CBSE Class 7 Social Science History Revision Notes Chapter 10

CBSE Class 7 History Chapter 10 Notes – Eighteenth-Century Political Formation

Class 7 History Chapter 10 Notes describe the political condition that quickly changed the view of India drastically during the 18th century. These notes give a synopsis of the beginning of new political groups from 1706 to 1761 and the various changes that took place along with them. Class 7 History Chapter 10 Notes enable the students to revise the chapter efficiently and become well-prepared for their examinations. These notes are made by referring to CBSE (NCERT) books and are constructed keeping in mind the requirements of the students. 

Students can get access to these notes from the Extramarks website. These notes are comprehensive and help students gain an in-depth understanding of this chapter. Students can rely on these notes as they are prepared by subject matter experts. It is best to refer to it while preparing for the exams.

Eighteenth-Century Political Formation Class 7 Notes History Chapter 10

Access Class 7 Social Science (History) Chapter 10 – Eighteenth-Century Political Formation Notes

The Crisis of the Empire and Later Mughals

  • Emperor Aurangzeb had a difficult time at the end of the 7th century when he fought a prolonged battle in the Deccan and lost both his wealth and his military strength. The authority of the government was declining. The nobles took charge of revenue and military governance. After the governors started consolidating their power over the provinces, the regular remission of revenue from the capital diminished. 
  • The move to boost taxes gave rise to opposition from farmers and zamindari. 
  • A few leaders attempted to gain power. 
  • Due to these circumstances, local chiefs, rebels, and aristocrats were able to rise to positions of excellent authority.
  • The Mughals’ economic standing improved as a result of their conquest of the Afghan kings.
  • Competition among several nobles, particularly the Iranis and the Taranis, further highlighted the empire’s collapse.

 The Emergence of New States

  • The reasons stated above caused the Mughal empire to split into many regional parts.
  • The states in the 18th century were categorised into the following:
  1. The states that were ancient Mughal provinces had maintained ties with the Mughal empire.
  2. The states that had freedom during the Mughal rule.
  3. The states that got back their independence after a prolonged war.

The Old Mughal Provinces

The Mughals controlled Awadh, Bengal, and Hyderabad as significant provinces.

  1. Hyderabad

  • The court of the Mughal Emperor Farouk Sial consisted of a notable member named Nizamul Mulk Asaf Jah, who was the founder of Hyderabad. 
  • He was authorised to be in charge of  Awad and was later put down to capture Deccan. 
  • Afterwards, he took control into his own hands and succeeded in becoming the true ruler of the Deccan. 
  • The Mughal Emperor solely accepted Nizam’s decision. 
  • Hyderabad waged wars against the independent Telugu Nayakas as well as the Marathas in the West. 
  • The Nizam’s aim of controlling the prosperous textile production field on the east coast of the Coromandel was obstructed by the British.
  1. Awadh 

  • In 1722, the leader of Awadh was Burhanul Mulk Sa’adat Khan. 
  • Awadh was a prosperous area, well-known for Bangladeshi trade and prosperous alluvial soil.
  • Burhanul Mulk made an effort to lessen the Mughal influence on Awad by advancing his imperial officers. 
  • He also took hold of fertile agricultural land from the Afghans of Rohilkhand as well as Rajput zamindars. 
  • A fixed amount was paid by the bidders to the state, especially those who were awarded taxes. 
  • Management can be impacted by these developments that enable new social groups like money lenders and bankers. 
  1. Bengal 

  • Following the appointment of Murshid Quli Khan as the governor’s deputy, Bengal was liberated from Mughal authority. 
  • He was also in control of the country’s tax management. 
  • To diminish the Mughal influence in Bangladesh, he moved every Mughal Jagirdar to Odisha and re-evaluated the income generated by Bangladesh. 
  • He collected enormous amounts of cash from all the zamindars. 
  • Many zamindars were compelled to take money from bankers and moneylenders. 
  • Those who defaulted on paying had to sell their land to great zamindars.

 Similarities between states

  • While the ancient Mughal nobles established several larger countries, they doubted a few of them, particularly the Jagilda system.
  • Their tax collection techniques were quite different from each other. All three states abided by revenue farmers for collecting revenue rather than relying on the officers of the state.
  • A central point for all these states was their relationship with wealthy bankers and merchants who were lending money to revenue farmers, accepting the property as collateral, and through their agents, they attained taxes from these properties.

The Watan Jagirs of the Rajputs

  • Several Rajput kings had great ties with the Mughals and functioned under them while granting them independence in their Watan Jagirs. 
  • These rulers later tried to establish power over nearby areas during the 18th century.

The Sikhs

  • The local political region of Sikh pioneers aided in the advancement of Punjab during the 17th century. 
  • Guru Gobind Singh was the founder of the Khalsa in 1699. In 1708, after his death, the Khalsa were under the leadership of Banda Bahadur Singh, who jointly revolted against the Mughals. 
  • They minted coins honouring Guru Nanak and Guru Gobind Singh as a symbol of their acceptance of freedom. They laid their organisation between the Sutlej and the Jamuna. 
  • Banda Bahadur Singh was captured in 1715 and murdered in 1716.

The Marathas

  • Shivaji established a powerful kingdom that posed a threat to the Mughals.
  • Maratha was taken over by a family of Chitpavan Brahmanas after Shivaji’s death.
  • Pune eventually became the Maratha Kingdom’s capital.
  • An effective military system was developed by the Marathas, which weakened the Mughal power. 
  • In the 1720s, Malwa and Gujarat were seized by the Marathas from the Mughals. The Marathas took away provinces and they were compelled to pay tribute after the Delhi raid. 

