CBSE Class 8 Social Science Geography Revision Notes Chapter 5

Class 8 Geography Chapter 5 Notes

 CBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 5 Notes – Industries

Different aspects of daily life use a wide range of materials. These items are the result of manufacturing processes in which resources are converted into something suitable for human use or consumption. The tree that goes through the manufacturing process yields the books we use to write. Raw materials are the resources that are transformed into finished goods after going through the entire process of manufacturing. The products are manufactured in various industries, and the industries are classified based on ownership, size, and raw materials. Students will learn various terminologies and concepts about industries in India in CBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 5 Notes provided by Extramarks. The notes are concise and reliable as they are created by subject matter experts. Students will gain an in-depth knowledge of the subject before exams with these revision notes.

Industries CBSE Class 8 Notes Geography Chapter 5

Access CBSE Class 8 Social Science (Geography) Chapter 5 – Industries Notes

Overview of Industries

A manufacturing system consists of inputs, operations, and outputs. The inputs include labour, raw materials, and the price of land, transportation, power, and other forms of infrastructure. The various steps in the manufacturing process involve several actions that convert raw materials into completed goods. The outputs are the finished products and revenue is generated from these outputs. For example, in a cotton textile industry, the inputs are cotton, labour, a factory, and equipment. The operations include spinning, weaving, dyeing, etc., and the finished item is the shirt.

The three industries that are most important globally are iron and steel, textiles, and information technology. Unlike the long-lasting iron and textile sectors, information technology is a growing sector of the economy. Countries like Germany, the USA, China, Japan, and Russia are home to the iron and steel industry. India, Hong Kong, South Korea, and other countries have developed significant textile industries. The hubs of the information technology industries are Bangalore, India, and Silicon Valley, Central California.

Classification of Several Industries

An economic activity that is responsible for transferring to us some essential finished goods that are beneficial for use in our everyday lives is called an Industry.  For instance, cotton is used to produce a piece of cloth, and wood pulp is used to make paper and fabric made from cotton after going through several phases of the manufacturing process. Therefore, these processes benefit and utilise the raw materials to generate a valuable finished product. The classification of industries is done on the basis of ownership, raw materials, and size. These industries are mentioned below.

Based on Raw Materials: The type of raw material used here determines segregation.

  • Agro-based industries: The raw materials used by this industry are plant and animal-based products. Cotton textiles, jute textiles, and dairy products are examples of agro-based industries.  It includes:

i. Textile Industry: It is India’s sole industry that is both self-sufficient and comprehensive in the value chain. It produces industrial output, jobs, and foreign exchange.

A.Cotton Textiles: They unify those who work in agriculture, weaving, designing, ginning, packaging, spinning, sewing, and tailoring. Prior to the industrial revolution, cotton cloth was produced using looms or manual spinning wheels. The most important cotton-producing nations are the United States, China, India, and Japan. The first profitable mechanised cotton mill was developed in Mumbai in 1854.

B.Jute Textiles: India is the world’s biggest producer of finished jute products and raw jute. West Bengal is home to a number of mills, mostly along the Hugli river’s banks. The Indus Valley culture has used jute for textile production since the third millennium BC, which is most significant.

ii. Sugar Industry: India is the second-largest producer of sugar in the world. The production of sugar, its processing, and marketing are a few of the processes in the sugar industry. This sector of the economy is cyclical.

  • Mineral-based industries: The primary raw materials used by this industry are mineral ores. Many industries depend on the products of this industry. Iron extracted from iron ore is an example of this industry. It is further divided into:

i. Iron and Steel Industry: There are many different types of inputs, processes, and outputs in the iron and steel sector. Other industries use the output of this industry as raw materials. The necessary inputs are labour, capital, site, and other infrastructure along with raw materials including iron ore, coal, and limestone. Smelting is the process in which metals are extracted from ores by heating them over their melting temperatures. The development of the iron and steel sector sped up India’s industrial boom. The iron and steel industry provides the fundamental underpinning for almost all of India’s industrial sectors.

ii. Aluminium: The basic material used in this business is bauxite, which is melted. It has significantly increased in popularity and is India’s second-most important metallurgical sector.

