis    of      common things on the basis of
properties. gross properties e.g.
roughness,       lustre,
transparency, solubility,
sinking/floating using
prior knowledge, through
How things change/ react with one another
In what ways do things Some changes can be Prior knowledge, kit items. Experiments  involving
change on being heated? reversed   and    others heating of air, wax, paper,
Do they change back on cannot be reversed. metal, water to highlight
being cooled? Why does effects like burning,
a burning candle get expansion/compression,
shorter? change of state.
Discussion on other
changes which cannot be
reversed – growing up,
opening   of    a    bud,



Questions Key Concepts Resources Activities/ Processes

ripening of fruit, curdling

of milk.
How much salt can be Solubility,   saturated Salt, sugar and other Experiments for testing
dissolved in a cup of solutions. common substances, kit the       solubility     of
water? Amount of substance items. commonly    available
dissolving varies with substances. Experiments
temperature. on the effect of heating
At the same temperature and cooling on solubility.
amounts of different Comparison           of
substances that dissolve solubilities of different
varies. substances using non-
standard units (eg. spoon,
paper cone).
3. The World of the (Periods – 36)

Things around us

Are all things around us Living/non-living Recollection of diversity Listing of things around
living?  What  is   the characteristics; habitat; of living organisms and us, listing of characteristics
difference between living biotic, abiotic (light, the habitat where they live. after making observations
and non-living? Are all temperature, water, air, say on size, colour, shape
living things similar? Do all soil, fire) etc.,    categorisation;
living things move? observations on habitat;
Where do plants and observing germination of
animals live? Can we seeds, also observing
grow plants in the dark? under dark conditions;
growth and development
of domestic animals,
hatching of birds’ eggs
etc., developing drawing
The habitat of the living
How does habitat affect Habitat varies – aquatic, Potted plants or seeds, Listing the diverse set of
plants and animals? How deserts, mountains etc. – pots, etc; thermometer, living organisms around



Questions Key Concepts Resources Activities/ Processes

do fish live in water?


plants and animals show


any water plants, any


us; prepare herbarium

adaptation; other plant xerophytic       plants, specimens of different
part modifications like Information on desert and leaves, plants; studying
tendrils, thorns etc. aquatic plants and animals. modifications in plants and
Animals in deserts and animals; observing how
water. different environmental
factors (water availability,
temperature) affect living
Plants – form and function
What is the structure and Morphological structure Plants, flowers, blade, Studying plant parts –
function of various parts and function of root, hand lens. types of stems, roots,
of the plants – stem, leaf stem and leaves. Structure leaves, seeds; experiment
and roots?   How   do of the flower, differences. to show conduction by
different flowers differ stem, activity to show
from one another? How anchorage  by   roots,
does one study flowers? absorption by roots.
Study of any flower,
counting number of parts,
names of parts, cutting
sections of ovary to
observe ovules.
Animals – form and function
What is inside our bodies? Structure and functions of Observation of   nature; Activities to study X-rays,
How do animals move? the animal body; Human model of skeleton, X-rays find out the direction in
Do all animals have bones skeletal system, some of arms or legs, chest, which joints bend, feel the
in their bodies? How do other animals e.g. fish, hips,  jaws,  vertebral ribs, backbone etc.
fishes move? And birds bird, cockroach, snail. column (could be given in Observation/ discussion
fly? What about snakes, the textbook). on movement and skeletal
snails, earthworms? system in other animals.



Questions Key Concepts Resources Activities/ Processes

4. Moving     Things, People and Ideas


How did people travel from one place to another in earlier times? How did they know how far they





Need to measure distance (length). Measurement of length. Motion as change in position with time.





Everyday experience; equipment (scale etc.) to measure length.

Stories for developing


(Periods – 12)



Measuring lengths and distances.

Observation of different types of moving objects on land, in air, water and space.

Identification and discrimination of various types of motion. Demonstrating objects having more than one type of movement (screw motion, bicycle wheel, fan, top etc.)

Observing the periodic motion in hands of a clock / watch, sun, moon, earth.


(Periods – 28)



Activity using a bulb, cell and key and connecting wire to show flow of current and identify closed and open circuits. Making a switch. Opening up a dry cell.


Experiment to show that some objects (conductors) allow current to flow and others (insulators) do not.

had travelled?                                                            contexts for measuring

How do we know that                                          distances. something is moving?

How do we know how far it has moved?

