CBSE Class 8 Social Science History Revision Notes Chapter 2

Class 8 History Chapter 2 Notes

CBSE Class 8 History Chapter 2 Notes – From Trade to Territory

A crucial subject of the CBSE curriculum is history. Students should study history to have a comprehensive grasp of the community, the country, and the world. As the country’s future citizens, students will impact society and manage the country in the future. For this reason, Indian history is included in the Class 8 Social Science curriculum by CBSE. This chapter introduces trading and territory notions in the Class 8 History Chapter 2 Notes.

The Class 8 History Chapter 2 Notes include information regarding the founding of the British kingdom.

From Trade to Territory Class 8 History Chapter 2 Notes

Access Class 8 History Chapter 2 Notes – From Trade to Territory (The Company Establishes Power)

Death of Aurangzeb

Aurangzeb was the last of the powerful Mughal emperors.

After his demise in 1707, a large number of Mughal governors (subadars) and great Zamindars started to exert their dominance and build local kingdoms.

As strong provincial kingdoms arose in various parts of India, Delhi was no longer able to serve as a productive centre.

East India Company Comes East

In 1600, the East India Company received a charter from British queen Queen Elizabeth I, giving it exclusive rights to transact business with the East.

This meant that the East India Company was the only business organisation in England that could compete.

As a result, the business would be able to purchase low-cost goods or raw materials and sell them for greater rates.

The Royal Charter, however, was unable to obstruct other European nations from acquiring access to Eastern markets.

India’s high-end cotton and silk products found a sizable market in Europe.

The price at which these products could be purchased ultimately increased due to competition among European businesses, which decreased the profits that could be generated.

East India Company Begins Trade in Bengal

The earliest British factory was built in 1651 along the banks of the Hugli River.

In addition to a storage area for the goods intended for export, the factory also contained the offices where the Corporation’s employees worked.

It began erecting a fort around the colony in 1696. Two years later, it bought zamindari rights to three villages from Mughal officials.

Additionally, it convinced the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb to sign a farman allowing the Company to conduct duty-free business.

Bengal suffered significant financial losses since firm officials refused to pay taxes even when they personally traded.

How Trade Led to Battles

Like other regional authorities at the period, the Bengali Nawabs reaffirmed their authority and independence upon the death of Aurangzeb.

They disliked the Company’s aggressive demeanour.

The Nawabs prevented the fortification of the Company’s warehouses.

Additionally, they required the rights to numerous towns to establish additional communities, which was necessary.

The Battle of Plassey resulted from this ongoing confrontation between the Nawabs and the corporation.

The Battle of Plassey

Sirajuddaulah succeeded Aliwardi Khan as the Nawab of Bengal.

The Company was concerned about his influence and wanted a puppeteer who voluntarily granted advantages and concessions in economic and other spheres.

Infuriated, Sirajuddaulah insisted that the Company stop meddling in the political affairs under his control, stop constructing forts, and pay the revenues.

Following the failure of the discussions, the Nawab marched 30,000 soldiers to the English factory of Kasimbazar, where they disarmed every British soldier and blockaded English ships while seizing the Company’s executives. They also shut down the warehouse and secured it.

Following the news of Calcutta’s defeat, Company authorities in Madras dispatched troops under Robert Clive’s leadership, who was assisted by naval fleets.

Lengthy negotiations followed with the Nawab. The Company’s army was finally led by Robert Clive in 1757 at Plassey when Sirajuddaulah attacked but was ultimately defeated.

The absence from combat of the soldiers led by Sirajuddaulah’s commander, Mir Jafar, was one of the key elements in Nawab’s defeat.

The Puppet Nawab

The Company was not yet prepared to assume administrative responsibilities. Its primary objective was to increase trade.

The Company dismissed Mir Jafar from his position and replaced him with Mir Qasim after he objected.

As a result of Mir Qasim’s complaints, Mir Jafar was reinstated, and he was forced out of Bengal and defeated in a fight at Buxar in 1764.

The Company demanded more money from the Nawab in order to pay for its battles, trading needs, and other expenses. The Nawab was obligated to pay Rs 5,00,000 per month.

The East India Company Gets Diwani of Bengal

The Mughal emperor finally appointed the Company as the Diwan of the Bengal territories in 1765. With this position, the Company could utilise Bengal’s enormous revenue resources which resolved a substantial problem they faced in the past. By the early 1700s, the Company’s trade with India had increased.

The Residents of the Company

At first, the Company had no desire to establish political power in India. However, they realised that without gaining political power, their trade would not thrive. Hence, they decided to take direct control of the situation. Once the Company had a firm grasp on Bengal’s government, Residents were appointed who were the agents or representatives of the Company. The Company meddled in the internal affairs of the Indian areas through these Residents. The Residents decided who will succeed the current leader and who will fill the administration positions. Through the subsidiary alliance, the Company prohibited the Indian emperors from retaining their armies. The army of the firm would guard them. However, this security came at a cost to the local authorities. When this method of covert diplomacy failed, the business resorted to outright military intervention.

Wars with the Company

Mysore was ruled by strongmen like Haidar Ali (1761–1782) and his well-known son Tipu Sultan (reigned from 1782 to 1799) as it developed. The Company purchased pepper and cardamom from the Malabar coast under the rule of Mysore.

In 1785, Tipu Sultan forbade local traders from doing business with the Company and halted the export of sandalwood, pepper, and cardamom through the ports of his country.

