CBSE Class 8 Science Revision Notes Chapter 1

CBSE Class 8 Science Revision Notes Chapter 1 – Crop Production and Management 

Class 8 Science Chapter 1 Notes will help students develop a detailed understanding of important concepts that support the significance of crop production and management. The Crop Production and Management Class 8 Notes by Extramarks enables students to comprehend the conceptual meaning of every topic to help them in their exam preparation. Since these notes are according to the recent CBSE Syllabus, Class 8 Chapter 1 Science Notes will prove to be a credible reference source. Subject-matter experts carefully curated these notes in simple and understandable language.

Extramarks is one of the best platforms that provides free NCERT solutions, notes, and other study materials for students. Students can easily access them from the website to help in the revision and to score excellent grades in upcoming exams.

CBSE Class 8 Science Notes Chapter 1

Introduction to Notes of Science Class 8 Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Science Class 8 Notes presents a detailed account of crop production and management. These notes discuss several topics, including the preparation of soil and the instruments used in examining the process. It also discusses other essential topics like manures, fertilisers and the steps involved in sowing with all the necessary information in a nutshell.

Class 8 Science Notes Chapter 1 also covers the traditional and modern methods employed in crop production and the processes involved in irrigation. In the end, it explains the harvesting and storage methods of different crops. 

What is a crop?

Crops are the same type of plants that are raised and farmed as a main source of food on large tracts of farmland.

Seeds that are sown at proper depths and distances produce an excellent yield of crops. A good variety of seeds is sowed after selecting healthy seeds. Seed drills are utilised for sowing seeds.

Farmers use organic manure and fertilisers to improve and replenish the soil. The use of chemical fertilisers has soared with the advent of new crop varieties.

The process of crop production includes the following:

  • Soil Preparation: Turning and loosening the soil is one of the most crucial steps in crop production. The process of loosening and turning the soil is generally known as tilling or ploughing.
  • Sowing: Seeds provide a healthy yield when they are sown at the right depth and distance. After the selection of healthy seeds, that variety of seeds is sowed to ensure higher crop production. Seeds are sown using a seed drill. 
  • Fertiliser and manure additions: The use of organic manure and fertilisers enhances the quality of the soil.  The usage of fertilisers and manures in agriculture has increased dramatically as a result of the introduction of new crop varieties.

Types of Crops 

Depending on the seasons, there are three primary types of crops in India- Rabi crops, Kharif crops and Zaid crops.

(a) Kharif Crops: The Kharif crops are sown from July to October, i.e., mainly during the rainy season.

Examples of Kharif crops include paddy, maise, soybean, groundnut, and coconut.

(b) Rabi Crops: Rabi crops are usually grown from October to March, i.e., during winter. 

Examples of Rabi crops include peas, wheat, grams, linseed, and mustard.

(c) Zaid Crops: The Zaid crops are usually sown and grown during summer between March to June i.e., between the period in which Rabi crops and Kharif crops are grown. Cucumber, pumpkin, tomato, and bitter gourd are a few examples of Zaid crops.

Practices of Crop Production 

The following are seven basic and essential agricultural practices that are followed while sowing  a crop:

  • Preparation of Soil: The first and foremost step in crop production is the preparation of soil, where the farmers loosen and turn the soil to increase its fertility.
  • Sowing: In this step, the farmers sow seeds of the crop in the soil.
  • Addition of Manure and Fertilisers: In the third step, manure and fertilisers are added to the soil to increase the essential nutrients for the growth and development of crops.
  • Irrigation: In this step, regular water is supplied to the crops at timed and regular intervals for their further advancement.
  • Protection from Weeds: In the fifth phase, all undesired plants are removed from the cultivated field to give crops sufficient access to space, nutrients, and light.
  • Harvesting: In the sixth step, farmers harvest crops in the fields when the crops become ripe. 
  • Storage: Once the crop is cut from the fields, proper storage keeps the grains safe from rats, insects, moisture, and other microorganisms. 

Quality of the Seeds 

The quality of the seeds of the crop is an important factor that determines the yield of the crop. It is usually tested by soaking them in water. If the crop seeds are dead and damaged, they become hollow and float on the surface of the water, whereas if they are good-quality crop seeds, they sink to the bottom. 

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. How were the traditional tools of agriculture effectively used?

‘Farmers prominently used traditional tools of farming before the advent of modern machinery of agriculture. They were mainly used for sowing crop seeds through a funnel-like structure. They would enter two to three tubes having sharp ends once the seeds were taken into the funnel. The crop seeds were placed in the position after the pointed ends of the tool pierced into the soil. Some common examples of conventional tools include scythes, sickles, ploughs, khurpa, bamboo sieves, pickaxes, and shovels.

2. Define agriculture.

The process of producing crops systematically so that one can produce food made from all sorts of plants that are cultivated is known as agriculture. The crops that are grown serve a variety of other uses in addition to food production. The two branches of study that are primarily concerned with the methods or procedures utilised to cultivate different types of plants and livestock are agriculture and animal husbandry, respectively. 

3. Differentiate between Manures and Fertilisers.

  • Manure is prepared from organic matter such as animal waste, human waste, and farm waste and is used as an organic fertiliser, whereas fertilisers are inorganic salts.
  • As the nutrient content is less in quantity, they have to be added in large quantities in the soil, while fertilisers are added in comparatively smaller amounts.
  • While manures are usually prepared at farms, fertilisers are manufactured and formulated at factories. 
  • While manures provide a lot of humus to the soil, fertilisers add chemicals to the soil and do not provide any humus. 


4. What is manure?

Manure is a decomposing form of dead plants and animals that are used for increasing soil productivity. It is an economical type of natural fertiliser. Human excreta can be utilised as manure in addition to decomposing animal and plant waste. A crop called green manure is grown primarily to increase the fertility of the soil. They are valuable elements of crop production measures. 

5. What is a fertiliser?

Chemical compounds used to improve crop production are known as agricultural fertilisers. Farmers often use fertilisers to enhance agricultural output. Apart from nitrogen and potassium, fertilisers also contain phosphorus, which stimulates plant development. Chemical fertilisers must dissolve in water to be absorbed by root hair cells. When used as instructed, fertilisers improve soil fertility and boost agricultural production.

6. What is crop production?

Crop production involves producing or growing crops for food and fibre. It encompasses all the tools and methods required to sustain and grow crops and hence, is an important part of the agricultural sector. All people rely on crops for food and the cultivation of crops helps to provide food for a country’s large population.  Other sectors, such as international trade, manufacturing, and transportation, also benefit from the expansion of agriculture.