CBSE Class 7 Social Science History Revision Notes Chapter 3

CBSE Class 7 History Chapter 3 Notes – Delhi Sultans

India’s capital city, Delhi, gained prominence after the 12th century as a result of the Tomara Rajput kingdom. From the 13th century until the end of the 15th century, five Islamic kings ruled Delhi. The Mughal era eventually began in India. With the help of the Class 7 History Chapter 3 Notes, let’s have a thorough explanation of these Delhi Sultanates.

Delhi Sultans Class 7 Notes History Chapter 3

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The Delhi Sultans

The Arab attacks prompted the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate, which prospered for three centuries. The Aibak (Slave), Khilji, Tuglaq, Sayyids, and the Lodis made up the Delhi Sultanate.

Finding Out About the Delhi Sultans

The data on the Delhi Sultans is obtained from Coins, engravings, and engineering.

Tawarikh served as the Delhi Sultans’ supreme authority.

Raziyya assumed the throne in 1236.

Expansion of Delhi Sultanate

Afghanistan-based Mongol invasions posed a threat to Delhi’s rule.

During the reign of Ghiyasuddin Balban, the sultanate consolidation was considered. 

The kingdom was further expanded by Alauddin Khilji and Muhammad Tughlaq.

The initial wave of operations focused on concentrating the garrison’s hinterlands along the “internal frontier.”

The second proliferation wave fell under the Sultanate’s “external frontier.”

Consolidation Under the Khaljis and Tughlaqs

The Khiljis’ and Tughlaqs’ governments designated military administrators as lead representatives for various-sized regions known as iqtas. The term muqti or iqtadar were used to refer to the iqtas holder.

The Sultans had little power over large areas of the subcontinent; instead, local clan chiefs managed these districts.

Alauddin Khilji and Muhammad Tughlaq were two leaders who occasionally led fighters to such districts for a short period of time.

In 1219, Genghis Khan and his Mongolian allies invaded Transoxiana.

Under Muhammad Tughluq’s rule, the Mongolian assaults on Delhi expanded significantly.

Sultanates of the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries

From Delhi to Agra, the Lodi, Tughlaq, and Sayyid dynasties were in power until 1526.

Jaunpur, Malwa, Rajasthan, Bengal, Gujarat, and Southern India were all under independent rule.

During this time, new ruling ethnic groups like the Afghans and Rajputs rose to power.

Sher Shah Suri began his career as the ruler of a small region in Bihar. He later won the Mughal emperor Humayun’s favour.

The Delhi Sultanate Class 7 CBSE

Who Were Delhi Sultanates?

The Delhi Sultanate was an Islamic empire based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of South Asia for 320 years (1206–1526)

With the help of the Tomara and Chauhan families, Delhi developed into a significant commercial hub. The coins that were produced here were known as Delhiwal. They were in high demand and were moved around the city extensively. A number of wealthy Jaina merchants travelled to Delhi and settled there. In Delhi, they constructed numerous temples and monuments. All of these elements significantly influenced how the city developed. With the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate at the start of the 13th century, Delhi began to develop into a city that ruled substantial areas of the subcontinent. All the factors that contributed to Delhi’s expansion are discussed in Class 7 History Chapter 3 Notes.

Rulers of Delhi

 A thorough explanation of Delhi’s five dynasties’ rule from the 12th to the 15th centuries can be found in CBSE Class 7 History Chapter 3 Notes for The Delhi Sultanates. Although all of these dynasties were ruled by Islamic kings they were all short-lived. Despite having a brief reign and being overthrown by other kings, they made significant contributions to Delhi. There are five dynasties:

  • From 1206 to 1290, the Mamluk Dynasty.
  • From 1290 to 1320, the Khilji Dynasty.
  • From 1320 to 1414, the Tughlaq Dynasty.
  • From 1414 to 1451, the Sayyid Dynasty.
  • From 1451 to 1526, the Afghan Lodi Dynasty.
  • Later, the Mughal Empire was established.

