CBSE Class 7 Social Science Geography Revision Notes Chapter 1

CBSE Class 7 Geography Chapter 1 Notes – Environment

We live in an environment surrounded full of living and non-living things. All the substances and objects that are present around us are components of the environment. These elements may be living or non-living. For example, cars, animals, trees, etc., are components of the environment. Under the environment, there are many physical, natural, as well as chemical forces included in it.

 When the biotic components and the abiotic components of the environment interact with each other, then nature gets into balance. The two parts of the environment are classified as the Natural Environment and the Human Environment.

Important Topics Covered in This Chapter

The important topics that are covered in this chapter are as follows: 

  • Components of the Environment
  • Human Environment
    • Human-made Environment
    • Natural Environment
  • Ecosystem
  • Atmosphere

Students can refer to Class 7 Geography Notes Chapter 1 for an in-depth understanding of the concepts and score better in the examination. Extramarks provides these revision notes that are easily accessible from the website. These notes are written by experienced subject matter experts and comply with the revised NCERT guidelines and syllabus. 

Environment Class 7 Notes Geography Chapter 1

Access Class 7 Social Science (Geography) Chapter 1 – Environment Notes in 30 Minutes


The surroundings around us are considered our environment. The environment comprises both the biotic and abiotic components. Mountains,  lakes, rivers,  plants,  animals, people, etc., are the constituents of our environment. 

  • Biotic Components: Our environment consists of distinct living organisms called biotic components. Some common examples are plants and animals.
  • Abiotic Components: Our environment consists of non-living organisms called abiotic components. Some common examples are land and mountains.

The two types into which our environment is  classified are:

  1. Natural Environment: All the things that exist naturally, such as water, land, air, plants, etc., are part of the natural environment. The realms of the natural environment are further classified into :
  • Lithosphere: It is the rigid top layer or the solid crust of the earth that is formed by rocks and minerals. It is covered with a fine layer of soil. Some common examples are plateaus, mountains, highlands, etc.
  • Hydrosphere: Every water body on the surface of the earth comes under the realm called the hydrosphere. This realm consists of the sea, lakes, rivers, etc.
  • Atmosphere: The blanket or fine layer of air that encompasses the Earth is called the atmosphere. This layer protects the Earth against the sun’s dangerous ultraviolet rays.  Dust, gases, and water vapour are part of the atmosphere.
  • Biosphere: The living organisms in our environment are the components of the biosphere of the earth. For example, plants and animals.
  1. Human Environment: The environment where human beings alter their surroundings in accordance with their needs is called the human environment. Earlier, humans survived and fulfilled their needs by using natural resources. However, as time and development passed, these requirements began to rise. Therefore, humans began to alter the environment around them. For example, the wheel was invented, people began a barter system, and many developments occurred gradually. Over time, there were many revolutions that completely altered how people perceived the environment. People started establishing industries by cutting down forests during the industrial revolution. Urbanisation led to the clearing of forests and the building of human settlements. Transportation has also started to expand. There were several other developments that altered the way humans lived and started forming their own environment. Humans should focus on optimum resource utilisation.
  2. Ecosystem: An interconnection among all living beings with their physical and chemical environment, like their surroundings, is an ecosystem. Each of the components in an ecosystem is interdependent. It is a community or association of living life forms that exist and connects with one another in a specific environment. For example, tropical forests are environments consisting of living creatures, like trees, bugs, plants, and minute living beings, which are incompatible with other physical or geographical divisions.

Getting an Overview of the Environment

The environment can be interpreted as the place, people, nature, and things that encompass any specific living organism. The collaboration of man-made and natural resources creates an environment for all living beings. The natural environment on Earth is composed of various biotic and abiotic elements. But all of the relationships and creations that happen between humans will be revealed by man-made events such as wars, global warming, and technological advancement. All the innovations made by nature and human beings tend to form an entire environment.

