CBSE Class 7 Social Science History Revision Notes Chapter 6

CBSE Class 7 History Chapter 6 Notes – Towns, Traders, and Craftspersons

Towns, Traders, and Craftsperson Class 7 History Chapter 6 Notes goes into detail about administrative centres, temple towns, and pilgrimage sites; a network of small towns; small and large traders; crafts in towns, and so on. These towns tend to have so many distinct types of tourist attractions, such as temples and so much more. These notes effectively describe the towns, people, the change in fortunes of the towns, etc. It covers all of the concepts, terms, and explanations that can be easily referred to before an exam. Extramarks provides these concise notes for better understanding and facilitates adequate learning and grasping of important topics in students. Class 7 History Chapter 6 Notes provide students with an in-depth history of crafts in Indian culture. These notes are easy to access from the website.

Towns, Traders, and Craftsperson Class 7 Notes History Chapter 6

Access Class 7 History Chapter 6 – Towns, Traders, and Craftspersons

Administrative Centres 

  • The capital of the Cholas was Thanjavur, and was also known to be an administrative centre.
  • The perennial river, Kaveri, flows close to this lively town.
  • The Rajarajeshwara temple was built by King Rajaraja Chola and his architect, Kunjaramallan Rajaraja Perunthachan.
  • Several palaces include pavilions or mandapas.
  • The kings passed orders to the subordinates to hold courts in those mandaps.
  • The town is quite vibrant and has markets for trading grains, spices, clothes, and jewellery.
  • The wells and tanks are the sources of water supply for the town.
  • The sthapatis, or sculptors, are making well-crafted bronze idols and huge ornamental bell metal lamps near Swamimalai.

Temple Towns and Pilgrimage Centres

  • A significant model of urbanisation is represented by Thanjavur, a temple town. 
  • The country’s economic and social development is based on temples. 
  • The temples were given land and money to perform detailed rituals, serve priests and pilgrims, and manage festivals. 
  • The temples are visited by pilgrims who make donations as well. 
  • The temple custodians utilised their proceeds to finance businesses and banks. 
  • Pilgrimage centres have also gradually advanced into townships. The two prominent examples of such towns are Vrindavan and Tiruvannamalai.
  • In the 12th century, Ajmer was the capital of Chauhan kings and afterwards turned into the sub-headquarters under the rule of the Mughals. It is an important example of religious coexistence.

A Network of Small Towns

  • Many small towns emerged from large villages after the 8th century. 
  • These towns also consist of  Mandapika and hatta, or trading streets. 
  • Potters, toddy makers, smiths, stonemasons, etc., were some of the artisans found in these areas.
  • Zamindar usually compelled artisans, traders, etc., to pay taxes. 
  • The local temples, which were built by zamindars or by rich merchants, were given the “rights” to collect taxes from zamindars.

Small and Big Traders

  • The traders usually travelled in caravans and created guilds to protect themselves and their beliefs as they had to move through several kingdoms and forests.
  • The Chettiars and the Marwari Oswal were some of the known communities.
  • Gujarati traders as well as the communities of Hindu Baniyas and Muslim Bohras conducted their business with the ports of the Red Sea, East Africa, the Persian Gulf, Southeast Asia, and China.

Crafts in Towns

  • Goldsmiths, blacksmiths, bronze smiths, carpenters, and masons are part of the Vishwakarma community. 
  • The temple must be built by the community. 
  • The community played a significant role in the building up of the palaces, big buildings, tanks, and reservoirs.
  • The community of weavers called Saliyar or Kaikkolars, who prospered at this time, raised enormous sums for the holy temples.


  • In 1336, Hampi of the Vijayanagara Empire was established in the Krishna-Tungabhadra basin.
  • Hampi was a well-established city located in the  Krishna-Tungabhadra basin.
  • While building these walls, mortar or cementing agents were not used and the technique applied was to wedge them together by intertwining them.
  • The Mahanavami festival, also known as Navaratri, was one of the most important festivals celebrated in Hampi.


