CBSE Class 8 Social Science Geography Revision Notes Chapter 4

Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 Notes

CBSE Class 8 Social Science Geography Chapter 4 Notes – Agriculture

Agriculture is one of the most important sectors of the economy. The term ‘agriculture’ is derived from Latin, where the words “agri” or “ager” imply “soil” and “culture” means cultivation. Historically, this sector has provided food for over two-thirds of the Indian population.  Agriculture is a primary activity that includes rearing animals as well as growing fruits, vegetables, crops, and flowers. It is known that nearly 50% of people around the world depend heavily on agriculture for their livelihood.

Chapter 4 of the CBSE Class 8 Geography contains a thorough study of agriculture, the country’s main crops, various farming techniques, and the country’s agricultural development to date. Students can learn more about the chapter from the Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 notes. With the aid of the revision materials offered by Extramarks, they can gain greater knowledge of the subject and obtain higher marks.

Agriculture Class 8 Notes Geography Chapter 4

Access Class 8 Social Science Geography Chapter 4- Agriculture

Agriculture is the branch of science that deals with plants and the products they provide. The goods are valuable resources that can be used both as food and in other forms. Agriculture is also distinguished by its economic activity. In fact, it is the majority of people’s primary occupation in the riverine countries, which also includes India. The livelihoods of the other half of the world’s population also depend on agriculture.


Although plants can grow on any type of land, not all lands are suitable for agriculture. For agricultural activity to be properly carried out, specific topological and climatic conditions must exist.

Arable land is land that is suitable for crop cultivation.

Similar to other production systems, farm systems depend on inputs to yield the desired products.

Seeds, water, a suitable climate, fertile land, and other inputs are required.

The processes of ploughing, harvesting, sowing, and irrigating ensure that the input yields desired outputs.

Types of Farming

Farmers do not always follow the same practices, despite the fact that agriculture is practised all over the world. There are several variables that vary for different farms and have a big impact on this, including labour, geography, demand for produce, etc. Commercial farming and subsistence farming are the two main types of farming, and they both depend on these factors.

Subsistence Farming:

It is used in regions where there is a labour shortage for cultivating crops. They are not designed to fulfil the high production demands and make use of obsolete technology.

Types of Subsistence Farming: It is divided into two categories:

  1. Intensive subsistence farming, and
  2. Simple subsistence farming.

Intensive Subsistence Farming: In this style of agriculture, a small plot of land is cultivated using a few simple tools. Furthermore, it demands more labour than other farming techniques.

It is practised in regions with relatively long summers compared to other regions and fertile soil.

The main crop raised in this kind of farming is rice. Wheat, oilseeds, maize, and pulses are additional crops. Most of this farming is done in South Asia, East Asia, and South-East Asia.

Primitive Subsistence Farming: As the name implies, this is a traditional farming method in which farmers cultivate various plots of land all at once. Farmers then move to the next plot of land after harvesting one crop.

Shifting cultivation and nomadic herding are two main types of primitive subsistence farming.

Shifting Cultivation: It is used in areas with a lot of rain and dense forest cover. For instance, the Amazon Basin, Northeastern India, and Southeast Asia.

In this kind of farming, a farmer selects a plot of land and then removes all of the trees from it. The soil’s fertility is then increased by the addition of tree ashes to it. The farmer clears the area and grows crops there for as long as the soil retains its fertility. They then relocate to the following plot of land and carry out the process once more.

Nomadic Herding: Herding by nomads is primarily practised in the semi-arid regions of the Sahara, some parts of Asia, and in the arid regions of Jammu and Kashmir and Rajasthan.

Farmers choose a particular route for themselves because of the challenging climatic conditions in the area to survive. They practise herding in various locations along the same route in this way.

Commercial Farming:

It supports the raising of numerous crops and animals with the intention of selling them in the market.

A large portion of land is employed for the growing of sizable quantities of produce with the help of cutting-edge gear.

It demands a lot more money than subsistence farming does.

There are several forms of commercial farming as well, including:

Commercial grain farming, mixed farming, and plantation.

In commercial grain farming, large areas of land are used to cultivate crops for commercial interests.

Wheat and corn are produced through this farming.

It is primarily cultivated in Northern America, Asia, and Europe’s temperate grasslands.

Usually, a field in a sparsely populated rural area is chosen as the site for this.

Due to the challenging winter weather conditions, only one crop can be successfully cultivated.

