CBSE Class 7 Social Science History Revision Notes Chapter 9

CBSE Class 7 History Chapter 9 Notes – The Making of Regional Cultures

In many ways, India is a diverse country. We associate people and places with the languages that they speak. For instance, if someone speaks Bengali or Punjabi, we will refer to them as being from the Bengal or Punjab regions. Furthermore, each region of the country has its own culture, traditions, food, and way of life. But have all of these regional cultures always existed? No, this is a misunderstanding. Regional cultures that we experience and follow today evolved through the blending of local traditions with ideas and values instilled by other regions. Old customs are still used in some cases, but they are changing through time and taking on new forms.

Extramarks Revision Notes make it easier to study the CBSE syllabus. These notes are prepared with the reference of NCERT books and are reviewed by subject matter experts. These error-free revision notes use simplistic and easy-to-understand language so that students can retain information longer, which is very useful for last-minute revision before examinations. 

The Making of Regional Cultures Class 7 Notes History Chapter 9

Class 7 Social Science – History Chapter 9 The Making of Regional Cultures Notes

The Making of Regional Cultures

An individual’s place of origin may be determined by the language they speak. It is common to associate each region with specific types of food, clothing, poetry, dance, music, and painting. Today’s culture combines local customs with beliefs from other parts of the subcontinent. Some traditions appear to be regionally specific, while others appear to be regionally consistent, and still, others derive from older systems and new forms.

The Cheras and the Development of Malayalam

  • The Chera kingdom was founded in the 9th century by the ruler Mahodayapuram.
  • This kingdom is an example of a language-based culture.
  • It originated in the country’s southwestern region, which is now known as Kerala.
  • Malayalam was widely spoken in this region. As a result, the Malayalam language and script were added to the ruler’s inscriptions.
  • It is the first instance of a regional language being used in official records in India. 
  • The stories of the Sanskrit epics were borrowed from Kerala’s temple theatre, which depicted the ruler’s admiration for the Sanskrit language.
  • Sanskrit was a major contributor to the flourishing of Malayalam literature in the 12th century.
  • The Lilatilakam, a 14th-century text on punctuation and poetics, was written in Manipravalam – which, in a real sense, means ‘precious stones and corals’.
  • Manipravalam is a combination of two languages: Sanskrit and Malayalam.

Rulers and Religious Traditions: The Jagannatha Cult

  • The Jagannath Cult is an example of a religion-based culture.
  • Vishnu is known as Jagannatha in Puri, Orissa.
  • Jagannatha was a local deity who was later identified as Vishnu after the local wooden image was created.
  • Anantavarman, a Ganga dynasty leader, chose Puri to build a shrine for Purushottama Jagannatha in the 12th century. In 1230, ruler Ananga Bhima III dedicated his realm to God and regarded himself as God’s “delegate.”
  • When the Mughals conquered Orissa, the Temple was controlled by the Marathas and the British East India Company. Assuming it would grant them authority over the locals. As a result, the Temple’s political influence is emphasised.

The Rajputs and Traditions of Heroism

  • The British referred to most of Rajasthan as Rajputana in the 19th century.
  • The Rajputs appeared to have dominated the area. Some Rajputs also live in other parts of India. However, the Rajputs have had a significant influence on Rajasthani culture.
  • One Rajput ruler was Prithviraj. Rajput rulers value heroism.
  • Rajput glory was immortalised in poetic poems and songs.
  • Rajput stories were recited by specially trained minstrels. They were meant to serve as role models for their successors. 
  • These stories piqued the interest of familiar people because they depicted dramatic situations and strong emotions such as loyalty, friendship, love, courage, anger, and so on.
  • Women also played important roles in these stories because they were involved in wars to win or protect women. Women are sometimes depicted as following their husbands’ heroic ideals, most of the time giving their lives in the form of Sati.

