CBSE Class 7 Social Science History Revision Notes Chapter 4

CBSE Class 7 History Chapter 4 Notes – The Mughal Empire

It was a particularly difficult task during the Middle Ages to rule a very large territory that was part of the Indian Subcontinent, especially while involving all of the various types of diverse people and their cultures. But unlike its predecessors, the Mughal dynasty succeeded for a long time in building an extensive empire and achieving what appeared impossible at the time. During the late 16th century, the Mughals were able to expand their kingdom from Agra to Delhi. 

As a result, they were able to control nearly all of the subcontinent by the 17th century. During the Mughal rule, different administrative structures were imposed, and new ideas for governing the subcontinent were laid out. Even after the rules ended, these ideas and rules remained. All of these ideas are thoroughly explained in Class 7 History Chapter 4 The Mughal Empire Notes.

Students must have a firm grasp of the concepts mentioned in the textbook to score more in the subject. Class 7 Social Science Our Pasts-II Chapter 4 is critical in laying a solid foundation for all CBSE board students. Extramarks offers comprehensive Revision Notes for Class 7 History Chapter 4. It covers all of the necessary information from NCERT books, and is written in an easy-to-understand language. This is useful when students have to revise before examinations. These notes are also accessible from the website from anywhere and at any time.

The Mughal Empire Class 7 Notes History Chapter 4

Access Class 7 Social Science(History) Chapter 4 – The Mughal Empire

Who Exactly Where The Mughals: An Insight

The Mughals were descended from two distinct but very powerful lineages of rulers: Genghis Khan (who died in 1227) and the Mongol rule that ruled over Central Asia and China, and Timur (who died in 1404), the ruler of Iran, Iraq, and modern-day Turkey. The Mughals disliked the name Mughals or Mongols as it was associated with Genghis Khan and the massacre of many people.

The Mughal leaders waged a vigorous campaign against the rulers who refused to accept their rule. As the Mughal government gained power in India, other rulers volunteered to serve them, such as the Rajputs. To support their expansion plans, the Mughals distributed jagirs and mansab. The primary source of income for the Mughal rulers was the tax imposed on peasant’s produce.

The Mughals did not believe in primogeniture, which states that the eldest son inherits the father’s property.

The children followed the common inheritance rules. The rulers of the Mughal dynasty who were known throughout history are listed below. More information about the Mughal Empire can be found in the Class 7 History Chapter 4 Notes.

  • Babur (1526-1530): Babur was the direct descendant of Genghis Khan via Timur. After winning the Battle of Panipat and Khanwa, he established the Mughal Empire.
  • Humayun (1530-1540): His reign was interrupted by Suri Dynasty rulers. At the time, he was inexperienced and quite young. He was defeated by Sher Shah Suri, who established the Suri Dynasty.
  • Humayun (1555-1556): He restored his rule, which was more effective than the last time, only to hand over the empire to his son, Akbar.
  • Akbar (1556-1605): Akbar was one of the Mughal Dynasty youngest rulers, coming to power when he was 13 years old. During the Second Battle of Panipat, Akbar defeated King Hemu with the help of Bairam Khan. Moreover, during the Siege of Ranthambore and Chittorgarh, Akbar defeated many kings. He was also regarded as one of the Mughal dynasty’s most successful rulers.
  • Jahangir (1605-1627): He was in charge of establishing relations with the members of the East India Company.
  • Shah-Jahan (1628-1658): During Shah Jahan’s reign, Mughal architecture and art reached a pinnacle of success. Not to mention that he was responsible for the creation of many architectural marvels such as the Jama Masjid, Jahangir Mausoleum, Taj Mahal, Lahore’s Shalimar Gardens, and the Red Fort. Unfortunately, Shah Jahan died in captivity, as suggested by his own son, Aurangzeb. 
  • Aurangzeb (1658-1707) was in charge of reinterpreting Islamic law. He was also responsible for the Fatawa-e-Alamgiri presentation. During Aurangzeb’s reign, the Sultan of Golconda captured the majority of the diamond mines. He spent nearly half of his reign at war with the Maratha Empire. The end of Aurangzeb’s reign truly marked the end of the Mughal Empire’s rule.

