CBSE Class 8 Social Science History Revision Notes Chapter 6

Class 8 History Chapter 6 Notes

CBSE Class 8 History Chapter 6 Notes – Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners

Students will learn about the trades and industries that existed under British rule in this chapter of Class 8 History. The steel and iron industries are the only two industries covered in detail in this chapter. The modern world’s industrial revolution was greatly influenced by both of these industries. The mechanised production of these cotton textiles helped Britain establish itself as the dominant industrial nation in the 19th Century. Students who want to learn more about this chapter and the thriving steel and iron industries under British rule are advised to consult Extramarks’ Class 8 History Chapter 6 Notes.

Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners Class 8 Notes History Chapter 

Access CBSE Class 8 Social Science – History Chapter 6 – Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners

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CBSE Class 8 Social Science – History Chapter 6 – Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners Notes

The state of India’s crafts and industries under British rule is covered in Chapter 6 of the CBSE Class 8 History textbook. It primarily concentrates on the iron and steel industry and the textile industry. Both of these industries were crucial to the industrial revolutions that took place in many modern-day nations. Britain was considered the world’s top industrial power because of its mechanised cotton textile sector.

When the iron and steel industry in Britain began to expand in the 1850s, it became known as the “workshop of the world.” In the chapter, it is discussed how Indian weavers and iron smelters made a living during the British colonial era.

Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners Notes

The textile and iron industries made significant contributions to India’s industrial revolution and Britain’s success as the world’s factory. Students will examine the growth of these two industries and how they affected India’s political and economic climate at the time in Class 8 NCERT Social Science Class 8 History Chapter 6 Notes. They will also learn how colonialism impacted indigenous industries and crafts.

Indian Textiles and the World Market

India was the world’s top producer of cotton even before the British invasion. Indian textiles were well-known for their fine quality and superb craftsmanship.

Indian textiles were heavily traded in Southern, Western, and Eastern Asia.

When European traders finally learned about Indian textiles in the 16th century, they were impressed by their high quality.

India was the world’s largest producer of cotton textiles in the 1750s, and its products were prized for their exquisite craftsmanship and high quality. These cotton textiles were produced and traded in Central Asia, Western Asia, and Southeast Asia (Penang, Sumatra, and Java). Textiles were bought by European trading companies, who then sold them throughout the continent.

Words Tell Us Histories

India was where European traders first discovered fine cotton fabric. Arab merchants also sold this cloth in modern-day Iraq. Many Portuguese traders travelled to India in search of vital spices and cotton textiles. Students will learn more about India’s long history of producing cotton textiles in this section, as well as the distinctive nations that depended on India for these industries in this NCERT Social Science Class 8 History Chapter 6 Notes.

Indian Textile in the European Markets

The European traders did not welcome the fact that Indian textiles were in high demand.

In fact, Indian textiles were in such high demand that other textile merchants felt threatened. Due to their immense popularity, European traders started to protest and demanded that the import of Indian textile products be prohibited.

The British government finally passed legislation outlawing the sale of Indian textiles in their market in 1720. This ban was put in place to support Britain’s emerging textile industry.

Technology advancements in the textile industry were significantly influenced by the pressure of competition from the Indian textile industry. John Kaye’s invention of the spinning jenny in 1764 increased the textile industry’s productivity.

In 1786, Richard Arkwright invented the steam engine. This resulted in lower transportation costs for cotton products. These revolutionary advancements made it possible for the textile sector to start increasing accessibility and affordability.

Despite all of these developments, the Indian textile industry remained the market leader in Europe.

With the silver they exported, the traders would purchase goods from India. However, when the British assumed control of Bengal as the Diwan, they were able to import Indian textiles because of the money generated by population taxes.

Who Were the Weavers?

Those who were skilled in weaving often belonged to a group called weavers. For instance, the taant weavers of Bengal, the Sale, the Kaikollar, the Devangs of South India, the Julahas or Momin weavers of North India, and so forth.