5. How things work

Electric current and circuits

How does a torch work?




Electric current: Electric circuit (current flows only when a cell and other components         are connected in an unbroken loop)




Torch: cell, bulb or led, wires, key.

Do all materials allow current to flow through them? Conductor, Insulator. Mica, paper, rubber, plastic, wood, glass metal clip, water, pencil (graphite), etc.



Questions Key Concepts Resources Activities/ Processes
What is a magnet? Magnet. Magnet, iron pieces. Demonstrating    how
things are attracted by a
magnet. Classification of
objects into magnetic/
non-magnetic classes.
Where on a magnet do Poles of a magnet. Magnet, iron pieces, iron Activity to locate poles of
things stick? filings, paper. a magnet; activity with iron
filings and paper.
How is a magnet used to A    freely   suspended Bar magnet, stand, thread, Activities with suspended
find direction? magnet always aligns in a compass. bar magnet and with
particular direction. North compass needle.
and South poles.
How do two magnets Like poles repel and Two bar magnets, thread, Activities to show that like
behave when brought unlike poles attract each stand. poles repel and unlike
close to each other? other. poles attract.
6. Natural Phenomena Rain, thunder and lightning
Where does rain come Evaporation and Everyday experience; kit Condensation on outside of
from? How do clouds condensation, water in items. a glass containing cold water;
form? different states. Water activity of boiling water and
cycle. condensation of steam on
a spoon. Simple model of
water cycle. Discussion on
three states of water.
Light (Periods – 26)
Which are the things we Classification of various Previous   experience, Discussion, observation;
can see through? materials in terms of candle/torch/lamp, white looking across different
transparent, translucent paper, cardboard box, materials at a source of
and opaque. black paper. light.



Questions Key Concepts Resources Activities/ Processes

When   are     shadows


A shadow is formed only


Child’s own experience,


Discussion; observing

formed? Do you get a when there is a source of candle/torch/lamp, white shadow formation of
shadow at night – when light and an opaque material paper,   black   paper, various    objects    of
there is no light in the obstructs a source it. coloured objects. different shapes, and of
room, no moonlight or A   shadow   is   black same shape and different
other source of light? irrespective of the colour colours; playing and
What colour is a shadow? of the object. forming shadows with
the hands in sunlight, in
candle light, and in a well
lit region during daytime;
making a pinhole camera
and observing static and
moving objects.
On what kinds of surfaces Reflecting    surfaces; Experience, objects with Observing differences
can we see images? images are different from polished surfaces, mirror between the image and
shadows. etc. the shadow of the same
7. Natural Resources

Importance of water

What will happen to soil, Importance of water, Experience,  newspaper Estimation of water used
people, domestic animals, dependence of the living reports. by a family in one day, one
rivers, ponds and plants on water. month, one year.
and animals if it does not Droughts and floods. Difference between need
rain this year? and availability.
What will happen to soil, Discussion.
people, domestic animals, Activity: plant growth in
plants and animals living normal, deficient and
in rivers and ponds, if it excess water conditions.
rains heavily?
Importance of air
Why do   earthworms Some animals and plants Experience. Discussion.
come out of the soil when live in water; some live on
it rains? land and some live in



Questions Key Concepts Resources Activities/ Processes

upper layers of soil; but all need air to breath/to respire.



Do you throw away fruit Waste; recycling of waste Observation and Survey of solid waste
and vegetable peels and products; things that rot experience. generation by households;
cuttings? Can these be re- and things that don’t. estimation  of    waste
used? If we dump them Rotting is supported by accumulated (by a house/
anywhere, will it harm the animals/animal and plant village/colony etc.) in a
surroundings? What if we products. day, in a year; discussion
throw them in plastic on ‘what is waste’; Activity
bags? to show that materials rot
in soil, this is affected by
wrapping in plastics.