Mixed farming: This technique combines the raising of animals for market sale with the cultivation of crops for market sale. This farming is done in places like Argentina, South Africa, New Zealand, Eastern USA, Southeast Australia, etc.

Plantation: Over vast areas, a single crop is grown continuously throughout the year.

Cashew nuts, coffee, tea, and rubber are the main plantation crops.

The farms or nearby factories can easily process the product.

Plantation farming is practised in Sri Lanka, India, Brazil, Malaysia, and other places.

Major Crops:

The world produces a diverse range of crops to suit the demands of a growing population. The following crops are essential:


It is a staple diet in tropical and subtropical environments.

The ideal climate should have high levels of heat, humidity, and rain.

Due to their capacity to retain water, alluvial soils are perfect for cultivating rice.

China is the country that produces the most rice, with India, Bangladesh, Japan, and Egypt coming in second and third.


It is consumed globally.

It needs bright sunlight during harvest, a moderate temperature, and rainfall throughout the growing season.

Loamy soil works best for growing wheat because it has good drainage.

Russia, Canada, Australia, India, Argentina, Ukraine, and the United States are major wheat-growing nations.


Corn is another name for maize.

It needs a climate with plenty of sunshine and moderate amounts of precipitation.

Fertile soil that drains well is necessary for the cultivation of maize.

China, North America, Russia, Canada, Brazil, Mexico, and India are the world’s top producers of maize.


Various crops like Jowar, Bajra, and Ragi are also included.

They can be grown on sandy soils or less fertile soil very easily. Their structure is tough.

The climate must have high to moderate temperatures and little precipitation.

Millets are grown in China, India, and Nigeria.


Climate requirements include 210 days with no frost, clear sunshine, little rain, and high temperatures. The best soil types for cotton cultivation are black and alluvial.

It is primarily grown in India, Pakistan, Brazil, the United States, and China.


It is often referred to as “golden fibre.”

It needs extremely high levels of precipitation, humidity, and temperature.

The best soil for growing jute is alluvial soil.

The two countries that produce the most jute are India and Bangladesh.


It is a beverage that is widely consumed everywhere.

Conditions for the climate: High temperatures and sufficient rainfall are required.

It needs loamy soil that drains well and hill slopes.

Brazil, Colombia, and India, are the top three producing countries for coffee.


Climate requirements include a cool environment with evenly distributed rainfall throughout the year.

It requires hill slopes and loamy soils with good drainage, just like coffee.

Tea harvesting involves a lot of labour-intensive tasks.

India, China, and Kenya, are the top three tea-producing countries.

Agricultural Development:

It is the advancement in agricultural production to satisfy the currently rising demand. Increasing food security is the logic behind this. Fertilisers, HYV seeds, and improved irrigation systems are all included in the development.

Farmers continue to employ traditional practices like bullock ploughing, tractors, and tube wells in developing nations like India.

However, developed nations like the USA differ greatly from developing countries. For instance, they test the soil and then send samples to the lab. Chemical fertilisers are used as a result of the Scientific Fertiliser Programmes that were implemented.

Important Questions and Answers:

  1. Discuss the disadvantages of shifting cultivation.

As soon as the fertility of the soil declines, which causes deforestation, farmers move to another patch of land that has high fertility.

As a result, soil erosion occurs and the likelihood of desertification rises. Both the natural environment and biodiversity suffer as a result.

It ruins watersheds, which are fundamentally very unprofitable.

It limits how intensively land is used and causes water pollution.

  1. Discuss the importance of agriculture.

In developing countries, agriculture makes up a significant portion of the national income; in developed countries, it makes up much less. It is crucial for both the animals’ and the population’s need for food and fodder. Agriculture helps to produce the surplus that may be sold. More people work in non-agricultural industries like mining, manufacturing, etc. as a nation develops. Agriculture grows, which results in an increase in a marketable surplus that the country can sell to other nations.

Extramarks’ Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 Notes are curated by subject matter experts according to the revised CBSE syllabus. These authentic and precise notes are easily available from the website. Therefore, by reviewing the Extramarks Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 Notes on Agriculture, they can prepare well for the test and can ace it with excellent marks.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is agriculture?

Agriculture is a fundamental activity that involves raising livestock as well as cultivating grains, fruits, flowers, and vegetables.

2. What are the different factors influencing agriculture?

The primary factors affecting agriculture are climate and soil topography.

3. Define plantation agriculture.

Plantation agriculture refers to a specific kind of farming practised for commercial gain in which a single crop—such as coffee, tea, cashews, rubber, etc.—is grown exclusively.