CBSE Class 7 Social Science Geography Revision Notes Chapter 6

CBSE Class 7 Geography Chapter 6 Notes – Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

Land height and vegetation type are closely related characteristics. Any change in the climate affects the natural vegetation of that area because vegetation growth is affected by temperature, moisture, slope, and soil thickness. These variables correspond to the type and thickness of natural vegetation in different locations, which are as follows.

  • Forests: These grow in areas with sufficient temperature and rainfall to support a tree cover. As a result, both dense and open forests are planted.
  • Grasslands: These grow in areas with moderate rainfall.
  • Shrubs: Thorny shrubs and scrubs thrive in the desert.

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Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Class 7 Geography Chapter 6 Notes

Access Class 7 Geography Chapter 6 – Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

An Overview

Natural vegetation is entirely dependent on a location’s climatic conditions, particularly the average moisture content of the air. It is determined by a variety of factors, including:

  • The depth of the soil in which vegetation grows
  • The land’s incline (and elevation from the sea level)

Natural vegetation is classified into the following groups:

  1. Forests: Forests grow in areas where the rainfall and temperature are suitable for tree growth. Open and dense forests grow in response to such factors.
  2. Grasslands: Grasslands are found in areas with moderate rainfall.
  3. Shrubs: Shrubs and thorny bushes thrive in dry climates.


Tropical rainforest is another name for tropical evergreen woodlands.

They are dense forests that can be found in areas near the equator or in areas close to the tropics.

Tropical regions are hot all year, and they receive a lot of rain.

The trees never lose their leaves in such regions because they never dry out. Since the trees in this area do not lose their leaves, they are frequently referred to as evergreen.

Thick canopies of closely spaced trees prevent daylight from entering the forests during the day.

Hardwood trees such as ebony, rosewood, and mahogany are grown in this region.

Tropical Deciduous Forests

Tropical deciduous forests, also called monsoon forests, are primarily found in India, Central America, and Northern Australia.

Seasonal changes occur in tropical deciduous forests. In dry seasons, the trees in this area shed their leaves to conserve water and hence give a naked appearance.

Teak, sal, sheesham, and neem are some of the hardwood trees found in these areas. These trees are used to make building and transportation materials, as well as furniture.

Elephants, monkeys, langurs, lions, and tigers are among the many animals found in this area.

Temperate Evergreen Forest

Temperate evergreen forests can be found along the mid-latitude coast.

These forests are common along our continents’ eastern margins. They can be found in southeast Brazil, South China, and the Southeast United States.

There are both softwood and hardwood trees here. Eucalyptus, pine, and oak are a few examples.

Temperate Deciduous Forests

Temperate deciduous forests are those that can be found in higher latitudes. They can be found in China, northern parts of the United States, New Zealand, coastal Europe, and Chile.

The trees shed their leaves only during the dry seasons. Beech, ash, oak, and other trees can be found here.

Fox, deer, wolves, monals, and pheasants are among the many animals and birds found in temperate deciduous forests.

Mediterranean Vegetation

Our continents’ southwest and west margins are completely covered in Mediterranean vegetation.

Mediterranean vegetation can be found in Asia, Africa, and the Mediterranean region of Europe. The same vegetation can be found in other places, such as California in the United States, the southwestern part of South America, Southwest Africa, and the southwestern part of Australia.

Citrus fruits such as figs, oranges, grapes, and olives are grown in Mediterranean areas.

Coniferous Forests

Coniferous forests are made up of scale-like leaves or trees with needle-like leaves. Coniferous forests grow in areas with moderate annual precipitation and long winters. Northern Europe’s coniferous forest is known as the Boreal forest or Taiga.

Coniferous forests cover mountains and include firs, larches, spruces, and pines. The trees in this area are all similar in shape and often form a uniform layer of herbs and low scrubs beneath.

Lichens, mosses, and liverworts are some of the trees that cover coniferous forests.

Podzols are acidic soils found in coniferous forests. They have a layer of humus known as more. The soil is deficient in organic matter, minerals, and invertebrates.

Insects, flies, and mosquitoes are common residents of coniferous forests.

Crossbills, woodpeckers, warblers, owls, hawks, grouse, waxwings, and kinglets are among the birds found in this area.

Wolves, lynxes, reindeer, moose, martens, voles, and squirrels are some of the animals found in a coniferous forest.


  • Tropical Grasslands

Grasses with the scientific names Themeda triandra and Arundinella setosa predominate in places with less annual vegetation. Tropical grasslands are also known as Savanna, a type of vegetation that denotes a continuous layer that is interrupted by shrubs and trees.

Grasslands are climaxes or a community of vegetation that are found in high latitudes above pine forests. All other types of grassland are man-made and cover a large area due to deforestation.

They practise unsound gazing, agriculture, and burning. With the disturbance of climax vegetation, the banks of the forests open and their gaps close in a year.

Tropical grasslands can be found on either side of the equator and extend to the tropics.

This type of vegetation grows in areas with moderate precipitation. The tropical prairie grasses are tall, reaching heights of 3 to 4 metres.

Panthers, deer, giraffes, elephants, and zebras are some of the more common animals found here.

  • Temperate Grasslands

Temperate grasslands are classified as terrestrial biomes by the World Wide Fund for Nature. Scrubs and grasses are the dominant vegetation in this area.

The climate here is temperate, with temperatures ranging from semi-humid to semi-arid. The temperate grasslands’ habitat differs from that of the tropical grasslands in terms of annual temperature and species diversity.