  • Masulipatnam town is situated on the delta of the river Krishna.
  • The Dutch and British Companies both tried to control Masulipatnam as it turned into the most significant port on the Andhra coast.
  • The fierce competition between several trading groups, including the Golconda nobles, Telugu Komati Chettis, Persian traders, and European traders, made the city populated and prosperous.
  • Golconda was conquered by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. The Europeans began searching for alternatives.
  • The company’s traders shifted to Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras.
  • Masulipatnam had lost its merchants and liveliness.

New Towns and Traders

  • The present nodal cities like Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta were established in the 18th century.
  • During the 16th and 17th centuries, European countries hunted for markets dealing with spices and textiles, which were popular in Europe and West Asia.
  • Virji Vora and Mulla Abdul Ghafur were great Indian traders who possessed several ships that competed with the English, French, and Dutch.
  • To gain control of the sea trade, certain European Companies utilised their naval power and compelled Indian traders to work as their agents.

An Overview of The Administrative Centres

Thanjavur was the capital of the Cholas and a significant example of the administrative centres. During the Chola dynasty, the Rajarajeshvara Temple was built near the Kaveri river. The town relied on the wells and the tanks for its water supply. The close-by towns of Uraiyur prefer to produce a particular cloth for the flags. Class 7 History Chapter 6 Notes briefly discuss more on these administrative centres.

Details of Pilgrimage Centres and the Temple Towns

Urbanisation in these temple towns took place in a specific pattern. They grew or expanded through this process. The temples are quite beneficial for the economy, and people can proclaim their devotion through these towns, which are devoted to deities and temples built in their respect. As the population of these towns grew, more priests, artisans, and other professionals were needed to help the towns develop.  A few other temple towns built like Somnath are located in Gujrat and Tirupati is located in Andhra Pradesh. Students can find detailed and descriptive information in the Class 7 History Chapter 6 Notes.

Understanding The Network of Small Towns

Numerous little towns surfaced all over the subcontinent starting in the 8th century. These towns were an outcome of larger villages, and they owned a mandi or a mandapika. Villagers would carry their goods to sell them in locations called Haat or Hatta. Students can learn all of these in detail in Class 7 History Chapter 6 Notes.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What are Hundis? ( As per class 7 history notes chapter 6)

A deposit made by a person is recorded in a note called Hundis.  A person can claim the amount deposited in another place by displaying the deposit document.

2. What is an emporium?

An emporium is a place where commodities from different production centres are purchased and sold.

3. Why was Surat called an emporium?

Surat in Gujarat was called an emporium of Western trade in the Mughal period, along with Cambay and Ahmedabad.

  • Surat was the archway for trade with West Asia through the Gulf of Ormuz. It was also known as the “Gate to Mecca,” as several pilgrim ships left ports from Surat. 
  • People of all castes and creeds lived in Surat and it was a cosmopolitan city.
  • The collapse of the Mughal Empire’s markets and production, Portuguese dominance of the sea lanes, and competition from Bombay, where the British Company relocated its headquarters in this century, caused Surat to suffer by the end of the 17th century.

4. What are the types of crafts in town?

The artisans of Bidar were renowned for their inlay work in copper and silver, which led to the creation of the name “Bidri.” The Vishwakarma society, also known as the panchalas, includes craftspeople who are important to the construction of the temple buildings, such as goldsmiths, bronze smiths, blacksmiths, masons, and carpenters. They played a significant role in the establishment of palaces, big buildings, tanks, and reservoirs. Weavers like the Saliyar or Kaikolars arrived as prosperous communities and distributed donations to temples.

5. When was the surge of commercial activity visible in India?

During the 16th and 17th centuries, European countries started exploring markets for spices and textiles. The East India Companies was established by the English, Dutch, French to enlarge their commercial activities within the East. This caused the development of new trades as the officials would compel Indians to act in the position of their agents. With the expansion of the political and commercial control of the British company, there was more demand for particular goods. This eventually led to the development of the textile industry, thus leading to the origination of new trades and traders.