Questions Key Concepts Resources Activities/ Processes

1. Food

Food from where


(Periods – 22)

How do plants get their Autotrophic and Coleus or any other plant Need for light, green
food? heterotrophic nutrition; with variegated leaves, leaf for photosynthesis,
parasites, saprophytes; alcohol, iodine solution, kit looking at any
photosynthesis. materials. saprophyte/parasite and
noting differences from
a green plant.
Utilisation of food
How do   plants   and Types of nutrition, Model of  human teeth, Effect of saliva on starch,
animals utilise their food? nutrition in amoeba and charts of alimentary canal, permanent   slide   of
human beings, Digestive types of nutrition etc., Amoeba.
system – human, chart and model of Role play with children.
ruminants; types of amoeba. The story of the
teeth; link with transport stomach with a hole.
and respiration.
2. Materials

Materials of daily use

(Periods – 38)
Do some of our clothes Wool, silk – animal fibres. Samples of wool and silk; Collection of different
come    from    animal Process of extraction of brief     account     of samples of woollen and
sources? silk; associated health silkworm rearing and silk cloth. Activities to
Which are these animals? problems. sheep breeding. differentiate natural silk
Who rears them? and wool from artificial
Which parts of the animals fibres.
yield the yarn? How is the Discussion.
yarn extracted?
What kinds of clothes help Heat flow; temperature. Potassium permanganate, Experiment to show that
us to keep warm? metal strip or rod, wax, ‘hot’ and ‘cold’ are relative.
What is heat? common pins, spirit lamp, Experiments to show
What is the meaning of matches,     tumblers, conduction, convection
‘cool’/‘cold’ and ‘warm’ ‘hot’? Thermometer etc. and radiation.



Questions Key Concepts Resources Activities/ Processes

How does heat flow


Reading a thermometer.

from/to  our  body  to/
from the surroundings?
Different   kinds   of
Why does turmeric stain Classification of Common substances like Testing solutions of
become red on applying substances into acidic, sugar, salt, vinegar etc, test common substances like
soap? basic and neutral; tubes,   plastic   vials, sugar, salt, vinegar, lime
indicators. droppers, etc. juice etc. with turmeric,
litmus, china rose.
Activity to show
How things change/
react with one another
What gets deposited on a Chemical substances; in a Test tubes, droppers, Experiments involving
tawa/khurpi /kudal if left chemical reaction a new common pins, vinegar, chemical reactions like
in a moist state? substance is formed. baking powder, CuSO4, rusting of iron, neutralisation
Why does the exposed etc. (vinegar and baking soda),
surface of a cut brinjal displacement of Cu from
become black? CuSO4 etc.
Introduce chemical formulae
without explaining them.

Why is seawater salty? Is it


Substances can be


Urea, copper sulphate,


Making crystals of easily

possible to separate salt separated by alum etc, beaker, spirit available substances like
from seawater? crystallisation. lamp, watch glass, plate, urea,   alum,   copper
petridish etc. sulphate   etc.   using
supersaturated solutions
and evaporation.



Questions Key Concepts Resources Activities/ Processes

3. The World of the Living

Surroundings affect the living

Why are nights cooler? How does having winters and summers affect soil? Are all soils similar? Can we make a pot with sand? Is soil similar when you dig into the ground? What happens to water when it falls on the cemented/ bare ground?


The breath of life

Why do we/animals breathe? Do plants also breathe? Do they also respire? How do plants/ animals live in water?







Movement of substances

How does water move in plants? How is food transported in plants?

Why do animals drink water? Why do we sweat? Why and how is there blood in all parts of the


(Periods – 42)



Climate, soil types, soil



Data on earth, sun – size,



Graph for daily changes in

profile, absorption of distance etc, daily changes temperature, day length,
water in soil, suitability for in temperature, humidity humidity etc.; texture of
crops, adaptation of from the newspaper, various soils by wetting
animals  to    different sunrise, sunset etc. and rolling; absorption /
climates. percolation of water in
different soils, which soil
can hold more water.


Respiration in plants and



Lime water, germinating



Experiment to show

animals. seeds, kit materials. plants and animals respire;
rate of breathing; what do
we breathe out? What do
plants ‘breathe’ out?
Respiration in seeds; heat
release due to respiration.
Anaerobic respiration,
root respiration.


Herbs, shrubs, trees;



Twig, stain; improvised



Translocation of water in

Transport of food and stethoscope; plastic bags, stems, demonstration of
water in plants; circulatory plants, egg, sugar, salt, transpiration, measurement
and excretion system in starch, Benedicts solution, of pulse rate, heartbeat;after
animals; sweating. AgNO3 solution. exercise etc.
Discussion on dialysis,
importance; experiment



Questions Key Concepts Resources Activities/ Processes

body? Why is blood red? Do all animals have blood? What is there in urine?


on dialysis using egg membrane.

Multiplication in plants Why are some plant parts like potato, onion swollen

– are they of any use to the plants? What is the function of flowers?