The Relations of Mughals with Other Rulers

The Mughal dynasty emperors waged a ferocious and constant war against any other kings who refused to submit to their authority. However, as the Mughals’ power grew, most of the Kingdoms made a voluntary effort to associate with them. One such case involved the Rajputs, who agreed to have their daughter married to the Mughal rulers in exchange for higher positions in the court. However, there were some who resisted as well. 

It was challenging to characterise Mughal relations with other kings. The Rajputs of Mewar, known as the Sisodiya Rajputs, refused to accept  Mughal rule. When the Mughals defeated them in the war, they were treated very honourably and given some land as compensation. The Mughal emperors’ power over other rulers was greatly increased by striking a delicate balance between humiliating and defeating opponents, which was difficult. 

The Mughal Empire’s military prowess and management policies resulted in enormous commercial and economic prosperity.

The Mughal rulers and their mansabdars spent a lot of money on goods and salaries. Jagir is the distribution of income as wages to Mansabdars. The tax imposed on peasantry produce was the main source of income for the Mughal rulers. Major artisanal groups, as well as richer peasants, bankers, and merchants, often profited in this economic world. The Mughal dynasty declined in the late 17th century, and independent provinces such as Awad and Hyderabad were established.

The Mughals ruled until the 17th century with great success, and the system underwent many changes during each emperor’s reign. Students can utilise these Class 7 History Chapter 5 Notes for detailed explanations of the topics discussed.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is the history of the Mughal Empire?

The Mughals established an empire and accomplished what seemed impossible at the time. They were Timur and Genghis Khan’s descendants, so they had royal ancestors. This strengthened their commitment and helped them develop into the outstanding leaders they eventually were.

2. Who were the Mughals?

According to Class 7 History, the Mughals were the descendants of two great lineages of rulers. They were descended from Genghis Khan, who defeated the Mongol rulers who ruled over parts of China and Central Asia. On their paternal side, they were the descendants of Timur, who ruled Iran, Iraq, and modern-day Turkey.

3. Who was the first Mughal emperor?

Babur was the first Mughal emperor. He was a great warrior who won numerous battles. Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi of the Delhi Sultanate and his Afghan supporters at Panipat in 1526. He defeated Rana Sanga, other Rajput rulers, and their allies at Khanwa in 1527. In addition, he defeated the Rajputs at Chanderi in 1528. He successfully established control over Agra and Delhi before his death.

4. What was the role of the zamindars in the Mughal administration?

The primary source of income for the Mughal emperors was taxation on agricultural and peasant products. In most places, the zamindar was in charge of collecting taxes from farmers. The Mughals referred to all intermediaries as zamindars. These intermediaries were frequently appointed as village in-charges or other powerful chieftains. The Zamindars wielded considerable power in some areas. They were frequently observed exploiting peasants.

5. Which central provinces were under Mughal rule?

Mughals ruled over several central provinces known as subas. The majority of subas, a total of 22, were recorded during Aurangzeb’s reign. Kabul, Kashmir, Lahore, Multan, Delhi, Agra, Awadh, Allahabad, Bihar, Bangal, Orissa, Malwa, Ajmer, Gujrat, Golkonda, Berar, Bijapur, Thatta, Khandesh, Aurangabad, Bidar, and Sira were the states involved.

6. What were the five Deccan Sultanates?

The five Deccan Sultanates were Golconda, Berar, Ahmadnagar, Khandesh, and Bijapur.

7. What were the salaries of the Mansabdars known as?

The salaries of the Mansabdars were known as Jagirs.

8. Who was Abul Fazl?

Abul Fazl was Akbar’s friend and counsellor who assisted him in developing the concept of sulh-i kul so that he could govern a society comprising many religions, cultures, and castes.