Beyond Regional Frontiers: The Story of Kathak

  • Kathak is derived from the word Katha, which means “story.”
  • The Kathaks was originally known as a caste of storytellers in North Indian temples. Their songs and dances were added to their storytelling.
  • As the Bhakti movement spread, Kathak began to evolve into a distinct mode of dance.
  • Rasa Lila was the name given to the stories of Radha and Krishna.
  • The practice of dancing in Mughal courts gave Kathak its distinctive style.
  • Kathak has two traditions, or gharanas, one in the courts of Rajasthan and the other in Lucknow.
  • Under the protection of Wajid Ali Shah, who was the last Nawab of Awadh, Kathak grew even more.
  • Kathak became well-established in Rajasthan, Lucknow, Punjab, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir, Bihar, and Madhya Pradesh after 1850.
  • Despite British opposition, courtesans continued to perform and were recognised as one of the six primary “classical” dance forms in India after independence.

Painting for Patrons: The Tradition of Miniatures

  • Miniatures are small watercolour expressions done on fabric or paper. Previously,  miniatures were done on palm leaves or wood.
  • It was used to delineate Jaina messages in Western India.
  • Skilled painters depicted court scenes, fight or chasing scenes, and various aspects of public activity in their compositions.
  • Mughal emperors Akbar, Jahangir, and Shah Jahan commissioned these painters.
  • They were regarded as gifts.
  • Mughal creative preferences influenced local Deccan and Rajput courts in Rajasthan.
  • Portraits of rulers and court scenes were painted, first by the Mughals and then by other rulers.
  • Miniature arts were also popular in the Himalayan foothills, which is now the state of Himachal Pradesh.
  • By the late 17th century, a scaled-down painting style known as Basohli had emerged. Bhanudatta’s Rasamanjari was the most noticeable piece.
  • The invasion of Delhi by Nadir Shah in 1739 forced Mughal artists to flee to the hills. They found ready buyers here, which resulted in the establishment of the Kangra School of Painting.
  • Later in the 18th century, Kangra artists adopted a new style that was influenced by Vaishnavite traditions. Kangra paintings were distinguished by their use of soft colours, such as cool blues and greens, and their lyrical treatment of themes.

A Closer Look: Bengal

  • Bengali is the language spoken by Bengalis, and it is thought to have Sanskrit roots. The natives, however, did not speak Sanskrit.
  • Business ties between Bengal and Magadha began to develop in the 4th-3rd centuries BCE, which may have contributed to the Sanskrit influence.
  • The Gupta emperors expanded their political control over North Bengal in the 4th century and increased their influence by bringing Brahmins there.
  • The local dialect was also influenced by the change in rulers.
  • Early Bengali literature was broadly classified into two types. One was reliant on Sanskrit, while the other was not.

Pirs and Temples

  • The Bengalis moved east in search of fertile land. The Mughals’ invasion and their presence here both had an impact on mosque construction and local population dynamics.
  • The Pirs were leaders in the community. They were also teachers and judges. Sometimes, supernatural powers are used to stabilise settlements.
  • Many of Bengal’s basic block and earthen-ware sanctuaries were built with the assistance of a few “low” groups of people. 

Fish as Food

  • Non-vegetarian food is generally avoided by Brahmins. However, Bengal Brahmins ate fish because fish was a significant food source for Bengalis living near rivers.
  • There are pictures of fish being prepared for the market and transported there on the walls of monasteries and viharas. 

Important Questions and Answers

  1. List the rulers of Bengal.

Ans. The following is a list of Bengal’s former rulers:

  • In the 8th century, Bengal became the centre of a provincial realm under the Palas.
  • Between the 14th and 16th centuries, Bengal was ruled by Sultans.
  • Akbar conquered Bengal in 1586, establishing the centre of Bengal Subah.
  • The administrative language was Persian, and the regional language was Bengali.
  1. What are the critical structural provisions of the Bengal sanctuaries? 

Ans. The two-roofed or four-roofed design of the covered hovels was replicated in the Bengali sanctuaries. This prompted the adoption of the good Bengali style in sanctuary construction. Four three-sided rooftops located on the four dividers progress to form an angle or a point in the somewhat more composite four-roofed design.

