CBSE Class 8 Social Science Geography Revision Notes Chapter 6

Class 8 Social Science Geography Revision Notes Chapter 6

CBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 6 Notes – Human Resources

The Government of India (GOI) established the Ministry of Human Resource Department (MHRD) in 1985 to offer a supportive environment for skill development. The general growth of our nation depends on the participation of every segment of the population. To evaluate and grow human resources, a foundation must be built.

Students can learn about the essential efforts taken by GOI to segregate the population based on factors like gender, age, skill level, education, etc., by going through the Class 8 Chapter 6 Geography Notes provided by Extramarks. These notes are curated following the latest CBSE Syllabus.

Human Resources Class 8 Notes Geography Chapter 6

Access Class 8 Social Science – Geography Chapter 06 – Human Resources


The greatest resource of any country is its people. Their abilities and skills transform nature into resources.

People are the foundation for a nation’s development.

Globally, there is an uneven distribution of human resources.

Population growth is a sign of abundant human resources.

Distribution of Population

Population distribution refers to how people are distributed throughout the world.

All around the world, there is an uneven distribution of the population. This is clear from the fact that only 30% of the planet’s land is occupied by 90% of the world’s inhabitants.

Population distribution is uneven, resulting in relatively dense populations in parts of Asia, Europe, and North America, compared to sparse populations in tropical deserts, high mountains, and equatorial woods.

China, India, the US, Indonesia, and Brazil are the world’s  five most populous countries. In reality, 60% of the world’s people live in just ten countries.

The majority of people reside north of the equator, not south.

Africa and Asia host three-fourths of the world’s population.

Density of Population 

It is a measurement of the population density within a given region of the earth’s surface.

Typically, it can be expressed in terms of per square kilometre.

In the world, there are 51 people per square kilometre.

South-Central Asia has the highest population density in the entire world, with Indonesia having the highest density.

The population density of India is 382 people per square kilometre.

Factors Affecting the Distribution of Population

  1. The following are some geographical factors that affect population distribution:
  • Topography: Plains with facilities for farming and other manufacturing activities, like the Ganga plains of India, are better suited for human settlements. As a result, plains are more populous than mountainous areas.
  • Water: Since freshwater is essential for living, people prefer to settle in areas with easy access to it, such as river valley regions.
  • Climate: Extremely hot or cold conditions, such as those in the Sahara Desert or the Polar Regions, are unsuitable for human settlements. They prefer to reside in areas with moderate climates that are neither too hot nor too cold.
  • Soil: Humans are drawn to fertile soils because they encourage agriculture. This explains why there are many people living in close proximity in the plains created by the Nile, Ganga, and Brahmaputra rivers, as well as the Hwang-Ho plains.
  • Minerals: People prefer to live in places with mineral deposits because they offer good employment opportunities. For instance, large populations have relocated to the Middle East since oil was discovered there.
  1. The social, cultural, and economic factors affecting the population distribution are—
  • Social Factors: More people move to places with better healthcare, housing, education, and other amenities. Take Pune, for instance.
  • Cultural Factors: The population is drawn to places of significant cultural and religious significance. For instance, a number of Hindus travel to Haridwar every year, and many of them choose to make their homes there for this reason.
  • Economic Factors: Industrial areas tend to attract the population because of their high employment opportunities.

Population Change

Population change is the term used to describe the shift in the population through time.

Population change occurs due to changes in three main factors: birth, death, and migration.

  • Birth Rate: The number of live births per thousand people is called the birth rate.
  • Death Rate: The number of deaths per thousand people is called the death rate.
  • Migration: The movement of people in and out of an area is called migration.

The natural growth rate is the difference between a nation’s birth and death rates. For instance, a drop in the death rate and an increase in the birth rate occurred after 1800 as a result of improved medical facilities and more food supplies. The population increased as a result.

On the other hand, when it comes to migration, either emigrants depart or immigrants arrive in a nation. The populations of both countries change as a result. For example, a significant portion of Sudan’s population is lost due to out-migration, whereas the USA obtains a sizable population due to in-migration.

Patterns of Population Change

Different parts of the world see population growth at different rates. The UN World Population Prospects Report of 2019 suggests that the world’s people are living longer as a result of rising life expectancy and declining birth rates, and an increasing number of nations are seeing their population sizes decline

While some nations are seeing population growth, others are not. By 2050, it is anticipated that the population of sub-Saharan Africa will have increased by 99%. Between 2019 and 2050, areas that may have slower rates of population growth include Oceania, except Australia/New Zealand (56%), Northern Africa and Western Asia (46%), Australia/New Zealand (28%), Central and Southern Asia (25%), Latin America and the Caribbean (18%), Eastern and South-Eastern Asia (3%), and Europe and Northern America (2%).

While the UK is seeing a fall in population, nations like Kenya are witnessing an increase. This illustration demonstrates that there is no connection between a country’s population and its economic standing.

According to the UN World Population Prospects Report of 2019, nine nations—India, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, the United Republic of Tanzania, Indonesia, Egypt, and the United States of America—will account for more than half of the projected growth in the global population till 2050.

India is anticipated to surpass China as the world’s most populated nation by 2027.

Birth and death rates are both important factors in population change. Population growth occurs when birth rates rise and death rates fall. The population continues to be balanced when the two rates are equal.

Population Composition

It refers to the demographic composition of the population in terms of factors like age, sex, health status, economic level, occupation, and literacy.

A population pyramid, commonly referred to as the age-sex pyramid, can be used to diagrammatically describe the population composition of a country.