How are fruits and seeds formed? How are they dispersed?



Vegetative, asexual and sexual reproduction in plants, pollination – cross, self pollination; pollinators, fertilisation, fruit, seed.



Bryophyllum leaves, potato, onion etc.; yeast powder, sugar.



Study of tuber, corm, bulb etc; budding in yeast; T.S./

L.S. ovaries, w.m.pollen grains; comparison of wind pollinated and insect pollinated flowers; observing fruit and seed development in some plants; collection and discussion of fruits/seeds dispersed by different means.

(Periods – 16)

4. Moving    Things, People and Ideas

Moving objects

Why do people feel the need to measure time?

How do we know how fast something is moving?




Appreciation of idea of time and need to measure it.

Measurement of time using periodic events.

Idea of speed of moving objects – slow and fast

motion along a straight line.




Daily-life experience; metre scale, wrist watch/ stop watch, string etc.




Observing and analysing motion (slow or fast) of common objects on land, in air, water and space.

Measuring the distance covered by objects moving on a road in a given time and calculating their speeds. Plotting distance vs. time graphs for uniform motion. Measuring the time taken by moving objects to cover a given distance and calculating their speeds.

Constancy of time period

of a pendulum.



Questions Key Concepts Resources Activities/ Processes

5. How Things Work

Electric current and circuits

How can we conveniently Electric circuit symbols for Recollection of earlier Drawing circuit diagrams.
represent an electric different elements of activities. Pencil and paper.
circuit? circuit.
Why does a bulb get hot? Heating effect of current. Cells, wire, bulb. Activities to show the
heating effect of electric
How does a fuse work? Principle of fuse. Cells, wire, bulb or LED, Making a fuse.
aluminium foil.
How does the current in A current-carrying wire has Wire, compass, battery. Activity to show that a
a wire affect the direction an effect on a magnet. current-carrying wire has
of a compass needle? an effect on a magnet.
What is an electromagnet? A current-carrying coil Coil, battery, iron nail. Making a simple electro-
behaves like a magnet. magnet.
Identifying situations
in    daily   life   where
electromagnets are used.
How does an electric bell Working of an electric bell. Electric bell. Demonstration of working
work? of an electric bell.
6. Natural Phenomena Rain, thunder and lightning (Periods – 24)
What causes storms? What High-speed winds and Experience;  newspaper Making wind speed and
are the effects of storms? heavy   rainfall   have reports. wind direction indicators.
Why are roofs blown off ? disastrous consequences Narratives/stories. Activity to show “lift” due
for human and other life. to moving air.
Discussion on effects of
storms and possible safety
Can we see a source of Rectilinear propagation of Rubber/plastic tube/ Observation of the source
light through a bent tube? light. straw, any source of light. of light through a straight
tube, a bent tube.



Questions Key Concepts Resources Activities/ Processes

How can we throw sunlight on a wall?


Reflection, certain surfaces reflect light.


Glass/metal sheet/metal foil, white paper.


Observing reflection of light on wall or white paper screen.

Open ended activities allowing children to explore images made by different objects, and recording observations. Focussed discussions on real and virtual images.

Making the disc and rotating it.







Case study of people living in conditions of extreme scarcity of water, how they use water in a judicious way.

Projects exploring various kinds of water resources that exist in nature in different regions in India; variations of water availability in different regions.

What things give images that are magnified or diminished in size? Real and virtual images. Convex/concave lenses and mirrors.


How can we make a coloured disc appear white?



White light is composed of many colours.



Newton’s disc.

7. Natural Resources Scarcity of water Where and how do you get    water   for    your domestic needs? Is it enough? Is there enough  



Water exists in various forms in nature.

Scarcity of water and its

effect on life.




Experience; media reports; case material.

water for agricultural needs? What happens to plants when there is not enough water for plants? Where does a plant go when it dies?



Questions Key Concepts Resources Activities/ Processes

Forest products

What are the products we get from forests? Do other animals also benefit from forests? What will happen if forests disappear?



Interdependence of plants and animals in forests. Forests contribute to purification of air and water.



Case material on forests.



Case study of forests.

Waste Management

Where does dirty water from your house go? Have you seen a drain? Does the water stand in it sometimes? Does this have any harmful effect?



Sewage; need for drainage/sewer systems that are closed.



Observation and experience; photographs.



Survey of the neighbourhood, identifying locations with open drains, stagnant water, and possible contamination   of ground water by sewage. Tracing the route of sewage in your building, and trying to understand whether there are any problems in sewage disposal.