Temples were typically built on a square platform. The inside was uncomplicated. However, the external dividers of a few sanctuaries were decorated with various art, elaborate tiles, and earthenware tablets. 

  1. Why did Bengali Brahmins loosen the restrictions?

Ans. Bengalis consumed a lot of fish. It is land with easier access to rivers and the sea. Non-vegetarian food is generally avoided by Brahmins. However, Bengal Brahmins consumed fish because fish was a significant food supply for Bengalis living near rivers. Images of fish being dressed and taken to market are depicted on the dividers of sanctuaries and viharas.

  1. Describe the two kinds of Bengali literature.

Ans. There were two types of ancient Bengali literature. One was dependent on the Sanskrit language, while the other was self-contained. The first category includes Sanskrit literary translations. For example, the Mangal Kavyas, which managed nearby divinities and Bhakti writing, such as Chaitanya Deva memoirs, the head of the Vaishnava bhakti development. The second is the Nath literature type, which includes Maynamati and Gopichandra. These are the Dharma Thakur stories, as well as fairy tales, folk tales, and ballads.

  1. What exactly is Manipravalam? Give the title of a book written in that language.

Ans. Manipravalam means “jewels and coral,” and is thought to refer to the two dialects, Sanskrit and Malayalam. The Lilatilakam, a 14th-century text on punctuation and poetics, was written in Manipravalam, which word-for-word means “precious stones and corals.”

  1. Were the paintings created solely by the artists?

Ans. No, ordinary people paint as well. People who could paint also painted on floors, walls, clothes, and pots. These works, unlike the miniatures that have been meticulously preserved in palaces for centuries, have not been properly preserved. Ordinary people valued miniature paintings more than regular paintings for decoration or hobbies.

  1. What exactly are Pirs?

Ans. “Pir” is a Persian word that means “great help”. Pirs are local pioneers who are also instructors and adjudicators, and occasionally have extraordinary powers. They intended to balance out the neighbourhood. It included warriors, colonisers, several Hindu and Buddhist gods, Sufis, and other religious teachers, as well as animistic spirits. Pirs had their own shrines. 

  1. Give an example of how language has influenced culture.

Ans. The following are examples of how language has influenced culture:

  • Malayalam is the main language spoken in Kerala. As a result, the Malayalam language and script were added to the ruler’s inscriptions.
  • It is the first time in Indian history that a regional language has been employed in official documents.
  • The narratives from the Sanskrit epics were taken from the temple theatre in Kerala, which portrayed the ruler’s adoration of the Sanskrit language.
  • The most notable scholarly works in Malayalam, dating from the 12th century, are in Sanskrit.
  • The literary works in Malayalam flourished during the 12th century, thanks to Sanskrit.
  • The Lilatilakam, a fourteenth-century text about punctuation and poetics, was written in Manipravalam, which literally means “precious stones and corals.”
  • Manipravalam refers to two languages: Malayalam and Sanskrit. 
  1. What is animism?

Ans. Animism is the attribution of the living soul to plants, lifeless things, and everyday marvels. It is a framework that expresses plants and creatures as having a spiritual essence. It was an important part of ancient India’s profound education.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. How was fish taken as food in the Bengal region?

Food habits were heavily influenced by the availability of local items.The Bengal region produced a lot of fish and rice because it was a riverine plain.As a result, these items became prominent in Bengali cuisine. Furthermore, fishing has always been a popular occupation in that area. However, due to religious restrictions, the Brahmans were unable to consume it. However, as fish became more popular in the 19th century, Brahmanical authorities relaxed this prohibition.

2. Give some of the main architectural features of temples in Bengal.

Some of the architectural features that are significant in Bengali temples include:- 

  • The double roof has a Dochala, and the temples have four roofs called Chauchala. Dochala, which has just two hanging roof points on either side of a roof divided in half by a ridge, and Chauchala, which is a little more uncommon and has two roof halves that are fused into one unit and have a dome-like shape, are the two most prevalent types of roofs.
  • These temples were typically built on a square platform with very simple interiors.
  • The paintings, terracotta tables, and even ornamental tiles adorned the temples’ outer walls.