# CBSE Class 8 Maths Syllabus

Mathematics will always be the most intriguing subject for many students since it requires logical thinking and presence of mind. However, a complete understanding of the concepts and practising sums on a regular basis can increase the analytical power of the students. CBSE Class 8 Math Syllabus is designed in a way that offers a preliminary stage of the competitive exams. If you want to score better in the board examinations, gaining understanding of the syllabus of Class 8 Mathematics is the beginning of everything.

CBSE students should start strengthening their base in Mathematics from an early stage. Students need to be regular and  attentive in their class lectures. Along with the NCERT textbook, students should solve questions from NCERT Exemplars to build a strong foundation. Practising the NCERT books is the best way, to begin with, strategic preparation.

## CBSE Class 8 Math Syllabus for 2023 – 2024 Examination – Free PDF Download

Math Syllabus For Class 8 CBSE is available on Extramarks. The students can download the syllabus from the link below and can gain a good understanding of the chapters along with the topics and formulas based on it.

## What Does 8th Class Math Syllabus Include?

The CBSE Syllabus for Class 8 Math includes a variety of chapters and the students need to have good grasp in each of the chapters in order to ace in the final examination. Let’s take a better look at the topics to have a better understanding.

 Chapter 1: Rational Numbers 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Properties of Rational Numbers 1.3 Representation of Rational Numbers on the Number Line 1.4 Rational Number between Two Rational Numbers Chapter 2: Linear Equations in One Variable 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Solving Equations which have Linear Expressions on one Side and Numbers on the other Side 2.3 Some Applications 2.4 Solving Equations having the Variable on both sides 2.5 Some More Applications 2.6 Reducing Equations to Simpler Form 2.7 Equations Reducible to the Linear Form Chapter 3: Understanding Quadrilaterals 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Polygons 3.3 Some of the Measures of the Exterior Angles of a Polygon 3.4 Kinds of Quadrilaterals 3.5 Some Special Parallelograms Chapter 4: Practical Geometry 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Constructing a Quadrilateral 4.3 Some Special Cases Chapter 5: Data Handling 5.1 Looking for Information 5.2 Organising Data 5.3 Grouping Data 5.4 Circle Graph or Pie Chart 5.5 Chance and Probability Chapter 6: Squares and Square Roots 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Properties of Square Numbers 6.3 Some More Interesting Patterns 6.4 Finding the Square of a Number 6.5 Square Roots 6.6 Square Roots of Decimals 6.7 Estimating Square Root Chapter 7: Cubes and Cube Roots 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Cubes 7.3 Cubes Roots Chapter 8: Comparing Quantities 8.1 Recalling Ratios and Percentages 8.2 Finding the Increase and Decrease Percent 8.3 Finding Discounts 8.4 Prices Related to Buying and Selling (Profit and Loss) 8.5 Sales Tax/Value Added Tax/Goods and Services Tax 8.6 Compound Interest 8.7 Deducing a Formula for Compound Interest 8.8 Rate Compounded Annually or Half Yearly (Semi Annually) 8.9 Applications of Compound Interest Formula Chapter 9: Algebraic Expressions and Identities 9.1 What are Expressions? 9.2 Terms, Factors and Coefficients 9.3 Monomials, Binomials and Polynomials 9.4 Like and Unlike Terms 9.5 Addition and Subtraction of Algebraic Expressions 9.6 Multiplication of Algebraic Expressions: Introduction 9.7 Multiplying a Monomial by a Monomial 9.8 Multiplying a Monomial by a Polynomial 9.9 Multiplying a Polynomial by a Polynomial 9.10 What is an Identity? 9.11 Standard Identities 9.12 Applying Identities Chapter 10: Visualising Solid Shapes 10.1 Introduction 10.2 View of 3D-Shapes 10.3 Mapping Space Around Us 10.4 Faces, Edges and Vertices Chapter 11: Mensuration 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Let us Recall 11.3 Area of Trapezium 11.4 Area of General Quadrilateral 11.5 Area of Polygons 11.6 Solid Shapes 11.7 Surface Area of Cube, Cuboid and Cylinder 11.8 Volume of Cube, Cuboid and Cylinder 11.9 Volume and Capacity Chapter 12: Exponents and Powers 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Powers with Negative Exponents 12.3 Laws of Exponents 12.4 Use of Exponents to Express Small Numbers in Standard Form Chapter 13: Direct and Inverse Proportions 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Direct Proportion 13.3 Inverse Proportion Chapter 14: Factorisation 14.1 Introduction 14.2 What is Factorisation? 14.3 Division of Algebraic Expressions 14.4 Division of Algebraic Expressions Continued (Polynomial / Polynomial) 14.5 Can you Find the Error? Chapter 15: Introduction to Graphs 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Linear Graphs 15.3 Some Applications Chapter 16: Playing with Numbers 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Numbers in General Form 16.3 Game with Numbers 16.4 Letters for Digits 16.5 Test of Divisibility