Questions Key Concepts Resources Activities/ Processes

1. Food

Crop production


(Periods – 22)

Crop production: How Crop production: Soil Interaction and discussion Preparing   herbarium
are different food crops preparation, selection of with local men and specimens of some crop
produced? seeds, sowing, applying women farmers about plants; collection of some
What are the various fertilizers,  irrigation, farming    and      farm seeds etc; preparing a
foods we get from animal weeding, harvesting and practices; visit to cold table/chart on different
sources? storage; nitrogen fixation, storage, go- downs; visit irrigation practices and
nitrogen cycle. to any farm/ nursery/ sources of water in
garden. different parts of India;
looking at roots of any
legume crop for nodules,
hand section of nodules.
What living organisms do Micro organisms – useful Microscope, kit Making a lens with a bulb;
we      see      under    a and harmful. materials; information Observation of drop of
microscope in a drop of about techniques of water, curd, other sources,
water? What helps make food preservation. bread mould, orange
curd? How does food go mould under the
bad?    How     do     we microscope; experiment
preserve food? showing fermentation of
dough – increase in
volume (using yeast) –
collect gas in balloon, test
in lime water.
2. Materials

Materials in daily life

(Periods – 26)
Are some of our clothes Synthetic clothing Sharing of prior Survey on use of synthetic
synthetic? How are they materials. knowledge, source materials.
made? Where do the raw Other synthetic materials, materials on petroleum Discussion.
materials come from? especially plastics; products.



Questions Key Concepts Resources Activities/ Processes

Do we use other materials


usefulness of plastics and

that are synthetic? problems associated
with their excessive use.
Do we use cloth (fabric) There are a variety of Collection of material Testing various materials –
for purposes other than fibrous materials in use. A from neighbourhood or for action of   water,
making clothes to wear? material is chosen based should be part of the kit. reaction on heating, effect
What kind of fabric do on desired property. of     flame,   electrical
we see around us? conductivity, thermal
What are they used for? conductivity,   tensile
Different kinds of materials and their reactions.
Can a wire be drawn out Metals and non-metals. Kit items. Simple   observations
of wood? relating   to    physical
Do copper or aluminium properties of metals and
also rust like iron? non-metals, displacement
What is the black material reactions, experiments
inside a pencil? involving reactions with
Why are electrical wires acids and bases.
made of aluminium or Introduction of word
copper? equations.
How things change/ react with one another
What happens to the wax Combustion, flame “The Chemical History Experiments with candles.
when a candle is burnt? Is of a Candle”, by
it possible to get this wax M. Faraday, 1860.
What    happens    to All fuels release heat on Collecting information Collecting information.
kerosene/natural gas burning. Fuels differ in from home and other Discussions involving
when it is burnt? efficiency, cost etc. Natural sources. whole class.
Which fuel is the best? resources are limited.
Why? Burning of fuels leads to
harmful by products.



Questions Key Concepts Resources Activities/ Processes

3. The World of the Living

Why conserve

What are reserve forests/ sanctuaries etc? How do we keep track of our plants and animals? How do we know that some species are in danger of disappearing? What would happen if you continuously cut trees?


The cell

What is the internal structure of a plant – what will we see if we look under the microscope? Which cells from our bodies can be easily seen? Are all cells similar?








How babies are formed How do babies develop inside the mother? Why does our body change when we reach our teens? How is the sex of the child determined? Who looks after the babies in your homes? Do all


(Periods – 44)


Conservation         of


Films on wild life, TV


Discussion on whether we

biodiversity/wild life/ programmes, visit to zoo/ find as many diverse plants/
plants; zoos, sanctuaries, forest   area/sanctuaries animals in a ‘well kept area’
forest reserves etc. flora, etc.; case   study   with like a park or cultivated land,
fauna endangered species, information   on    dis- as compared to any area left
red data book; endemic appearing tigers; data on alone.   Discussion    on
species, migration. endemic and endangered depletion of wild life, why
species from MEF, Govt. it happens, on poaching,
of India, NGOs           . economics.
Cell structure, plant and Microscope, onion peels, Use of a microscope,
animal cells, use of stain epidermal peels of any preparation of a slide,
to observe, cell organelles leaves, petals etc, buccal observation of onion peel
–    nucleus,  vacuole, cavity cells, Spirogyra; and cheek cells, other cells
chloroplast,         cell permanent  slides   of from plants e.g. Hydrilla
membrane, cell wall. animal cells. leaf, permanent slides
showing different cells,
tissues, blood smear;
observation of T.S. stem
to see tissues; observing
diverse types of cells from
plants and animals (some
permanent slides).

