CBSE Class 7 Social Science Political Science Revision Notes Chapter 2

CBSE Class 7 Political Science (Civics) Chapter 2 Notes – Role of the Government in Health

CBSE Class 7 Political Science Chapter 2 Notes explain the role of government in the health sector. Healthcare is not accessible to everyone in India, irrespective of the availability of public and private health facilities. Class 7 Chapter 2 Political Science Notes will aid students in comprehending the function of the government in healthcare and the significance behind its formation. Chapter 2 Political Science Class 7 Notes also discuss what initiatives can be taken to improve the condition of health services in India.

Class 7 Political Science Chapter 2 Notes provide in-depth explanations of the concepts that allow quality revisions before the examination. Extramarks’ revision notes can be easily accessed from the website. These notes adhere to the updated CBSE guidelines and syllabus and are well-written by subject matter experts.

Role of the Government in Health Class 7 Notes Political Science (Civics) Chapter 2 Notes

Access Class 7 Social Science Chapter 2 Notes – Role Of Government in Health Notes

What is Health?

The welfare of the people is the primary motive of the government in a democracy. The health department is the most crucial part of welfare. It is quite challenging to fulfil the various health needs of people in India as it is still a developing country.

The ability of a body to avert any sort of illness and injury is health. To ensure good health, it is necessary that basic health standards are met. For example, a person consuming unclean water may fall ill even though he might not be having any underlying disease.

A person is more susceptible to illnesses due to unsanitary living conditions. Mental health conditions also play an important role when discussing health.

Healthcare System in India

  • The good health conditions of citizens and their welfare are maintained under the charge of the healthcare services and system of a country.
  • India has been considered to have an exceptional healthcare system, as it includes the largest number of medical colleges, numerous doctors, and a booming healthcare chain.
  • India is known to be the largest manufacturer of medicine and added to the healthcare system of India.
  • In spite of this, there are a number of people that still get affected by tuberculosis and malaria. Clean water is not available to all of the citizens and almost half of the children have no access to sufficient food and water.
  • Healthcare resources need to become better to overcome such difficulties. The healthcare system contains the necessary knowledge and expertise needed for successful implementation.

Private and Public Healthcare Systems

The healthcare system is classified into two sections:

  • The public healthcare systems
  • The private healthcare systems

The Public Health Service of India

  • A network containing government health centres and hospitals is known as the public healthcare system in India. They act as the associating link between rural and urban areas. This makes it easier for people to access medical treatment, both in urban and rural locations. They are capable and skilled to give treatment for general issues and specialised services.
  • Any type of care is given by the nurse and village worker from the village-level healthcare centres. They usually work as per the advice of a doctor in charge at the Primary Health Care centre.
  • In rural areas, the Primary Health Care centre gives several villages specific healthcare services.
  • Hospitals manage the health centres at the district level.
  • Numerous government hospitals and private hospitals are found in urban areas.

Private Healthcare Services

  • Private undertakings own and regulate private healthcare services.
  • Their sole motto is to earn profits and they are not in charge of providing services to the people of the country.
  • A huge number of private healthcare service centres such as private hospitals and private nursing homes are located in the cities.

Healthcare and Equality

  • India has gone through several major developments in numerous private healthcare service systems in comparison to the public healthcare service systems because of many reasons. One big disadvantage is that urban areas get more private services compared to the people living in rural areas.
  • Certain healthcare services are owned by private organisations, and their fees are more expensive. Everyone in the country cannot afford the high costs of healthcare. Private health services are needed by everyone, irrespective of their economic status. So people who belong to weaker economic backgrounds tend to borrow money.  
  • Government-owned hospitals usually have inexpensive alternatives whereas private services persuade profit-earning practices. Some instances of unethical practices being practised by doctors are normally seen in the private sector. They prescribe medicines, injections, medicines, etc, that are not needed.
  • As per the statistics, approximately only 20% of the population can afford the medicines needed in a private healthcare service centre for treatment.
  • In private hospitals, the treatment is expensive and can also become an economical burden on people. As per a survey, 40% of the people had to sell their property or borrow money to write off their expenses after they were admitted to a private hospital for some type of injury. This can prove to be burdensome for poor people and a reason for their distress.
  • The problem of undernourishment is faced by poor people as their food requirements are not met. Adequate housing and a clean and hygienic environment are not accessible to them. Therefore, poor people are more susceptible to falling ill than other people. In the private sector, the treatment’s cost affects their economic condition, making their situation even worse.
  • In remote places, there is a shortage of private healthcare centres. Therefore, taking advantage of healthcare services becomes burdensome for tribal people. 