With Mysore, four wars were fought (1767-69, 1780-84, 1790-92, and 1799). The only battle the Company ultimately won was the Battle of Seringapatam. When Tipu Sultan was assassinated while defending his capital Seringapatam, Mysore was given over to the former ruling Wodeyar family, and the state was forced to join a subsidiary alliance.

The Company also sought to limit and ultimately abolish Maratha domination, which had begun at the end of the 18th century. The Marathas’ aspirations to rule Delhi were crushed by their defeat at the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761.

Wars against the Marathas continued in a sequence. There was no definite victor in the first war, which ended in 1782 with the Treaty of Salbai. The Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803–1855), which was fought on many fronts, allowed the British to invade Orissa and the northern Yamuna River regions, including Agra and Delhi. The final Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817–19) saw the end of the Maratha Empire.

The Policy of Paramountcy

The Company began an ambitious campaign of geographical expansion at the beginning of the 19th century. During Lord Hastings’ administration (1813–1823), a new “supremacy” policy was implemented. The Company argued that because of its supreme or paramount authority, it had more power than the Indian states. In 1843, Sind was resumed. Punjab was listed after that. However, Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s presence hindered the Company. After his passing in 1839, there were two extended battles with the Sikh empire. Finally, Punjab was annexed in 1849.

The Doctrine of Lapse

As Governor-General from 1848 to 1856, Lord Dalhousie oversaw the final round of annexations. He developed a strategy that became known as the “Doctrine of Lapse.” According to this notion, if an Indian chief passed away without leaving a male heir, his kingdom would “fall into decay,” or join the Company’s domain. Using this concept, the kingdoms of Satara (1848), Sambalpur (1850), Udaipur (1852), Nagpur (1853), and Jhansi (1854) were annexed.

Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 2 – From Trade To Territory Notes

Beginning of Trade In India

Many international trading companies visited India to conduct business. They looked for new areas to colonise and bought cheap supplies for their businesses. Various trading firms arrived from Portugal, France, England, and several other western nations. After Aurangzeb’s death in 1707, the East India Company was established under the Mughal governors’ and zamindars’ reign.

East India Company Comes to India

The most powerful trading organisation in India at the time was The East India Company. In 1600, this corporation travelled to India with a charter from Queen Elizabeth (the English ruler), giving them the exclusive right to conduct business in the East. According to the charter, they crossed oceans in search of less expensive goods, shipped them to Europe, and then allegedly sold them for a higher price.

They purchased items like pepper, cardamom, cloves, cinnamon, silk, and cotton, among others. Bengal was the location of the East India Company’s first ventures in 1651. The Company constructed a harbour around the Bengali factories in 1696. They started to control Bengal’s Company and seek greater concessions in trade.

Trading Transforms Into Battle

The Nawabs of Bengal began to face increased demands from the East India Company. Along with the kingdom, the Company sought to dominate the Bengal market. For the sake of the Bengali business market, the Nawabs refused to offer these concessions. These factors led to a dispute between the East India Company and the Bengali Nawab. This disagreement between the Company and the Nawab led to the Battle of Plassey.

The Battle of Plassey

In 1756, Sirajuddaulah succeeded as Nawab of Bengal. After learning about the Company’s approach, Nawab Sirajuddaulah requested that they refrain from meddling in political matters. The Company was not satisfied with the Nawab’s decision regarding the kingdom and business. In the Battle of Plassey, the Bengali commander supported the Company and opposed the Nawab. The Battle of Plassey was launched in 1757 when Robert Clive dispatched the Company’s soldiers against the Nawab. The Company defeated Sirajuddaulah. In 1765, the Company was appointed to serve as the Diwan of Bengal to utilise its resources and increase its trade.

East India Company Becomes The Ruler of India

Following the Battle of Plassey, the Company began pressuring the real Nawabs of Bengal and facilitated trade there. To eradicate all corruption in business management, the Mughal emperor selected Robert Clive as the governor of Bengal in 1764. The relationship between the Company and the kingdom of Bengal and other provinces underwent numerous changes between 1757 and 1857. The firm gradually began meddling in the political and economic affairs of other regions as well. The Company engaged in numerous conflicts, including the Battle of Buxar and four conflicts with the monarch of Mysore’s rival region. As a result, the corporation gradually took control of Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Agra, Delhi, Mumbai, and other states. The East India Company ultimately prevailed in the fight of 1857, taking control of 63% of the country’s territory and 78% of its people. As a result, the East India Company evolved from a British trade firm into a colonial territorial authority.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Why is it important to study the Class 8 History Chapter 2 Notes?

Reviewing the historical chapters in the Class 8 History syllabus by the Central Board of Secondary Education will help students know more about their past and important events. One such event is the beginning of the British Kingdom in India and its history. The East India Company’s transformation from a commercial firm to a hegemon is the focus of Chapter 2 of Social Science History for Class 8 students. This chapter must be read carefully by students. They should read the Class 8 History Chapter 2 Notes to get a clear understanding of this chapter. They can effectively revise and memorise timelines discussed in this chapter.

2. According to Chapter 2 of Class 8 History, what happened after Aurangzeb’s death?

The death of Aurangzeb, the last of the great Mughal rulers, nearly brought the Mughal empire to its knees. Aurangzeb was successful in seizing control of a substantial portion of North India. After his death, subadars and large zamindars of the empire started fighting to seize their dominance and divide the province. They established more compact regional kingdoms that were at battle with one another all the time. The British quickly took control of the region.