## Most Interesting Chapter of 8th Grade

One of the most interesting chapters of CBSE syllabus for class Mathematics is ‘Playing with Numbers’, Chapter 16. It consists of different Mathematical problems that require solving puzzles to get the right  answer. It is not just a fun way to deal with complex computation but also helps students to improve their analytical decision-making and reasoning abilities which are very important for competitive examinations as well as the  board exams. It offers a complete understanding of whole numbers, rational numbers, natural numbers and integers as well by playing with Mathematical puzzles.

### Marks Distribution of Class 8 CBSE Math Syllabus

The question paper for Class 8 Mathematics contains four different sets of questions based on marks. Each of these sets carries different marks and questions are set according  to marks, they vary from from short answer type to long answer type questions..

#### Level of Difficulty

 Difficulty level Marks (%) EASY 30 AVERAGE 55 DIFFICULT 15

#### Paper 1 – Summative Assessment 1 or Half Yearly

Chapter wise Weightage and Marks distribution

 Chapters Marks Rational Numbers 6 Understanding Quadrilateral 7 Playing with Numbers 3 Linear Equations in One Variable 6 Square & Square Roots 5 Cube & Cube Roots 6 Comparing Quantity 7

The total mark is 40 for this examination however; the Half Yearly examination marks and pattern can differ from school to school while most of them follow this standard CBSE pattern.

 Question Type Marks Number of Questions Total Very Short Answer 1 8 8 Short Answer – I 2 4 8 Short Answer – II 3 4 12 Long Answer 4 3 12 Total 19 40

#### Paper 2 – Summative Assessment 2 or Finals

Chapter wise Weightage and Marks distribution

 Chapters Marks Practical Geometry 8 Data Handling 8 Algebraic Expressions and Identities 18 Visualizing Solid Shapes 3 Mensuration 11 Exponent and Powers 6 Direct and Inverse Variation 8 Introduction To Graph 8

There will be no choice for overall questions however; the students will have the opportunity to choose between two questions of 2 marks, 3 marks and 5 marks for the questions.

 Question Type Marks Number of Questions Total Very Short Answer 1 10 10 Short Answer – I 2 6 12 Short Answer – II 3 6 18 Long Answer 5 6 30 Total 28 70

### Preparation Tips for Class 8 Math Syllabus

The NCERT Text Book for Mathematics in Class 8 is enough to embark on a fruitful preparation. However, the student has to invest enough time and practice to master the concepts from each chapter.

• Note down and practice recallingthe formulas every day
• Understand the concepts and apply the theories in solving the complex problems
• Find out CBSE important question from the textbook
• Solve sums from reference books to get CBSE extra questions
• Get the CBSE past years’ question papers and CBSE sample papers for Class 8 CBSE from Extramarks
• Once you are done with one chapter make sure to take CBSE revision notes to keep things in practice

Other than these you can also find the best quality study material from Extramarks which are curated by one of the most experienced and knowledgeable teachers in the field.