Architecture Plan During Delhi Sultanates

The Class 7 History Chapter 3 Notes also include information on a number of Jain, Hindu, and Buddhist temples that were constructed during the Mamluk and Khilji dynasties. Early Delhi rulers displayed an anthropomorphic representation in their artwork. Due to the blending of indigenous art and Muslim customs, Indo-Islamic art was created. There are a number of noteworthy monuments. These are:- 

Qutub Minar: Qutb-ud-din Aibak, the region’s first ruler and governor, began work on the Qutub Minar’s construction in 1192. At 238 feet tall, it is the tallest minaret ever built in India. The Quranic verses and Indian floral motifs were used in the construction of Qutub Minar’s walls. Its entire construction is made of red sandstone and marble.

Alai Darwaza: Another significant building from the Delhi Sultanates’ 13th-century era that is mentioned in Class 7 History Chapter 3 Notes. Alauddin Khilji, the second Sultan of Delhi, constructed it in 1311 CE. The Qutub house is located on the southern side of the Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque. It is India’s first authentic dome. Sultan Balban’s tomb is located between the Alai Darwaza and the Qutub Minar.

The Lodi Gardens and Tomb of Mohammad Shah: The 14th century was ruled by Sayyid and Lodi, who were responsible for the Lodi Gardens and the Mohammad Shah Tomb. They replicated the Islamic pointed arches in the octagonal main chamber when they constructed Lodi Gardens and the Tomb of Mohammad Shah. The way the roof was built has many features in common with Mughal architecture.

Expansion of Delhi Sultanates

According to the Class 7 History Chapter 3 Notes, the Delhi Sultanates once again had control over the garrison towns after much struggle. They seized the South Indian States and expanded trade, architecture, construction, etc. Their business plan was quite creative, and it served both goals. The interesting thing about this is that every dynasty’s ruler had to overcome obstacles to grow their empires. The administration of Delhi had been forced into a corner by the Mongol invasions of Afghanistan. The first king to plan campaigns along the internal borders was Tughlaq. He had combined the forests, Yamuna doabs, habitat lands, etc. with the rural areas of Garrison towns on these internal frontiers.

Lodi, Sayyid, and the Tughluqs ruled until the mid-fifth century. Taxes were collected to feed the military personnel. After acquiring them, they chose separate leaders for each of the Southern Indian States. These kings initiated the development of small states with distinct capitals. The executive branch was very effective and powerful. Sher Shah Sur, the first governor of Bihar, overthrew the Mughal emperor Humayun and established a 15-year dynasty.


Extramarks’ Class 7 Chapter 3 History Notes give a thorough explanation of the Delhi sultanates, their accomplishments, administrative prowess, notable works, structures, architecture, painting styles, etc. The enormous contributions of all these kings helped to shape Delhi, the current capital of India.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Describe the administrative difficulties faced by Alauddin Khilji.

Alauddin Khilji was an excellent ruler, but he also had to deal with a number of administrative difficulties. Here are those difficulties and how he overcame them.


  • The enemies attacked Delhi twice while Alauddin Khilji was in power. It first occurred in 1299, then in 1302, and so on. However, he always had a standard and a powerful army at the ready.
  • Alauddin Khilji built Siri, a new town, for the convenience of the army.
  • He levied taxes on homes, cattle, and agriculture to fund the army. The army received this tax payment as a salary.
  • The army personnel used this salary to buy food and household essentials. But as a result, retailers raised their prices for groceries.
  • As a result, Alauddin Khilji set strict guidelines for grocery prices that merchants could not exceed. This helped him lead a successful administration.

2. Describe the challenges faced by the Tughlaqs.

Tughlaq faced a number of difficulties, just like Alauddin Khilji. However, he came up with a new strategy. After renovating four old cities in Delhi, Tughlaq evacuated them rather than building a new garrison town. He kept the additional taxes for the military’s food and added a small amount to control prices. He didn’t maintain any guidelines for regulating prices. Tughlaq made numerous attempts to defend his army and his nation, but none of them was successful. Despite these measures, Tughlaq was considered a disappointment, particularly in terms of administration.

3. Describe the circumstances under which Delhi developed into a significant commercial hub.

Delhi first rose to prominence as a capital kingdom while ruled by the Tomara Rajputs. However, the Chahamans from Ajmer defeated the Tomara Rajputs in the 12th century. While they were in power, Delhi, which was the capital of the kingdom, developed into a commercial hub. The city was inhabited by a large number of wealthy traders known as Jaina traders. They constructed several temples. The Dehliwal coins produced here were widely circulated and extremely well-liked.