In population pyramids, the total population is divided into several age groups, which are further subdivided into categories such as women and men.

The base of the pyramid represents birth rates and the proportion of children under the age of 15. The number of people over 65 makes up the top of the pyramid, which represents death rates.

Different nations have varying types of population pyramids—

  • Due to low birth rates, the first type of pyramid is narrow at the base. It broadens in the older age groups as a result of declining death rates. This can be seen in Japan’s demographic pyramid.
  • The second category of population pyramids comprises those with pyramids that spread at the base due to high birth rates and lower mortality rates in the younger age group. The reason it’s happening is that more children are being born than ever before, and more of them are becoming adults. For example, the demographic pyramid in India.
  • The third type of population pyramid includes those of the least developed countries. They taper out in the middle and are wider at the base due to high birth rates, which indicates greater death rates. For example, the pyramids of the populations of Kenya and Nigeria.

Important Questions and Answers

Q1. How do climate and water affect the population distribution of a place?

Ans: Climate and water affect the population distribution in the following ways—

  1. Climate: Extremely hot or cold climates, such as those found in the polar regions or the Sahara Desert, are unsuitable for supporting human settlements. They favour places with moderate weather that is neither too hot nor too chilly.
  2. Water: As water is required for survival, human settlement is mostly in areas with easy availability of freshwater such as the river valley regions.

Q2. Does migration cause a change in population size?

Ans: Migration leads to changes in the population size in these ways—

  1. Emigration: Emigrants are people who emigrate or leave their home country. Emigration has resulted in a decrease in the population size in some nations. For instance, the prolonged hostilities in Sudan caused the country to lose a substantial portion of its people.
  2. Immigration: Immigrants are those who move to another nation. Immigration has led to population growth in some countries, such as Australia.

Q3. Does topography affect population distribution among countries?

Ans: A major factor influencing population distribution is topography. Because they have the infrastructure for agricultural and other manufacturing activities, plains like the Ganga plains of India are better suited for human settlements. As a result, there is more population density in plains than in mountainous areas.

Human Resources: Class 8 Social Science Chapter 6 Summary 

India’s population is expanding at a startling rate. It also implies that the population’s varied traits are gradually changing. The MHRD was established by the GOI to monitor the potential of human resources. It is one of the greatest pillars supporting the economy of our nation. In fact, numerous firms from other nations are showing a great deal of interest in investing in Indian markets and industries. Chapter 6 Geography Class 8 Notes provides a detailed explanation of the value of India’s human resources. The key portions of this chapter are briefly summarised below.

Population Distribution 

Population distribution refers to a nation’s pattern of population distribution. As everyone is aware that there is an uneven distribution of the population. Major cities have the densest populations, whereas the most remote places have no human habitation.

The diversity of a nation’s topographies has an impact on how quickly people settle there. While plains and riverbanks are densely populated, diverse topographies such as high heights, deserts, marshes, etc., are least populated. More than 60% of the world’s population resides in just 10 nations, according to statistics. Students will comprehend the causes of such a wide population distribution through the Class 8 Geography Notes Chapter 6.

Population Density

The number of residents in a given area is used to calculate an area’s population density. One can gauge how crowded a region is and compare it to other regions by estimating population density. The average population density on our globe is 51 people per square kilometre, according to the most recent census figures. For further explanation, students can refer to Class 8 Political Science Notes (Geography) provided by Extramarks.

Factors Influencing Population Distribution 

As already discussed, many factors affect population density. It might be geographical or socioeconomic. Let’s quickly review these factors affecting population distribution.

  1. Geographical Features

These factors are based on topography and geographical locations.

  • Topography- The choice of a piece of land’s topographical features for settling down is based on how smoothly everyday life would be there. As a result, plain areas are most favoured, and hilly areas are avoided, as water resources are plentiful there, and plain regions are easily cultivable.
  • Climatic Conditions- Extreme weather renders a region uninhabitable. In spite of this, there are many communities that manage to survive in difficult circumstances by overcoming this obstacle. For this reason, only a few people live in deserts, mountains, arctic regions, etc.
  • Soil- Soil fertility is a requisite for raising food. As a result, river banks rather than marshlands are preferred for settlement. To take advantage of the fertile qualities of the plains, the majority of ancient civilisations were constructed alongside major rivers.
  • Water- The availability of water supplies is another crucial factor for population density. The development of a population in a specific location depends on the availability of water sources for irrigation. This is why more people live in river valleys or areas close to permanent freshwater resources. Additionally, seashores are highly populated. This is due to the occupation of the people living there.
  • Minerals- The diverse topographical areas are comparatively less populated than mining areas. This is also because of more occupational opportunities in mining areas.
  1. Social, Economic and Cultural Factors
  • Social Factors- Places with better residential and commercial facilities are more populated. This is why cities are more populated than villages.
  • Cultural Factors- Places with cultural significance tend to have a higher population density.
  • Economic Factors- The availability of employment and earning opportunities also affects population density. New Delhi is more populated than Ghaziabad as it provides more employment than Ghaziabad.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Why are villages less densely populated even when earning facilities are available?

A village often provides fewer opportunities for employment than a city. Additionally, the land is a primary resource needed for all occupations, including farming, animal husbandry, etc. The distribution of facilities in houses and cultivable land is also different in villages and cities.

2. Explain the need for measuring the population.

A nation’s population is measured to determine the traits, advantages, and disadvantages of its human resources. The knowledge is then put to use to create a better platform for the population to learn new skills and improve their lives.