Typically, weavers lived in areas where weaving was highly skilled. These abilities were handed down from generation to generation. Numerous groups, such as the Tanvi weavers, were well-known throughout North India. In northern India, even the Momin and Julahas were well-known. The first stage of this process was spinning where the charkha and the takli were used. This charkha was wrapped in a thread, which was then rolled on a takli at the same time. These weavers continued to spin the thread while weaving it into cloth. For coloured textiles, different methodologies were employed. This section provides a summary of Indian weavers.

The Decline of the Cotton Industry

The following factors contributed to the decline of the cotton industry.

  • The British textile industry expanded, making it competitive with the industries in India.
  • Due to the laws governing the import, textile products from India to Britain were subject to high taxes.

By the end of the 18th Century, textiles produced in Britain replaced Indian products in the markets of nations such as Africa, America, and Europe. The decline of the textile industry was brought on by a decline in demand.

The Indian textiles being sold were no longer being advanced for by European dealers or their agents. The weavers urged the government to help ease their suffering.

The situation significantly deteriorated when the British started selling their products in the Indian market. Indian consumers started buying British products, which led to a decline in domestic demand for the weaving sector.

Weavers were forced to leave their jobs to support themselves by moving to other cities, starting businesses in agriculture, etc.

Indians started to wear clothing made locally, which led to a boom in the nation’s textile sector during the battle for independence.

India’s Cotton Mills

In Bombay, India, the first cotton mill was established in 1854. Due to its geographic location and proximity to surrounding cotton plantations, it had grown into a prominent port for import and export. Once the mill was created, cotton from these fields was used as raw material.

All over India, mills were built in great numbers. A mill was constructed in Ahmedabad in 1861. By the start of the 20th century, 84 cotton mills had been erected in various Indian towns.

On the other hand, the indigenous Indian textile industry initially faced a number of obstacles. For example, Indian textiles were unable to compete with the market’s low-cost British goods.

The colonial British government chose not to take any action to safeguard the interests of the local textile business owners. The Indian textile industry experienced its initial expansion following World War I, when British imports were limited and Indian mills were assigned the job of producing uniforms for the troops.

As a result, there was a demand for labourers. Local artisans and craftspeople joined the textile mills to assist.

The Sword of Tipu Sultan and Wootz Steel

The legendary Tipu sultan’s sword became famous for both its creator and possessor. It was made of Wootz steel—a very hard steel that was smelted from Indian iron.

Before colonisation, India’s iron smelting industry was thriving. Smelters in rural communities used iron ore mined from forests to create it. The energy needed to smelt iron was also produced using charcoal from the forest.

However, India’s iron smelting industry was rapidly declining by the 19th Century.

Tipu Sultan’s sword has a strong, razor-sharp blade that is reputed to be particularly exceptional. This edge’s design is believed to make any kind of armour easily pierceable. The construction of Tipu Sultan’s sword is covered in this part of the chapter.

Abandoned Furnaces in Village

To refine the iron for use in the production of Wootz steel, a highly conceptualised process was required. In India, iron smelting spread throughout the late 19th century. This chapter explains abandoned furnaces in rural areas in detail.

Iron and Steel Factories Come Up in India

To locate iron ore deposits, an American geologist named Charles Weld and Jamsetji Tata’s son Dorabji Tata travelled to Chhattisgarh in 1904.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is Jamdani?

amdani is regarded as a fine muslin with sophisticated and elegant motifs. These designs are further separated on a loom, often in the colours of white and grey. A variety of gold and cotton threads are frequently used in these designs. The two most significant Jamdani centres were Dacca in Bengal and Lucknow in the United Provinces.

2. Describe Bandanna

A bandanna is a colourful, handmade scarf that is worn around the head or neck. The word originally came from the Hindi word “bandhna,” which means “tying.” It was related to a wide variety of vibrantly coloured clothing made using various dying and tying techniques.