## Elementary Level

The development of the upper primary syllabus has attempted to emphasise the development of mathematical understanding and thinking in the child. It emphasises the need to look at the upper primary stage as the stage of transition towards greater abstraction, where the child will move from using concrete materials and experiences to deal with abstract notions. It has been recognised as the stage wherein the child will learn to use and understand mathematical language including symbols. The syllabus aims to help the learner realise that mathematics as a discipline relates to our experiences and is used in daily life, and also has an abstract basis. All concrete devices that are used in the classroom are scaffolds and props which are an intermediate stage of learning. There is an emphasis in taking the child through the process of learning to generalize, and also checking the generalization. Helping the child to develop a better understanding of logic and appreciating the notion of proof is also stressed.

The syllabus emphasises the need to go from concrete to abstract, consolidating and expanding the experiences of the child, helping her generalise and learn to identify patterns. It would also make an effort to give the child many problems to solve, puzzles and small challenges that would help her engage with underlying concepts and ideas. The emphasis in the syllabus is not on teaching how to use known appropriate algorithms, but on helping the child develop an understanding of mathematics and appreciate the need for and develop different strategies for solving and posing problems. This is in addition to giving the child ample exposure to the standard procedures which are efficient. Children would also be expected to formulate problems and solve them with their own group and would try to make an effort to make mathematics a part of the outside classroom activity of the children. The effort is to take mathematics home as a hobby as well.

The syllabus believes that language is a very important part of developing mathematical understanding. It is expected that there would be an opportunity for the child to understand the language of mathematics and the structure of logic underlying a problem or a description. It is not sufficient for the ideas to be explained to the child, but the effort should be to help her evolve her own understanding through engagement with the concepts. Children are expected to evolve their own definitions and measure them against newer data and information. This does not mean that no definitions or clear ideas will be presented to them, but it is to suggest that sufficient scope for their own thinking would be provided.

Thus, the course would de-emphasise algorithms and remembering of facts, and would emphasise the ability to follow logical steps, develop and understand arguments as well. Also, an overload of concepts and ideas is being avoided. We want to emphasise at this stage fractions, negative numbers, spatial understanding, data handling and variables as important corner stones that would formulate the ability of the child to understand abstract mathematics. There is also an emphasis on developing an understanding of spatial concepts. This portion would include symmetry as well as representations of 3-D in 2-D. The syllabus brings in data handling also, as an important component of mathematical learning. It also includes representations of data and its simple analysis along with the idea of chance and probability.

The underlying philosophy of the course is to develop the child as being confident and competent in doing mathematics, having the foundations to learn more and developing an interest in doing mathematics. The focus is not on giving complicated arithmetic and numerical calculations, but to develop a sense of estimation and an understanding of mathematical ideas.

### General Points in Designing Textbook for Upper Primary Stage Mathematics

1. The emphasis in the designing of the material should be on using a language that the child can and would be expected to understand herself and would be required to work upon in a The teacher to only provide support and facilitation.
2. The entire material would have to be immersed in and emerge from contexts of children. There would be expectation that the children would verbalise their understanding, their generalizations, their formulations of concepts and propose and improve their
3. There needs to be space for children to reason and provide logical arguments for different They are also expected to follow logical arguments and identify incorrect and unacceptable generalisations and logical formulations.
4. Children would be expected to observe patterns and make Identify exceptions to generalisations and extend the patterns to new situations and check their validity.
5. Need to be aware of the fact that there are not only many ways to solve a problem and there may be many alternative algorithms but there maybe many alternative strategies that maybe Some problems need to be included that have the scope for many different correct solutions.
6. There should be a consciousness about the difference between verification and proof. Should be exposed to some simple proofs so that they can become aware of what proof
7. The book should not appear to be dry and should in various ways be attractive to The points that may influence this include; the language, the nature of descriptions and examples, inclusion or lack of illustrations, inclusion of comic strips or cartoons to illustrate a point, inclusion of stories and other interesting texts for children.
8. Mathematics should emerge as a subject of exploration and creation rather than finding known old answers to old, complicated and often convoluted problems requiring blind application of un-understood
9. The purpose is not that the children would learn known definitions and therefore never should we begin by definitions and explanations. Concepts and ideas generally should be arrived at from observing patterns, exploring them and then trying to define them in their own Definitions should evolve at the end of the discussion, as students develop the clear understanding of the concept.
10. Children should be expected to formulate and create problems for their friends and colleagues as well as for
11. The textbook also must expect that the teachers would formulate many contextual and contextually needed problems matching the experience and needs of the children of her
12. There should be continuity of the presentation within a chapter and across the Opportunities should be taken to give students the feel for need of a topic, which may follow later.Syllabus for Classes at the

