CBSE Class 8 Social Science Geography Revision Notes Chapter 2

Class 8 Social Science Geography Revision Notes Chapter 2

CBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 2 Notes – Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation and WildLife Resources 

Class 8 Geography Chapter 2 Notes examine the various natural resources and how they affect people’s lives. Humans are surrounded by a variety of natural resources, such as soil, land, water, etc. These resources vary greatly from place to place and greatly influence the way of life. One may reside in a densely populated area, yet we find other places uninhabited or poorly populated.

Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Resources Class 8 Notes Geography Chapter 2

Access Class 8 Social Science (Geography) Chapter 2 – Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Resources


Land is one of the world’s most priceless natural resources. It covers only about 30% of the earth’s surface, and only a small portion of that is habitable. Rugged topography, steep mountain slopes, logging-prone lowlands, desert regions, and heavily forested areas are typically uninhabited or sparsely populated.

Uses of Land 

The land is utilised for many different things, such as farming, forestry, mining, building homes, creating roads, and building industries. Physical elements including terrain, soil, climate, minerals, and the availability of water all have an impact on how land is used. Technology and other human factors, such as population density, are equally important in determining the land-use model.

Types of Land 

Land can be divided into private and communal based on who owns it. Private land is owned by people, whereas community property is owned by the community for uses like foraging for food, fruit, nuts, or medicinal herbs. This communal property is also known as common resources.

Conservation of Land Resource

Population growth and the ever-growing demand have created fear of losing this natural resource, which has led to extensive deforestation and loss of arable land. As a result, it is necessary to confirm the rate of land degradation at present. Some of the strategies used to conserve land resources include afforestation, land rehabilitation, the controlled application of chemical pesticides and fertilisers, and the control of overgrazing.


Soil is the term for the thin layer of granular material that covers the earth’s surface. It is very connected to the land. The type of soil is determined by the landscape. Minerals, organic matter, and weathered earth rocks make up the soil. It happens as a result of changes that occur to these matters. The right proportion of organic matter and minerals makes the soil fertile.


A landslide is a significant shifting of rock, debris, or ground along a slope. They frequently occur together with earthquakes, floods, and volcanoes. An extended period of rain can cause large landslides that can momentarily restrict a river’s flow. Colonies downstream’s rupture may suffer harm as a result of the block’s formation. On hilly terrain, landslides are significant and widespread natural disasters that cause significant property damage and loss of life.

Mitigation Mechanism of Landslide Control

Science has advanced to the point that one can now know what causes landslides and how to control them. Here are a few standard methods for preventing landslides:

  • Hazard mapping helps identify landslide-prone locations. As a result, colonies can be built elsewhere rather than in these locations.
  • Create a retaining wall to prevent the earth from shifting.
  • Increasing the amount of vegetation cover to prevent landslides.
  • Landslides can be controlled by surface drainage measures such as precipitation and spring flows.

Factors of Soil Formation 

The climatic conditions and the makeup of the original rock are important factors in the development of soil. Further factors to take into account include topography, the function of organic matter, and the longevity of soil composition.

  • Climate: The rate of impairment and humus formation are influenced by temperature and rainfall.
  • Relief: The gradient and altitude affect how much ground accumulates.
  • Parent rock’s characteristics: It impacts a variety of properties including colour, texture, mineral chemistry, strength, and permeability.
  • Soil-formation time: The width of the soil profile depends on how long it takes for the soil to form.
  • The flora, fauna, and microorganisms: Influence how quickly the humus forms.

Degradation of Soil and Conservation Measures 

The biggest dangers to soils as a resource are soil erosion and depletion. A combination of natural and human factors can cause soil degradation. The following are some of the causes of land degradation:

  • Deforestation
  • Rain wash
  • Landslides and floods
  • Overuse of chemical fertilisers or pesticides
  • Overgrazing

Methods to Conserve Soil 

  • Mulching: A layer of organic material, such as straw, covers the exposed soil between plants. It aids in retaining moisture from the ground.
  • Contour Barriers: Fences are built along contours using stones, grass, and soil. For water collection, trenches are dug in front of the barriers.
  • Rock Dam: The water flow is slowed by stacking the rocks, preventing gullies and soil erosion.
  • Terrace farming: Crops can be grown on flat surfaces by creating wide, flat treads or terraces on steep hills. These reduce soil erosion and surface runoff.
  • Intercropping: To protect the soil from rain, various crops are grown in alternate rows and are planted at different periods.
  • Contour Ploughing: To allow water to descend the slope, a plough parallel to the contours of a hillside slope acts as a natural barrier.
  • Sheltebelts: Rows of trees are planted to control wind movement for protecting the vegetation cover in coastal and dry areas.


Water is a renewable and naturally occurring resource. Three times as much of the world is covered by water. Earth is known as the “planet of water” for this reason. In the early waters, life first appeared some 3.5 billion years ago. The oceans, which are home to a great variety of plants and animals, nonetheless cover two-thirds of the planet’s land area. However, ocean water is salty and not suitable for human consumption. Only about 2.7% of it is freshwater. Antarctica, Greenland, and more than 70% of these glaciers are located in hilly regions. Their location makes them inaccessible. Only 1% of freshwater is usable for humans and is accessible. It can be found in the surface waters of lakes, rivers, and groundwater as well as in water vapour.

Problems of Water Availability 

There is a severe lack of water in many parts of the planet. Most of Africa, West Asia, South Asia, parts of the western United States, northwest Mexico, parts of South America, and Australia as a whole all have freshwater problems. Nations that are situated in climate zones that are prone to drought face serious water scarcity concerns. For instance, variations in seasonal or annual precipitation, overfishing, and contaminated water sources can contribute to water scarcity.

