CBSE Class 7 Social Science Geography Revision Notes Chapter 8

CBSE Class 7 Geography Chapter 8 Notes – Human-Environment Interactions – The Tropical and the Subtropical Region

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Human-Environment Interactions – The Tropical and the Subtropical Region Class 7 Geography Chapter 8 Notes –

Access Class 7 Social Science Geography Chapter 8 – Human-Environment Interactions Notes 

The Tropical and The Subtropical Region

On Earth, there are over seven billion people. They are a part of the ecosystem and play a significant role in maintaining the ecological balance. The Earth’s ecology provides for basic necessities, and many humans naturally have the same needs as other species to survive. The three basic needs are clothing, food, and shelter. Humans belong to the same species, Homo sapiens, yet have different appearances, traits, and cultures. Because of this, understanding the various facets of the planet’s wildlife, population, etc., requires an understanding of the human-environment interactions of the tropical and subtropical regions. Students will learn about these interactions in CBSE Chapter 7 Geography Chapter 8 Notes.

Life in the Amazon Basin

  • The Amazon Basin is located between 10 degrees North and 10 degrees South of the equator.
  • It is referred to as the Equatorial region because of its location.
  • The Amazon River passes through this area from the western mountains to the eastern Atlantic Ocean.
  • There are many tributaries to the river.
  • Large portions of Brazil, Bolivia, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela are contained within the Amazon Basin, which is created by the Amazon River and its tributaries. Its climate is characterised by its heat.

The Climate in the Amazon Basin

  • The area’s climate is primarily hot and humid because it is located at the equator.
  • Due to its location and the way the sun shines, the climate is perpetually hot and humid.
  • In the Amazon Basin, the days and nights are extremely hot and humid.
  • Almost every day, rain falls in the Amazon Basin.
  • In this area, the days are very hot and sultry.
  • The temperature is lower at night, but it is very humid.


Considering that the Amazon Basin receives a lot of rain throughout the year, there are numerous different species of trees in this area. Since rainfall is the primary factor causing the growth of these forests, they are collectively referred to as the Amazon Basin rainforest. Many tropical birds and animals can be found in the rainforests, which act as their natural habitat.

 The forests in the Amazon Basin are distinguished by their thick and dense foliage because the area receives a lot of rainfall throughout the year.

  • These rainforests have some of the largest tree canopies in the entire world.
  • Due to their extremely dense structure, these forests’ treetops (canopy) restrict sunlight from passing through them.
  • Because they receive less sunlight, these rainforests continue to be dark and gloomy.
  • Mosses can develop on the undersides of trees or on the forest floor because they are shade-tolerant, stunted plants.
  • In these areas, parasitic plants like orchids and bromeliads also flourish.
  • The vast variety of fauna in the Amazon Basin Rainforest is particularly well-known.
  • The exotic tropical birds that live in these forests include toucans, which have oversized bills, hummingbirds, and birds of paradise, which have brightly coloured plumage.
  • These Amazon rainforests are also home to a variety of wild animals, including tapirs, crocodiles, pythons, snakes, and numerous insects and fish.