Get an Insight into Natural Environment

Plants, air, animals, water, and land are components of the natural environment. The various components of the environment are mentioned below:

  • Lithosphere: The hard top layer of the earth, or the solid crust, is known as the lithosphere. The lithosphere is enveloped by a soil layer that is very thin and consists of minerals and rocks. The lithosphere comprises landforms like plateaus, mountains, and valleys, and its surface is uneven. This layer consists of areas for grasslands, agricultural lands, etc. 
  • Hydrosphere: Water is a vital component for all living beings. The hydrosphere is the realm of water bodies. This domain contains distinct sources of water which include water bodies like lakes, rivers, seas,  ponds, oceans, etc. 
  • Atmosphere: Another constituent of the natural environment is the atmosphere, which is defined as a thin air layer that is entirely wrapped around the Earth. It is present because of the gravitational forces involved. The prime purpose of the atmosphere is to shield the Earth from the dangerous UV rays of the sun and heat.
  • Biosphere: Biosphere is one of the most crucial constituents of the natural environment.  All the plants and animal kingdoms combined together make up the biosphere. This is a confined zone that interrelates with the air, land, and water to sustain life.

Some Details About the Human Environment

The Class 7 Geography Chapter 1 Notes explain all of the topics in the human environment in detail. The interactivity of human beings with their natural environment and the changes that take place due to these actions are included in the human environment. Humans have the tendency to acclimatise themselves easily to their surroundings. Thus, the needs of people kept changing occasionally. 

The rise in the needs of human beings has led to the growth in interactions with the environment. Humans have learned many things, such as domesticating animals and growing crops properly. New technologies and innovations emerged, which further led to increased production. It also facilitated transportation and made it much quicker. Along with that, the revolution in information gave rise to an entirely new human environment.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is the lithosphere?

The hard crust, or Earth’s rigid top layer, is called the lithosphere. A thin layer of soil covers the lithosphere, and it comprises rocks and minerals. It is a non-uniform surface with different landforms, like plateaus, mountains, valleys, plains, etc. The landforms are discovered above the continents as well as on ocean floors. The realm that supplies us with forests, grasslands for pasturing, and land for cultivation, as well as human settlements, is the lithosphere. It is rich in mineral wealth.

2. What is an ecosystem?

The interaction of all living organisms with each other creates a system in which the physical and chemical components of the environment in which they exist are connected by the movement of energy and material is called an ecosystem. Every living being relies on their actual surroundings as well as being mutually dependent on each other. This interconnection between the living organisms, and the connection between the organisms and their immediate surroundings, creates an ecosystem. An ecosystem of grassland, large rainforests, lakes, deserts, mountains, rivers, etc., exists in the world.

3. What is a hydrosphere?

The realm of water is called the hydrosphere. Various types of water bodies like rivers, seas, lakes, oceans, etc., are present in the hydrosphere. This realm of water is vital for all living organisms to survive.

4. Explain the atmosphere.

The atmosphere is the thin layer of air that envelops the Earth.The atmosphere around the Earth is grasped by the Earth’s gravitational force. The atmosphere protects the Earth from the sun’s harmful rays and scorching heat. Gases, water vapour, and dust are present in the atmosphere. The changes in weather and climate occur due to the changes in the atmosphere.

5. What does the biosphere consist of as per Class 7 Geography Chapter 1 Notes?

The biosphere, or the living world, comprises both the plant and animal kingdoms. It is a confined zone of the Earth where water, land, and air interconnect with each other to sustain life.

6. What is an environment?

Our main life support system is the environment. The environment gives us many things, such as water to drink, air to breathe, food to consume, and land to build houses on. Human beings alter the natural environment by manufacturing cars, factories,  mills, and containers.

7. What is a barter system?

It is dealing with goods that are traded without the use of money.

8. When is World Environment Day celebrated?

World Environment Day is celebrated on the 5th of June each year.

9. What do the terms ‘Biotic’ and ‘Abiotic’ components mean?

Living organisms in nature are considered biotic components. For example, plants and animals. 

The non-living elements in the environment are considered abiotic components. For example, land.

10. Write a note on the human environment.

Human beings interrelate with the environment and alter it as per their needs. Earlier, humans accommodated themselves in their natural environment. They met their needs through the nature around them and lived a simple life. As time passed, the needs and demands of humans grew, which were quite diverse from each other. Humans have discovered many new ways to make use of the environment and modify it as per their needs. They learned to cultivate crops, tame animals, and live a settled life. Many changes took place: the wheel was innovated, extra food was made, a barter system arrived, trade began and commerce evolved. The Industrial Revolution empowered large-scale production. Transportation developed and expanded vastly. Communication became effortless and faster around the globe due to Information advancements.