Sexual reproduction and


Counsellors,     films,


Discussion with

endocrine system in lectures. counsellors on secondary
animals, secondary sexual sexual characters, on
characters, reproductive how sex of the child is
health;  internal  and determined, safe sex,
external fertilisation. reproductive health;
observation on eggs,
young ones, life cycles.



Questions Key Concepts Resources Activities/ Processes

animals give birth to


Discussion on Gender

young ones? issues and social taboo’s.
4. Moving      things,
People and Ideas

Idea of force

What happens when we Idea of force-push or Daily-life experience, kit Observing and analysing
push or pull anything? pull; change in speed, items. the relation between force
How can we change the direction of moving and motion in a variety of
speed, direction of a objects and shape of daily-life situations.
moving object? objects by applying force; Demonstrating change in
How can we shape the contact and non-contact speed of a moving object,
shape of an object? forces. its direction of motion and
shape by applying force.
Measuring the weight of
an object, as a force (pull)
by the earth using a spring
What makes a ball rolling Friction – factors affecting Various   rough    and Demonstrating   friction
on the   ground slow friction, sliding and rolling smooth surfaces, ball between   rough/smooth
down? friction,        moving; bearings. surfaces   of    moving
advantages          and objects in contact, and
disadvantages of friction wear and tear of moving
for the movement  of objects by rubbing (eraser
automobiles, airplanes on paper, card board,
and           boats/ships; sand paper).
increasing and reducing Activities on static, sliding
friction. and rolling friction.
Studying ball bearings.
Discussion on other
methods of reducing
friction and ways of
increasing friction.



Questions Key Concepts Resources Activities/ Processes

Why are needles made pointed? Why does a balloon burst if too much air is blown into it? Why does an inverted glass/ bottle/pitcher resist being pushed down into water? How can air/liquids exert pressure?



Idea of pressure; pressure exerted by air/liquid; atmospheric pressure.



Daily-life experiences; Experimentation- improvised manometer and improvised pressure detector.



Observing the dependence of pressure exerted by a force on surface area of an object.

Demonstrating that air exerts pressure in a variety of situations.

Demonstrating that liquids exert pressure.

Designing an improvised manometer and measuring pressure exerted by liquids. Designing improvised pressure detector and demonstrating increase in pressure exerted by a liquid at greater depths.


How do we communicate through sound? How is sound produced? What characterises different sounds?



Various types of sound; sources of sound; vibration as a cause of sound; frequency; medium for propagation of sound; idea of noise as unpleasant and unwanted sound and need to minimise noise.



Daily-life experiences; kit items; musical instruments.



Demonstrating     and distinguishing different types (loud and feeble, pleasant/ musical and unpleasant / noise, audible and inaudible) of sound. Producing different types of sounds. using the same source. Making a ‘Jal Tarang’. Demonstrating that vibration is the cause of sound.

Designing a toy telephone. Identifying various sources of noise. (unpleasant and

unwanted sound) in the



Questions Key Concepts Resources Activities/ Processes

locality and thinking of

measures to minimise
noise and its hazards
5. How Things Work

Electric current and circuits

(Periods – 14)
Why do we get a shock Water conducts electricity Rubber cap, pins, water, Activity to study whether
when we touch an electric depending on presence/ bulb or LED,   cells, current flows through
appliance with wet hands? absence of salt in it. Other various liquids. various liquid samples (tap
liquids may or may not water, salt solution, lemon
conduct electricity. juice, kerosene, distilled
water if available).
What happens to   a Chemical effects of Carbon rods, beaker, Emission of gases from
conducting solution when current. water, bulb, battery. salt solution. Deposition
electric current flows of Cu   from  copper
through it? sulphate solution. Electric
pen using KI and starch
How can we coat an Basic idea of Improvised electrolytical Simple experiment to
object with a layer of electroplating. cell, CuSO4 show electroplating.
6. Natural Phenomena Rain, thunder and lightning (Periods – 26)
What    is     lightning? Clouds carry electric Articles on clouds and Discussion on sparks.
What safety measures charge. Positive and lightning; kit items. Experiments with comb
should we take  against negative       charges, and    paper   to    show
lightning strikes? attraction and repulsion. positive and negative
Principle of lightning charge. Discussion on
conductor. lightning conductor.
What are the differences Laws of reflection. Mirror, source of light, Exploring    laws    of



Questions Key Concepts Resources Activities/ Processes

between the images formed on a new utensil and an old one? Why is there this difference?