### Knowing our Numbers:

Consolidating the sense of numberness up to 5 digits, Size, estimation of numbers, identifying smaller, larger, etc. Place value (recapitulation and extension), connectives: use of symbols =, <, > and use of brackets, word problems on number operations involving large numbers up to a maximum of 5 digits in the answer after all operations. This would include conversions of units of length & mass (from the larger to the smaller units), estimation of outcome of number operations. Introduction to a sense of the largeness of, and initial familiarity with, large numbers up to 8 digits and approximation of large numbers)

### Playing with Numbers:

Simplification of brackets, Multiples and factors, divisibility rule of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11.

(All these through observing patterns. Children would be helped in deducing some and then asked to derive some that are a combination of the basic patterns of divisibility.) Even/odd and prime/composite numbers, Co-prime   numbers,   prime

### Integers

•     Multiplication and division of integers (through patterns). Division by zero is meaningless

•     Properties of integers (including identities for addition & multiplication, commutative, associative, distributive) (through patterns). These would include examples from whole numbers as well. Involve expressing commutative and associative properties in a general form. Construction of counter- examples, including some by children. Counter examples like subtraction is not commutative.

•     Word problems including integers (all operations)

### numbers:

•     Multiplication of fractions

•     Fraction as an operator

•     Reciprocal of a fraction

•     Division of fractions

•     Word problems involving mixed fractions

•     Introduction to rational numbers (with representation on number line)

•     Operations on rational numbers (all operations)

### Rational Numbers:

•     Properties of rational numbers. (including identities). Using general form of expression to describe properties

•     Consolidation of operations on rational numbers.

•     Representation of rational numbers on the number line

•     Between any two rational numbers there lies another rational number (Making children see that if we take two rational numbers then unlike for whole numbers, in this case you can keep finding more and more numbers that lie between them.)

•     Word problem (higher logic, two operations, including ideas like area)

### Powers

•     Integers as exponents.

•     Laws of exponents with integral powers

### Cubes, Cube roots.

•     Square and Square roots

•     Square roots using factor method and division method for numbers containing (a) no more than total 4 digits and (b) no more than 2 decimal places

am × bm

= ( ab

### Class VIII

•     Curvilinear and linear boundaries

•     Angle — Vertex, arm, interior and exterior,

•     Triangle — vertices, sides, angles, interior and exterior, altitude and median

•     Quadrilateral — Sides, vertices, angles, diagonals, adjacent sides and opposite sides (only convex quadrilateral are to be discussed), interior and exterior of a quadrilateral.

•     Circle — Centre, radius, diameter, arc, sector, chord, segment, semicircle, circumference, interior and exterior.

### 2-D and 3-D ):

•     Measure of Line segment

•     Measure of angles

•     Pair of lines

–      Intersecting and perpendi- cular lines

–      Parallel lines

•     Types of angles- acute, obtuse, right, straight, reflex, complete and zero angle

•     Classification of triangles (on the basis of sides, and of angles)

•     Types of quadrilaterals – Trapezium, parallelogram, rectangle, square, rhombus.

•     Simple polygons (introduction) (Upto octagons regulars as well as non regular).

•     Identification of 3-D shapes: Cubes,

Cuboids, cylinder, sphere, cone,

corresponding, interior, exterior angles)

### Properties of triangles:

•       Angle sum property (with notions of proof & verification through paper folding, proofs using property of parallel lines, difference between proof and verification.)

