CBSE Class 7 Social Science History Revision Notes Chapter 5

CBSE Class 7 History Chapter 5 Notes – Rulers and Buildings

Every piece of architecture has a past. During the time of the rulers, buildings were constructed by incredibly skilled craftsmen who worked painstakingly for years to create architectural wonders.

Class 7 History Chapter 5 Notes will aid students to learn more about such masterpieces and rulers. Extramarks provides comprehensive Class 7 History Chapter 5 Notes, making it simpler for students to revise effectively. 

Rulers and Buildings Class 7 Notes History Chapter 5

Access Class 7 Social Science(History) Chapter 5 – Rulers and Buildings Notes


Buildings and monuments served as evidence of a ruler’s rule, wealth, and power. Many great leaders have built monuments, temples, and mosques throughout history that exist even today. Even in the Middle Ages, building and architectural methods were cutting-edge.People today are inspired by them. 

Architectural prowess and the creation of monuments give insight into the planning process. More windows, doors, and rooms were added to buildings between the 7th and 10th centuries. A flat pillar was inserted between two vertical portions to create roofs, windows, and entrances.  This design was known as corbelled architecture. It was applied to the construction of mosques and sanctuaries. 

In the 12th century, there were primarily two technological and stylistic developments known as acute architectural forms. These innovations use a mixture of limestone and stone chips to speed up construction. During this time, there was a lot of integration of Persian architectural form with Indian architectural structure. 

Buildings, Temples, Mosques, and Tanks

  • Temples and mosques were elegantly built as places of worship to represent the devotion, wealth, and power of the ruling king.
  • Therefore, kings began to build massive temples.
  • The goddesses, gods of allies, and the subjects of the ruler made up the temple’s lower series.
  • With the emergence of new dynasties, each ruler sought to establish their moral legitimacy as king or queen.
  • The Sultan was referred to as the “Shadow of God” by the Persian Court.
  • Tanks and reservoirs were built by rulers for the benefit of commoners.

Why were the Temples destroyed?

  • Invaders targeted the temples when they attacked kingdoms because they symbolised the wealth and power of kings.
  • In the 11th century, Rajendra I, a notable Chola King, built a Shiva Temple. The temple was filled with priceless statues that the rulers he overthrew had left behind.

Gardens, Tombs, and Forts

  • Architecture under the Mughals’ rule developed into something more elegant and intricate; Jahangir, Akbar, Shah Jahan, Humayun, and Babur were interested in literature, art, and architecture.
  • Kabul’s Chahar Gardens were constructed by Babur. Jahangir, Akbar, and Shah Jahan also built gardens in Agra, Kashmir, and Delhi.
  • In his father’s (Humayun) tomb, there is a clear and accurate representation of Akbar’s architectural form.
  • The ceremonial spaces, Diwan-i-Aam and Diwan-i-Khas, were used for both private and public audiences. They were thoughtfully designed and built.
  • For the Taj Mahal Layout, which is regarded as Shah Jahan’s most important architectural accomplishment during his reign, he used the Chahar Bagh technique.

Region and Empire

  • Between the 8th and the 18th centuries, construction activities advanced, and ideas and techniques were shared between regions.
  • Vijayanagar elephant stables were modelled after those of the Golconda and Bijapur Sultanates since they had a similar architectural style.
  • Temples in Vrindavan resembled the Fatehpur Sikri Mughal palaces in terms of their architectural design.
  • The emergence of a large empire that brought together different rulers under one powerful rule made it easier for architectural and artistic styles to interact.
  • The “Bangla Dome” was incorporated into Mughal architecture.

Important Questions and Answers

Write about the Mahadeva Temple.

The Kandariya Mahadeva Temple was built by King Dhangadeva in 999. It served as Lord Shiva’s special shrine. The image of the important deity was kept in the main shrine, which was called garbhagriha. The priests, kings, and members of the royal family would go to the temple to attend the ritual worship. The Khajuraho complex, which included royal temples, was off-limits to commoners.

Which temple was constructed by Rajarajadeva?

The temple of Rajarajeshvara was built by Rajarajadeva. It was dedicated to Lord Rajarajeshvaram. The majority of the names of the Kings and the Temple were remarkably similar.

 Write about the Sultans as the Shadows of God

Ans: Muslim Padshahs and Sultans didn’t claim to be the incarnation of God. The Persian Cour Chronicles refer to sultans as “Shadows of Gods.” According to an inscription on the Delhi mosque, Alauddin was chosen to rule by God himself since he possesses both Moses’ and Solomon’s traits.