When you see your image in the mirror it appears as if the left is on the right – why?

Why don’t we see images on all surfaces around us? What makes things visible?






Characteristics of image formed with a plane mirror.


Regular and diffused reflection.

Reflection of light from an object to the eye.


ray source (mirror covered with black paper with a thin slit).


Plane glass, candle, scale.









reflection using ray source and another mirror.



Locating the reflected image using glass sheet and candles.


Discussion with various examples.

Activity of observing an object through an object through a straight and bent tube; and discussion. Observing multiple images formed by mirrors placed at angles to each other.

Making a kaleidoscope. Observing    spectrum obtained on a white sheet of paper/wall using a plane mirror inclined on a water surface at an angle of 45°.

Observing reaction of pupil to a shining torch. Demonstration of blind spot.

Description   of    case histories  of    visually challenged people who have been doing well in their studies and careers. Activities with Braille sheet.


How do we see images of our back in a mirror?


Multiple reflection.


Mirrors and objects to be seen.



Why do we sometimes see colours on oil films on water?



Dispersion of light.



Plane mirror, water.



What is inside our eye that enables us to see?



Structure of the eye.



Model or chart of the human eye.


Why are some people unable to see?


Lens becomes opaque, light not reaching the eye. Visually challenged use other senses to make sense of the world around.


Experiences of children; case histories.

Samples of Braille sheets.




Questions Key Concepts Resources Activities/ Processes

Alternative technology available.

Role of nutrition in relation to blindness









Observing and identifying the objects moving in the sky during the day and at night.

Observing and identifying some prominent stars and constellations.

Observing and identifying some prominent planets, visible to the naked eye, (Venus, Mars, Jupiter ) in the night sky and their movement.

Design and preparing models and charts of the solar              system, constellations, etc. Role- play and games for understanding movement of planets, stars etc.


Looking at structures/ large objects and guessing what will happen to them in the event of an earthquake; activities to explore stable and unstable structures.

Night sky

What do we see in the sky at night? How can we identify stars and planets?



Idea about heavenly bodies/celestial objects and their classification – moon, planets, stars, constellations.

Motion of celestial objects in space; the solar system.



Observation of motion of objects in the sky during the day and at night; models, charts, role-play and games, planetarium.


What happens during an earthquake? What can we do to minimise its effects?



Phenomena related to earthquakes.



Earthquake data; visit to seismographic centre.



Questions Key Concepts Resources Activities/ Processes
7. Natural Resources Man’s intervention in phenomena of nature
What do we do with Consequences       of Data and narratives on Narration and discussions.
wood? deforestation: scarcity of deforestation and on Project- Recycling of
What if we   had   no products for humans and movements to protect paper.
wood? other   living  beings, forests.
What will happen it we go change   in    physical
on cutting trees/grass properties    of     soil,
without limit? reduced rainfall.
Reforestation; recycling
of paper.
What do we do with coal Formation of coal and Background materials, Discussion.
and petroleum? petroleum in nature. charts etc.
Can we create coal and (fossil fuels?).
petroleum artificially? Consequences of over
extraction of coal and
Pollution of air and water
What are the various Water    and    air    are Description of some Case study and discussion.
activities by human beings increasingly    getting specific examples of Purification of water by
that make air impure? polluted and therefore extremely polluted rivers. physical and chemical
Does clear, transparent become scarce for use. methods including using
water indicate purity? Biological and chemical sunlight.
contamination of water; Discussion on other
effect of impure water methods    of      water
on soil and living beings; purification.
effect of soil containing
excess of fertilisers and
insecticides on water
resources. Potable water.



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FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. How to prepare for the Class 7 Science examination for CBSE?

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2. What are the most important chapters from the Class 7 Science CBSE syllabus?

It is nearly impossible to point out the most important chapter since students have to go through all of the 18 chapters from the syllabus. However, some chapters could seem a little challenging for students which require more understanding and a presence of mind like Soil, Respiration in Animals, light, Electric Current and its effects, transportation and reproduction of plants, etc to name a few.

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