The Marathas gained support as a result of the Panipat Chanderi war. Pune, which was the capital of the Maratha Empire, was a market for silk producers.

The Jats

  • Throughout the late 17th and 18th centuries, the Jats gathered their power like the other states. 
  • They seized power over territories located to the West of Delhi and the cities of Agra under the leadership of Churaman.
  • The Jats were considered well-off agriculturists.
  • The significant trading centres were Panipat and Ballabgarh.

Class 7 Social Science – History Chapter 10 Eighteenth Century Political Formation Notes

The Crisis of the Empire and the Later Mughals

The Mughal empire dealt with both ups and downs during the 17th century. By the latter part of the 17th century, the Mughal empire faced a crisis due to the exhaustion of resources in wars by Emperor Aurangzeb. The imperial management of the Mughals fell apart after the successors followed. 

  • The nobles were in control of the tax collection and military administration agencies.
  • The peasant and zamindari protests in the northern and western regions of India were the main reason for the decline of the Mughal rule.
  • In the year 1739, Nadir Shah robbed enormous wealth from Delhi when economic and political troubles began for the Mughals. 
  • Ahmad Shah Abdali repeatedly invaded the North Indian territory five times between 1748 and 1761, which also exhausted the military resources of the Mughals.
  • Additionally, it led to the division of a group of nobles into Turanis and Iranis. 
  • The Mughals were humiliated after two emperors were assassinated and a few of them were blinded by their nobles.

The Emergence of New States

As the power of the Mughal emperors weakened, the power of the Subadars began to rise. During the 18th century, the states could be classified generally into three overlapping groups. These consist of Hyderabad, Bengal, and Awadh, which were the previously known Mughal provinces. 

  •  The states enjoyed substantial independence.
  •  The states were controlled by the Sikhs, Jats, and Marathas.

The Old Mughal Provinces

Awadh, Bengal, and Hyderabad stood out amongst the old Mughal provinces, as these three were the most prominent states.

Nizam-Ul-Mulk Asf Jha was the notable founder of Hyderabad. He was previously handed the governorship of Awadh, which further moved to the Deccan. 

  • Asaf Jha had absolute power over the political and financial governance of these regions. He utilised this power and took control of the region.
  • He began assigning mansabdars and granted them Jagirs. He was able to govern this region unaided without much intervention. 


Burhan-ul-Mulk was assigned as the Subadar of Awadh in the year 1722. He was held accountable for handling the financial,  political, and military affairs of Awadh.

  • He attempted to lessen the Mughal dominance in Awadh through his actions and also seized a number of Rajput zamindars and some of the Afghans of Rohilkhand fertile fields.
  • The administration of the state’s revenue system was influenced by moneylenders due to these events.


Murshid Quli Khan was assigned as the deputy to the governor of the province, also known as Naib. He rapidly gained control over the region and moved the Mughal Jagirdars to Orissa to lessen the Mughal’s impact. 

  • Revenue accumulation mainly took place in cash. 
  • The banking house of Jagath Seth obtained massive recognition during his reign. 

The Watan Jagirs of the Rajputs

The Rajput kings were given substantial independence in their Watan Jagirs in exchange for serving the Mughals distinctively. 

  • During the 18th century, they began making attempts to attain absolute power over the adjacent regions. 
  • Raja Ajit Singh held the governorship of Gujarat and Sawai Raja Jai Singh held the governorship of Malwa. 
  • They increased their territory by capturing portions of neighbouring regal territories.

Seizing Independence

The Sikhs

Punjab, the regional state of Sikhs, was built in the 17th century. 

  • Guru Gobind Singh fought several battles against the Rajput and Mughal rulers. 
  •  In 1708, the Khalsa stood up to revolt under the leadership of  Banda Bahadur against the Mughals after Guru Gobind Singh’s death. 
  • The Sikh territories additionally expanded from the Indus to the Jamuna but were later divided. 
  • In 1799, their capital was set up in Lahore with recombination by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. 

The Marathas

Shivaji built the powerful Maratha kingdom between 1627-1680. 

  • The growth of the Maratha kingdom took place during the time period between 1720 and 1761. 
  • An administration system was developed. 
  • Under Maratha’s rule, the establishment of new trade routes within the areas began.

The Jats

  • In the second half of the 17th and 18th centuries, the Jats began to combine their authority.
  •  Under the leadership of Churaman, the Jats captured many territories. 
  • The significant centres for trading were Panipat and Ballabgarh.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Describe the emergence of new states.

The governors of large provinces, the great zamindars, and subadars, combined their authority in several distinct parts of the subcontinent during the decline of the Mughal emperors. The Mughal Empire constantly broke down into numerous independent regional states during the 18th century. In general, the states of the 18th century can be classified into three main overlapping groups that are:

  1. Ancient Mughal provinces like Awadh, Bengal, and Hyderabad were states. The rulers of the above-mentioned states did not end their formal ties with the Mughal emperor despite being exceptionally powerful and entirely independent. 
  2. The states that had the benefit of considerable independence during the rule of the Mughals were the Watan Jagirs. Many Rajput principalities were covered in these. 
  3. States under the dominance of the Marathas, Sikhs, and others like the Jats were part of the final group. They were of dissimilar sizes and had taken back their independence from the Mughals, succeeding in a prolonged armed struggle.

2. What policies did Asif Jha adopt to establish his position?

 As a ruler of the Deccan, Asif Jha adopted many policies to strengthen his position, such as:

  • He brought in proficient soldiers and management from North India.
  • Asif Jha assigned the Mansabdars and gave them Jagirs.
  • He ruled individually without any intervention. The Mughal emperor also validated the decision that was taken by Asif Jha.