•     Exterior angle property

•     Sum of two sides of a it’s third side

•     Pythagoras          Theorem

(Verification only)

### Symmetry

•     Recalling reflection symmetry

•     Idea of rotational symmetry, observations of rotational symmetry of 2-D objects. (900, 1200, 1800)

•     Operation of rotation through 900 and 1800 of simple figures.

•     Examples of figures with both rotation and reflection symmetry (both operations)

•     Examples of figures that have reflection and rotation symmetry and vice-versa

### Representing 3-D in 2-D:

•     Drawing 3-D figures in 2-D showing hidden faces.

•     Identification and counting of vertices, edges, faces, nets (for cubes cuboids, and cylinders, cones).

•     Matching pictures with objects

(Identifying names)

(ii)       Opposite angles of a parallelogram are equal,

(iii)       Diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. [Why (iv), (v) and (vi) follow from (ii)]

(iv)        Diagonals of a rectangle are equal and bisect each other.

(v)        Diagonals of a rhombus bisect each other at right angles.

(vi)        Diagonals of a square are equal and bisect each other at right angles.

### Representing 3-D in 2-D

•     Identify and Match pictures with objects [more complicated e.g. nested, joint 2-D and 3-D shapes (not more than 2)].

•     Drawing 2-D representation of 3-D objects (Continued and extended)

•     Counting vertices, edges & faces & verifying Euler’s relation for 3-D figures with flat faces (cubes, cuboids, tetrahedrons, prisms and pyramids)

### Construction:

•     Given four sides and one diagonal

•     Three sides and two diagonals

•     Three sides and two included angles

•     Two adjacent sides and three angles

### Class VIII

prism (triangular), pyramid (triangular and square) Identification and locating in the surroundings

•     Elements of 3-D figures. (Faces, Edges and vertices)

•     Nets for cube, cuboids, cylinders, cones and tetrahedrons.

### reflection)

•     Observation and identification of 2-D symmetrical objects for reflection symmetry

•     Operation of reflection (taking mirror images) of simple 2-D objects

•     Recognising reflection symmetry (identifying axes)

### compasses)

•     Drawing of a line segment

•     Construction of circle

•     Perpendicular bisector

•     Mapping the space around approximately through visual estimation.

### Congruence

•     Congruence through superposition (examples- blades, stamps, etc.)

•     Extend congruence to simple geometrical shapes e.g. triangles, circles.

•     Criteria of congruence (by verification) SSS, SAS, ASA, RHS

### protractor, compass)

•     Construction of a line parallel to a given line from a point outside it.(Simple proof as remark with the reasoning of alternate angles)

•     Construction of simple triangles. Like given three sides, given a side and two angles on it, given two sides and the angle between

them.

•     Construction of angles (using

protractor)

•     Angle 60°, 120° (Using Compasses)

•     Angle bisector- making angles of 30°, 45°, 90° etc. (using compasses)

•     Angle equal to a given angle (using compass)

•     Drawing a line perpendicular to a given line from a point a) on the line b) outside the line.

### ONCEPT OF PERIMETER AND INTRODUCTION TO AREA

Introduction and general understanding of perimeter using many shapes. Shapes of different kinds with the same perimeter. Concept of area, Area of a rectangle and a square Counter examples to different misconcepts related to perimeter and area.

Perimeter of a rectangle – and its special case – a square. Deducing the formula of the perimeter for a rectangle and then a square through pattern and generalisation.

### Mensuration                  (15 hrs)

•     Revision of perimeter, Idea of

, Circumference of Circle

### Area

Concept of measurement using a basic unit area of a square, rectangle, triangle, parallelogram and circle, area between two rectangles and two concentric circles.

### Data handling               (15 hrs)

(i)       Collection and organisation of data – choosing the data to collect for a hypothesis testing.

(ii)      Mean, median and mode of ungrouped data – understanding what they represent.