iii. Chemical Industry: This industry group includes both small- and large-scale manufacturing in both the organic and inorganic sectors.As an illustration, consider Atul Limited, UPL Limited, and Tata Chemicals Limited.iv. Fertiliser Industry: These industries produce phosphate, nitrogenous, ammonium phosphate, and other forms of fertiliser.

iv. Cement Industry: The cement industry is the foundation of the construction industry. It is necessary for the building of industries, houses, bridges, and other structures. The urbanisation process benefits from the cement industry. Limestone, gypsum, and silica are heavy raw minerals used in this business.

vi. Automobile industry: It is involved in the production of three-wheelers, buses, cars, lorries, scooters, and multi-utility vehicles. This industry has a significant impact on the transportation industry. Bangalore, Delhi, Mumbai, Pune, and other cities all have thriving automobile industries.

vii. Information technology and electronic industry: The storage, processing, and distribution of information is managed by the Information Technology Industry. The Information Technology sector has become the most globally renowned industry. This is the result of a chain of technological, political,  and socio-economic events. The availability of resources, cost and infrastructure are main factors guiding the location of these industries.

This business includes a wide variety of goods, including computers, radars, cellular communications, televisions, and more. Additionally, it meets the demands of the telecommunications industry. It offers numerous work options in India. India’s electronic capital is Bangalore.

  • Marine-based industries: The raw materials used are the products derived from the oceans and seas. Industries cleaning seafood or producing fish oil are some examples.
  • Forest-based industries: The raw materials used are forest harvests. Pulp and paper, and furniture are examples of forest-based industries.

Based on size: Industries are categorised based on the amount of capital invested, the number of employees appointed and the volume of production.

  • Small-scale industries:  These types of industries require small capital investments and technology. Cottage industries are a type of small-scale industry where the volume of production is low. Basket weaving and other handicrafts are examples of cottage industries.
  • Large-scale industries:  these types of industries require higher capital investment. Technology is superior in large-scale industries, and volumes of production are large. The production of heavy machinery is an example of a large-scale industry.

Based on ownership: This categorisation depends on who owns and operates the industry. It can be as follows:

  • Private sector industries: These industries are owned and operated by individuals or an association of individuals. Reliance Industries Limited is an example of a private-sector industry.
  • Public sector industries: These industries are owned and operated by the appointed government. Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) is an example of the public sector.
  • Joint sector industries: These industries are owned and operated by the state and either individuals or an association of individuals. Cochin Refineries (1963) is an example of a joint sector industry.

Co-operative sector:  These industries are owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, common labourers, or both. Indian Farmers Fertiliser Cooperative Limited is an example of a cooperative industry.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is the meaning of the term ‘industry’?

The economic activities that are primarily involved with the manufacture of various items, the extraction of specific minerals, and other similar activities are referred to as an industry.

2. When and where was the first textile mill established in India?

The first textile mill was established in the year 1818, at Fort Gloster near Kolkata, India. It is no longer functioning in the country.

3. Why do groups of high-technology industries come together?

The reason why groups of high-technology industries come together is as follows:

  • For easy access, high-technology industries can be located near main roads/ highways.
  • The exchange of knowledge can benefit the firms and help them expand.
  • Amenities and services can be organised proficiently such as roads, car parks, and waste disposal.

4. Which Latin word has the term textile been derived from and what does the word mean?

The term textile is derived from the word “texere” and the word means ‘to weave’.

5. Why is steel referred to as the "backbone" of the modern industry?

Almost all of the items we use were created using equipment and tools made of steel or iron. Steel is primarily used in the construction of transportation vehicles such as ships, railways, trucks, and automobiles. It is used to make objects such as needles and safety pins. Steel equipment is used to extract minerals from the earth, steel pipelines carry oil, steel machinery is used to drill oil wells, and steel frameworks are utilised for massive buildings.

6. What are the factors affecting the location of an industry?

 The factors affecting the location of an industry are based on the following factors:

  • Raw material
  • Land
  • Water
  • Labour
  • Power
  • Capital
  • Transport
  • Market

The additional factors that affect the location of industries are the incentives provided by the government, such as subsidised power, diminished transport cost, and other infrastructure facilities so that industries can be established in underdeveloped areas.

7. What explains Mumbai's rapid growth in the cotton textile industry?

Mumbai’s expanding cotton textile industry can be attributed to a number of favourable factors, including the city’s humid and warm environment, the availability of quality raw materials, efficient means for importing machinery, and more.