Conservation of Water Resources 

Maintaining water resources for adequate and safe water supplies involves the steps listed below:

  • By adopting certain irrigation techniques, the scarce water supply may be maintained.
  • Drip-to-drip watering is beneficial in dry environments with high evaporation rates
  • The sprinklers irrigate the region by monitoring for water losses due to evaporation and infiltration.
  • To minimise water infiltration losses, the channels used in irrigation must be correctly doubled.

Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

The Biosphere, or narrow region where the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, and the atmosphere meet, is the only place where natural plants and fauna may be found. Living things depend on one another within the biosphere to survive. This vital system is also known as ecology. Animals, birds, insects, and aquatic species make up the fauna. In addition to eating insects, they also decompose. The vulture is a scavenger and an important environmental cleanser because of its ability to consume dead animals. Therefore, all species, big or tiny, play a crucial role in preserving the ecosystem’s biosphere, and wildlife.

Distribution of Natural Vegetation 

Temperature and moisture are the main determinants of vegetation development. Forests, grasslands, bushes, and tundra make up the four main forms of vegetation on the planet. Large trees grow in locations with a lot of rain, so forests are often found in areas with an abundant water supply. Tree size and density decline when moisture levels drop. In drylands, spiny plants and brush flourish in regions with little precipitation.

Conservation of Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

Plants support animals and, together, form a vital part of the ecosystem. Climate change and human interference have led to the loss of natural habitats for plants and animals. Many species are vulnerable or on the verge of being extinct. To counter this, many steps have been taken by countries around the globe.

Many countries have established legislation banning the trade in animals, birds, and the slaughter of these creatures. It is illegal to kill lions, tigers, deer, large Indian bustards, and peacocks in India. There is a long list of animal and bird species that are restricted from trade under the worldwide CITES convention. Preserving flora and animals is another ethical responsibility of a citizen. Also, Van mahotsav is an annual forest festival in India which is celebrated in the first whole week of July by tree planting for conservation of natural vegetation and wildlife.

Class 8 Social Science Geography Chapter 2 Notes

NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 2 Notes 

Class 8 Chapter 2 Geography Notes discusses that the environment has a variety of resources. The notes provide a thorough explanation of these resources and how humankind can benefit from them. Additionally, there are significant differences in the quantity and quality of these resources in other parts of the world. Following are the various resources, as mentioned in the chapter:


The land is the flat, unbroken area of the earth’s surface. Natural resources like this one are crucial. Though not all of the land on Earth is habitable, it still makes up about 30% of the planet’s surface. Regions with a lot of people live in plains and river valleys.

Conservation of Land Resources

Conservation of land resources is essential. Some of the practises adopted for the conservation of land resources are:

  • Afforestation
  • Avoiding activities that increase soil erosion such as overgrazing and the use of fertilisers and chemical pesticides.
  • Land reclamation


A thin layer of the granular substance known as soil covers the entire geographical area that makes up the surface of the earth. Every piece of land has a different sort of soil. It is dependent on many landforms. On earth, the soil is created through weathering from weathered rocks and organic materials.


Landslides, a dangerous type of natural disaster, frequently take place in connection with an earthquake, a flood, or a lot of rain. A big rock or debris moves down a steep slope during a landslide.

There are Some Techniques for the Mitigation of Landslides, Some of Them are

  • Mapping the regions that are prone to landslides.
  • Avoid building settlements in areas prone to landslides.
  • Increase vegetation cover to prevent landslides.

Soil Formation

Many factors play a vital role in soil formation. Some of them are:

  • Nature of parent rock
  • Topography
  • Regional Climate
  • The overall time duration for soil formation.
  • Role of organic matter

Conservation of Soil

Over the past few years, there has been significant deforestation due to construction and development. The soil is directly exposed to abrupt climatic variations and gradually deteriorates. All these have led to soil erosion. Soil erosion is another name for soil depletion.


Water is the most plentiful natural resource on Earth since it makes up three-fourths of the earth’s surface. Because of its salinity, the majority of this water is not useful. Only freshwater can be used for human consumption. Only 2.7% of all the water on Earth is freshwater. Glaciers and ice sheets contain more than 70% of this freshwater.

Conservation of Water Resources

Some of the measures  to conserve water are:

  • Afforestation will reduce surface runoff and subsequent water harvesting.
  • Sprinklers and Drip irrigation must be used for irrigation to avoid water wastage.

Natural Vegetation and Wildlife 

The chapter explains that wildlife includes birds, animals and insects. By eating insects, the birds serve as decomposers. The vulture functions as a scavenger, helping to clean the environment as it eats rotting and dead animals.

On the other hand, natural vegetation is reliant on rainfall and temperature. Forests, grasslands, tundras, scrubs, etc. are some of their different kinds.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Discuss the conservation of natural vegetation.

Protection and prevention of trees and plants for future use is known as the conservation of natural vegetation. Trees are a great resource for all living things. Without trees, life could not exist. Oxygen comes from plants and trees. They also manufacture valuable items such as wood for furniture, food, rubber, paper, and medicine. Therefore, protecting natural vegetation is crucial for future generations.

2. Describe land degradation and how it occurs.

Land degradation refers to a decline in the quality of the land as a result of various activities. Several factors can contribute to land degradation. Land degradation is caused by overgrazing by animals, excessive tree cutting, extreme climatic conditions, lack of rain, which renders the land unusable for cultivation, and deforestation.