(iii)        Constructing bargraphs

(iv)         Feel of probability using data through experiments. Notion of chance in events like tossing coins, dice etc. Tabulating and counting occurrences of 1 through 6 in a number of throws. Comparing the observation with that for a coin.Observing strings of throws, notion of randomness.

### Mensuration                  (15 hrs)

(i)       Area of a trapezium and a polygon.

(ii)       Concept of volume, measurement of volume using a basic unit, volume of a cube, cuboid and cylinder

(iii)        Volume and capacity (measurement of capacity)

(iv)         Surface area of a cube, cuboid, cylinder.

### Data handling                (10 hrs)

(i)       What is data – choosing data to examine a hypothesis?

(ii)       Collection and organisation of data – examples of organising it in tally bars and a table.

(iii)        Pictograph- Need for scaling in pictographs interpretation & construction.

(iv)         Making bar graphs for given data interpreting bar graphs+.

### Data handling                (15 hrs)

(i)       Reading bar-graphs, ungrouped data, arranging it into groups, representation of grouped data through bar-graphs, constructing and interpreting bar-graphs.

(ii)       Simple  Pie    charts   with reasonable data numbers

(iii)        Consolidating and generalising the notion of chance in events like tossing coins, dice etc. Relating it to chance in life events. Visual representation of frequency outcomes of repeated throws of the same kind of coins or dice.

Throwing a large number

of identical dice/coins together and aggregating the

### Class VIII

result of the throws to get large number of individual events. Observing the aggregating numbers over a large number of repeated events. Comparing with the data for a coin. Observing strings of throws, notion of randomness

### RELIMINARIES:

(i)       Axes (Same units), Cartesian Plane

(ii)       Plotting points for different kind of situations (perimeter vs length for squares, area as a function of side of a square, plotting of multiples of different numbers, simple interest vs number of years etc.)

(iii)        Reading off from the graphs

•     Reading of distance vs time graph

## 1. What types of questions are the easiest to score in Mathematics for Class 8 CBSE?

There are a total of four types of questions in Mathematics for Class 8 and out of those the ‘Very Short Answer’ type questions are considered to be the easiest ones. Each of the questions carries 1 mark only. However, there are questions for 2 marks as well. These questions are comparatively easy to solve and take only 1-2 steps. But the students need to be aware of the procedures.

## 2. Is Class 8 Mathematics important for higher studies?

Yes, it is definitely important to strengthen your base from Class 8 if you are looking forward to pursuing Mathematics in future. Basic Mathematics is for the students who are not looking forward to opting Mathematics in their higher studies. On the other hand, Standards Mathematics is more complex and applicable for students who wish to pursue Advanced Mathematics. Either way, Class 8 is considered to be the base of everything.

## 3. What are the main subtopics of the CBSE Class 8 Mathematics syllabus?

There are a total of 16 chapters in the Syllabus for Mathematics Class 8 CBSE. The important subtopics are given below,

• Number System: Rational Numbers, Powers, Squares, Square roots, Cubes, Cube roots, Playing with numbers
• Ratio and Proportion
• Algebra: Algebraic Expressions
• Mensuration
• Data handling
• Geometry: Understanding shapes, Representing 3-D in 2-D, Construction
• Introduction to graphs

The students are encouraged to have a strong hold over these subtopics to score more in the final examination.

## 4. Will there be any questions from Class 8 CBSE Mathematics in the Board examination?

Yes, the maximum number of questions on the boards comes from the NCERT textbooks for Class 8 CBSE Mathematics. Clearing the concepts thoroughly will bring more advantages for the students to possess a strong hold over Mathematics. Other than that, the students are recommended to follow the study material provided by Extramarks to acquire more comprehensive knowledge regarding the subject.

## 5. Which are the most important chapters from CBSE Class 8 Mathematics syllabus?

It is hard to call a few chapters important as the whole NCERT book is important. There are a total of 16 chapters in Mathematics and the subtopics are interlinked with each other. The question in the examination can come from any part of the syllabus and that is why every chapter is important. The students need to go through each of them in order to ace the finals.