What Can be Done?

  • Most people’s health is not given sufficient medical attention. The situation of the general public in terms of health conditions is dreadful.
  • It is the responsibility of the government to provide equal rights when it comes to healthcare services and to make them accessible to the citizens as per the Constitution. The health of poor and economically weaker sections of people are taken care of by the government.
  • Various government organisations include a few well-known strategies to address challenges with the healthcare system. Some of them include:
    • In Kerala, government funds are used to adequately plan the healthcare services required.
    • The Costa Rican approach was to prioritise healthcare spending over satisfying everyone’s basic health needs.

The Meaning of Health

The ability of a person to remain unaffected by illness and avert injuries is called good health. Certain factors such as dullness, inactivity, or anxiety affect our health along with diseases.

Health Care in India

Every country requires healthcare facilities like health centres, laboratories for various testing, hospitals, ambulance facilities, and blood banks. They aid in avoiding and treating illnesses. These facilities were started to deliver sufficient care and healthcare services to people. The foundation of healthcare facilities is usually qualified doctors, health workers, nurses, and other health experts. They are qualified to identify, advise, and cure illnesses.

India consists of numerous doctors, hospitals, and clinics. A structure of hospitals and health centres regulated by the government is considered to be the public healthcare system. It is capable of looking after the health of a huge portion of its population dispersed over several villages. Nonetheless, the government fails to give proper healthcare facilities to all citizens even after owning public healthcare systems.

Healthcare Under the Constitution of India

Access to healthcare is one of the fundamental rights mentioned in the Constitution. Right to Life involves healthcare given to each citizen and it is the main responsibility of the government to protect this right. The welfare of the people and healthcare facilities should be assured by the government to all.

There are primarily two types of healthcare facilities. They are as follows:

  • Public Health Facilities
  • Private Health Facilities

Public Health Services

Health centres and hospitals are part of public health services that are regulated by the government. Both rural and urban areas are covered as these centres are connected together. The village-level health centres consist of a nurse along with a village health worker who is well-trained in handling illnesses that are commonly diagnosed. They work at the Primary Health Centre (PHC) and report under the charge of doctors. Several villages are covered under these village-level centres. There is a district hospital that is in charge of all the village-level healthcare facilities in the district. Large cities mainly consist of several general government hospitals as well as specialised government hospitals.

Public health services are considered to be ‘public’ due to the following reasons.

  • The government establishes public hospitals and health centres for the citizens of the country.
  • The treatments are accessible to all by making the medical facilities available at a cheaper cost.
  • The main role of public health services is to take initiatives to avert the spread of diseases such as TB, jaundice, cholera, malaria, dengue, chikungunya, diarrhoea, etc.

Private Health Facilities

Privately owned hospitals and nursing homes are a part of private health facilities. They are neither owned nor regulated by the government. Patients who avail of private health facilities are charged heavily for the services.

Adequate Health Care for All: Need of the Hour

The number of private health services has gradually increased in India whereas no rise took place in public healthcare facilities. Thus, people avail of private services where the services are costly. Several malpractices are practised in certain private healthcare services to make more money. The medical expenses of a private healthcare service add to the burden on the middle-class and poor population of the country. Thus, the high cost of private healthcare services worsens their condition for them.

The Role of Government in Healthcare

Ensuring that all its citizens are provided quality healthcare services, particularly the poor and the weaker sections of society, is the primary responsibility of the government. The government is supposed to provide necessary amenities and aim to improve public health services. This will result in the advancement of the overall health condition of the country.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Who are medical tourists?

In many cases, foreigners come to India for specific medical treatments at hospitals that provide world-class services at a comparatively lower cost than what it would cost in their own countries These foreigners are referred to as medical tourists.

2. What are communicable diseases?

The diseases that are contracted from one person to another through various mediums like water, air, food, etc., are called communicable diseases.

3. What is OPD?

OPD is the abbreviation for Out-Patient Department. People are initially taken to an OPD and treated in a hospital rather than being taken to any special ward.

4. What are generic names?

Generic names are certain drugs’ chemical names. They aid in recognising the ingredients and are well-known around the world. For instance, the generic name of aspirin is acetylsalicylic acid.