People of the Rainforests

  • After removing trees from the forest, the inhabitants of the Amazon Basin turn to farm to grow their food.
  • Men in the Amazon Basin typically hunt animals for their food by fishing in the rivers.
  • In the Amazon Basin, women are primarily responsible for taking care of the crops.
  • Tapioca, pineapple, and sweet potatoes are the main foods grown for human consumption in the Amazon Basin.
  • Since hunting animals and fish has become difficult in recent years due to deforestation and water pollution, it is generally the women who take care of their households. and families by feeding them the vegetables they grow.
  • The most popular farming technique used in the area by its residents to grow crops and vegetables is “slash and burn.”
  • Its residents eat staple foods like manioc, cassava, queen ants, egg sacs, etc.
  • The inhabitants of the rainforests also cultivate and raise cash crops like coffee, maize, and cocoa.
  • The people who live in the Amazon Basin use a lot of wood.
  • The most significant use of wood among the locals in this area is to construct homes.
  • Families in the Amazon Basin can choose between large “Maloca” homes that resemble apartments and thatched, beehive-shaped homes.
  • This area has developed over the past few years in terms of transportation, accessibility, etc.
  • The Trans-Amazonian highway has provided access to the entire Amazonian rainforest since 1970.
  • Helicopters and aircraft are used to access a number of additional areas.
  • The Amazon Basin’s native population has been pushed out and forced to settle in newer locations to continue surviving through farming and hunting.
  • However, due to the Amazon Basin’s rapid expansion, the region’s forest cover is gradually decreasing.
  • As a result, the Amazon Basin’s environment and the natural world have been harmed by development activities.

Life in the Ganga-Brahmaputra Basin

In the Indian subcontinent, the Ganga and Brahmaputra tributaries combine to form the Ganga-Brahmaputra basin, which is similar to the Amazon Basin in size. The basin’s location faces year-round rainfall, which has significantly impacted the women, generally the population, and its characteristics.

  • Rivers like the Ghagra, the Son, the Chambal, the Gandak, the Kosi, and Brahmaputra tributaries drain the Ganga-Brahmaputra basin.
  • The Ganga and Brahmaputra plains, the mountains and foothills of the Himalayas, and the delta of the Sundarbans are the distinguishing features of this basin.
  • The area experiences significant rainfall, and the monsoon season lasts almost the entire year.
  • The rains primarily occur from mid-June to mid-September, despite the fact that the region experiences scorching summers and chilly winters due to the presence of the sea breeze.
  • The Ganga-Brahmaputra basin mountainous region is sparsely populated due to the inhospitable terrain and steep slopes.
  • The plain, on the other hand, has fertile soil that is perfect for cultivation and is ideal for human habitation.
  • As a result, the plains are densely populated, and agriculture is the primary industry there.
  • In areas with higher rainfall, paddy is the primary crop grown in the area.
  • Wheat, maize, sorghum, gramme, and millet are some of the other crops grown in the Ganga-Brahmaputra basin.
  • Several areas also grow cash crops like jute and sugarcane.
  • On the plains of the Ganga and Brahmaputra are deciduous trees like teal, sal, peepal, and bamboo.
  • Mangrove forests, which are primarily found in the delta area of the region, are made up of pine, deodar, and fir trees.
  • The Ganga-Brahmaputra basin is home to a variety of wildlife, including elephants, tigers, deer, monkeys, and more.
  • The Brahmaputra plains are home to one-horned rhinoceroses, while the delta is home to Bengal tigers, alligators, and crocodiles.
  • The area is also home to several carp species, including Catla, Rohu, and Hilsa.
  • Fish and rice are the main foods consumed by the locals.
  • Because of the densely populated plains of Ganga, different chemicals are dumped into the river, contaminating water sources with waste from industry.
  • All four forms of transportation, including airways, roads, railroads, and waterways, which are vitally important modes of transportation, are well developed in the Ganga-Brahmaputra basin.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What kind of climate exists in the Amazon Basin?

The region of the Earth that is closest to the equator is known as the Amazon Basin. Given its location in the middle of the world, it is known to have hot and humid weather all year long. Direct sunlight contributes to this climate by making days and nights equally warm, hot, and humid. In addition to this, there is continuous rainfall throughout the year. Thus, it can be said that the Amazon Basin has both an extremely hot and wet climate.

2. Name the basins found in India.

Two significant rivers that cross the Indian subcontinent are the Ganga and the Brahmaputra. The foothills of the Himalayan region are where the tributaries of these two rivers congregate, creating the basin, a common area. Many densely populated cities lie along the sides of this basin, including Allahabad and Kolkata. Students can easily access the Chapter 8 Geography Class 7 Notes for this chapter to learn more about basins.