Class 7 Social Science – History Chapter 5 Rulers and Buildings Notes

Rulers and Buildings Class 7 Notes

Kings primarily constructed two types of buildings from the 8th to the 18th centuries. One of the types was forts, palaces, tombs, or gardens that were safe and shielded from the outside world. The other type included buildings such as mosques, temples, wells, tanks, etc., that were significant to the general populace. Kings built these mostly to win public admiration. Large mansions and other architectural masterpieces from the 18th century still stand, though.

Engineering Skills And Construction

  • Students will gain knowledge of the advancements and skills used in that era to build a monument.
  • For example, the construction of a roof using four wooden beams.
  • However, complex abilities are needed to build elaborate structures.
  • More rooms and doors were added to the building between the 7th and 10th centuries by utilising the “corbelled” or “trabeate” architectural style.
  • There were two significant technological advancements in the 12th and 13th centuries. One of them was the “arcuate” architectural style, and the other was the use of limestone cement in buildings.

Building, Temples, Mosques, and Tanks

  • The construction of temples, mosques and other religious buildings received special attention because these structures were seen as a sign of the patrons’ wealth, influence, and devotion.
  • The Rajarajeshwara Temple is a prime example. It was constructed by King Rajarajadeva as a sign of his devotion to Rajarajeswaram.
  • The temples were considered to be representations of the monarchs and their allies.
  • None of the Muslim Sultans or Padhshahs claimed to possess God’s incarnations.
  • Every time a new dynasty rose to power, they attempted to turn their capital cities into hubs of culture in an effort to popularise their rule and realm.
  • Sultan Iltutmish earned respect from all people when he built the Hauz-i-Sultani, also known as the “King’s reservoir.”

Why Were Temples Targeted?

  • These temples were built by kings as a symbol of their wealth and power, as well as a way to show their devotion to God. Therefore, the temples were first attacked by the invaders to establish dominance. 
  • One of the examples is Rajendra I, the Chola king who constructed a Shiva temple in his capital. He filled this space with all the belongings he had taken from the overthrown kings. Among them were sun pedestals from the Chalukyas, and the statues of God Ganesh and Goddess Durga, to name a few.
  • By destroying one of the temples at Somnath, Sultan Muhammad also attempted to establish himself as a great Islamic hero.

Gardens, Tombs And Forts

  • The Mughals had carved a niche with their delicate architectural style. They were passionate about literature and art on a personal level.
  • Akbar, Jahangir, and Shah Jahan built some of the most exquisite. For example, Chahar Bagh in Kashmir, Delhi, and Agra, respectively.
  • The imposing central dome and the tall gateway were significant features of  Mughal architecture. It was constructed according to the “eight paradises” or Hasht Bihisht tradition. 
  • During Shah Jahan’s rule, various Mughal architectural components were combined.
  • To illustrate his theory of the relationship between royal justice and the imperial court, Shah Jahan built the Red Fort in Delhi.
  • The Taj Mahal’s riverfront section, which was the greatest architectural achievement of his reign, was also modified by Shah Jahan. He created this structure to control access to the Yamuna River. As a result, he only allowed elite nobles like his eldest son, Dara Shukoh, to access the river. 

Region and Empire

  • Between the 8th and 18th centuries, there was a dramatic increase in construction. As a result, there was a rise in the exchange of ideas and regional adaptation of traditions.
  • One of the best examples can be found in Vrindavan and Mathura, where temples were built in a style resembling the Fatehpur Sikri Mughal palaces.
  • Large empires were also responsible for the exchange of architectural and artistic forms.
  • Another example was the capital of Akbar, Fatehpur Sikri, which was influenced by architectural styles from Malwa and Gujarat.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. How did the temples show the significance of the rulers in each area?

In addition to serving as places of worship, the temples served as symbols of the king’s opulence, strength, and devotion to his patron. These temples also served as miniature representations of the realms over which the king and his allies ruled. Temples were constructed in God’s honour, and kings were given titles similar to  God’s. The rulers frequently took the name of God since it was very lucky and even proved the king to be God. Rituals also indicated that one God was worshipping another.

2. What was the role of the river Yamuna in the layout of the new Mughal city of Shahjahanabad?

The new Mughal city of Shahjahanabad was laid out in a way that was significantly influenced by the Yamuna river. Shah Jahan acquired the riverfront garden that is included in the design of the Taj Mahal while he was building the largest architectural achievement of his reign. On the bank of the river, this Mausoleum made of white marble had a garden that faced south. This stunning piece of architecture was created by Shah Jahan to gain access to the river for the nobles. Only a select group of people were given access to this power, and the others were told to construct their homes away from the Yamuna River.