Prairie habitats are found in North America, while pampas habitats are found in South America. They are referred to as “veld” in South Africa and “steppe” in Asia. Except for gallery forests or riparian forests associated with rivers and streams, these areas do not have many trees.

The short grasslands found in semi-arid climates are known as steppes or shortgrass.  “Pastures and heaths” are low shrublands where forest growth is hampered by human activity rather than climate.

Tall grasslands receive moderate rainfall and have fertile soil, making them suitable for agriculture.

As a result, grasses here are mostly short but nutritious, and they are mostly found in the interiors.

Some animals found in temperate grasslands are wild buffaloes, bison, and antelopes.

  • Thorny Bushes

Thorny bushes grow in dry areas such as deserts. Tropical deserts can be found in the continent’s west. Vegetation in these regions is scarce due to extreme heat and lack of rain.

The vegetation in the polar regions is extremely limited. Lichens and mosses make up a small percentage of the scrubs found in the polar regions. It only grows during the summer, when the polar region receives slanting sun rays. Due to snowfall, it is impossible to grow vegetation in the winter. This type of vegetation is also called Tundra.

The thick furs of the animals here help them to survive the harsh climate. Polar bears, arctic owls, snow foxes, and other animals are among them.

Important Questions and Answers.

  1. Write a note on the wildlife and natural vegetation found in the polar regions.
  2. Because of the extreme cold, natural vegetation growth in the polar region is extremely limited.

During the short summer when the area receives slanting sun rays, only a few shrubs can be found.

Lichens and mosses make up a small percentage of the shrubs. The vegetation is referred to as tundra vegetation. This type of vegetation is mostly found in Asia, Europe, and North America’s polar regions.

The animals in this area have an extra layer of skin that protects them from the elements. Seals, polar bears, and other animals are rare.

  1. Mention the key characteristics of tropical evergreen forests.
  2. Evergreen forests are another name for tropical evergreen forests. The following are the primary characteristics of tropical evergreen forests.

Thick canopies form as these forests are extremely dense, preventing sunlight from entering the forests.

Because there is no dry season in the tropical evergreen region, trees do not shed their leaves. As a result, the forest is always green.

This region is hot all year and gets a lot of rain.

Ebony, rosewood, and mahogany are among the hardwood trees that grow here.

  1. Describe the different types of grasslands.
  2. Tropical Grasslands: Tropical grasslands are found in areas with low to moderate rainfall. The grass in this area can reach a height of 3 to 4 metres. The African Savanna grassland is an example of tropical grassland. Zebras, deer, giraffes, and other animals can be found here.
  3. Temperate Grasslands: These are mostly found in mid-latitude zones and the interiors of continents. Grasses are usually nutritious and plentiful in this area. Bison and antelopes are the most common animals.

Thorny Bushes: Thorny bushes are found in dry deserts. They are mostly found on the western margins, where vegetation is scarce.


  1. What is the growth of different types of vegetation depended upon?
  2. Growth of vegetation is dependent upon several factors.

It can be seen that the increase in height causes a climatic change in each region.

Hence natural vegetation changes as the climate changes.

The growth of all trees and shrubs is completely dependent on the type of vegetation they are growing in, as well as the moisture and temperature.

Vegetation is also affected by other factors such as soil thickness and slope.

  1. Mention two strategies for forest conservation.
  2. Forest conservation methods include the following.

Tree Felling: Tree felling should be planned and regulated as one of the major causes of deforestation. Many trees are cut down for various reasons and uses. Although they are intended to be perennial sources, they are exploited when large numbers of them are cut down.

Controlling forest fires: Forest fires are common in densely forested areas and are extremely difficult to put out. To save the forest from fire, we must employ new techniques that involve firefighting.

  1. Explain the reason for the following statements.
  2. “During the dry season, trees in the tropical deciduous forest shed their leaves.”
  3. Reason: Seasonal changes in tropical deciduous forests allow trees to shed their leaves and save water during dry seasons. They are mostly found in India, America, and Africa.
  1. “The thickness and type of vegetation vary according to location.” Give reason.
  2. Reason: It is true that the thickness and type of vegetation vary depending on landforms like slope, the thickness of the soil, climate conditions, moisture, and temperature. Different animals and plants can survive in different types of vegetation.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Why do the animals in the polar region have thick fur and skin?

Polar animals have thick fur and a layer of fat under the skin. It acts as a layer of insulation and helps in protecting them from extreme cold climates. It is a natural adaptation for animals living in the Tundra region.

2. Why do the Leaves of Tropical Deciduous Trees Shed Away in the Dry Season?

Tropical deciduous forests can be found in most parts of India, northern Australia, and North America. Because these areas experience seasonal changes, tropical deciduous trees shed their leaves during the dry season to conserve water.

3. Why Does the Thickness and Type of Vegetation Change From Place to Place?

Because of changes in climatic conditions, landform, soil, temperature, and moisture, the thickness and type of vegetation vary from place to place. Different types of plants and animals can survive in different types of vegetation depending on these factors.

4. What are the 3 broad categories of natural vegetation?

Forests, grasslands, and shrubs are the three broad categories of natural vegetation. These are the wild plants that can grow without human intervention. Forests are home to a wide range of life forms, including animals, insects, plants, birds, and so on. Grasslands are areas with tall trees or shrubs and fertile soil. Shrubs are the most common plants in desert areas.

5. What are the features of Tropical deciduous forests?

Tropical deciduous forests have the following characteristics:

  • They have a high moisture content.
  • The leaves that fall from the tree provide organic material to the soil.
  • These trees stop photosynthesis for a particular season of the year.