CBSE Class 8 Social Science History Revision Notes Chapter 9

Class 8 History Chapter 9 Notes

CBSE Class 8 History Chapter 9 Notes – The Making of the National Movement: 1870s-1947

An important turning point in Indian history was the Indian National Movement. This period played a crucial role in helping India gain freedom. The entire movement took place over a long period of time to be successful. A variety of factors contributed to the formation of the National Movement. This chapter contains all the information students require regarding the National Movement and its development.

Extramarks Revision Notes present the entire chapter in an organised manner to help students feel comfortable with these topics, whether it be for a class test or the final exam. The difficult topics are explained in simple and easy language. To prepare for exams, students can refer to the Extramarks Class 8 History Chapter 9 Revision Notes.

The Making of the National Movement: 1870s-1947 Class 8 Notes History Chapter 

Access Class 8 Social Science Chapter 9 – The Making of The National Movement 1870’s-1947 Notes

CBSE Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 9 Notes – The Making of the National Movement 1870s – 1947

The National Movement stretched from around 1870 and ended with India getting its freedom in the year 1947. Following the establishment of numerous political organisations after the 1850s, the idea of the National Movement emerged. The majority of such organisations were formed between 1870 and 1880. Numerous reasons drove the Indian National Movement, which had a significant impact on how the nation would grow in the future.

Class 8 History Chapter 9 Notes

Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 9 is titled “The Making of a National Movement 1870s-1947.” This chapter is from Part 3 of Class 8’s History book. It discusses how India’s freedom struggle began and the circumstances that led to the rise of the nationalist movement in India.

People’s policies, Nawabs losing power, peasants and sepoys, replies to reformers, mutiny turning revolt, how the conflict extended from Meerut to Delhi, and the aftermath is comprehensively covered in this chapter. Simple explanations of each of these ideas are provided, along with any necessary follow-up inquiries and discussions.

Subject matter experts have prepared these Extramarks’ Revision Notes for Class 8 Chapter 9 History in points for quicker revisions.

The Emergence of Nationalism

The term “India” was first used to refer to all of its inhabitants, regardless of caste, class, religion, language, colour, or gender and the resources of the country were exclusively meant for its indigenous population. Conversely, the British colonial empire had its eyes on acquiring control of the vast treasure of resources and riches in India. Simultaneously, it took control of the lives of Indians. After 1850, a variety of political organisations were established, which contributed to recognising the several problems of the society under colonial rule. Among the most important political organisations during this period were The Indian Association, Poona Sarvajanik Sabha, Madras Mahajan Sabha, Indian National Congress, and the Bombay Presidency Association.

Students will learn in-depth about these associations and the emergence of the national association in this chapter. All of these organisations were critical to the functioning of different movements in various parts of India. Furthermore, each organisation had a specific goal to achieve. This subtopic will teach you the following two topics.

  • A Nation in the Making
  • Freedom is our Birthright

The Growth of Mass Nationalism

The tragic struggle against British authority became a popular movement after 1919. Tribal members, students, peasants, and women were all present in large numbers in this movement. Occasionally, these movements also included factory workers.

India’s political and economic climate suffered serious disruptions after World War I. The Indian government increased its defence budget as a result. Additionally, business profit taxes and individual income taxes were increased. The rise in military spending and demand for war supplies resulted in significant price increases, causing hardships for the general public. Business organisations, on the other hand, profited greatly from the war. The war increased demand for industrial commodities like jute bags, cotton, and rails while decreasing foreign imports. Thus, the Indian industry expanded during the war. Students will learn more about what happened in India after World War I.

  • The Advent of Mahatma Gandhi

Mahatma Gandhi was among the most popular leaders of the masses during the time. He arrived in India from South Africa in 1915. He organised non-violent protests against racism during his time in South Africa and replicated the idea of non-violence back in India.

  • The Rowlatt Satyagraha

In 1919, Mahatma Gandhi called for a Satyagraha protest against the Rowlatt Act. The freedom of expression and other fundamental Indian rights were curtailed by this law, which also increased police authority.

Along with these topics, students will also comprehensively learn about the following topics.

  • The Non-Cooperation Movement and the Khilafat Agitation
  • Initiatives of the People
  • The People’s Mahatma
  • The Events of 1922-1929

The March to Dandi

Around 1930, Mahatma Gandhi marched with his supporters in protest of the Salt Law. According to this law, the state had a monopoly on the manufacture and sale of salt. In this way, the Salt March connected all Indians’ shared sense of injustice with their shared desire for freedom. This greatly strengthened Indian unity and brought the poor and the rich closer. Gandhiji and his supporters marched for over 240 miles from Sabarmati to Dandi, a coastal town in India. They violated the law by making salt through evaporation. Men, women, peasants, and people from different tribes collectively attended this march to make it a huge success.

In this section of the chapter, students will learn more about the Dandi movement, the necessary acts, and the dates of this march. To learn more about this topic, they can read the Class 8 History Chapter 11 Notes.

Quit India and Later

“Quit India” is the title of this chapter’s last part. The third phase of the National Movement, popularly known as the Quit India movement, was started by Mahatma Gandhi. He was adamant that the British go out of India. By using phrases like “do or die,” he motivated the people of India to fight against the oppressive regime. He continued this nonviolent movement and attracted youths and peasants who gave up their formal education and jobs to fight for India’s independence. Students will learn more about the last major movement in India before independence in this section.

In 1940, India’s Muslim League demanded independent states for all Muslims. The league was founded in the late 1930s. It considered Muslims to be a separate nation from Hindus. The provincial elections in 1937 persuaded Muslims that they were a minority. As a result, Muslims perceived this as a threat. This section talks about India in the aftermath of its independence from British rule.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Why did Mahatma Gandhi break the salt law?

The British government gained control over the production and sale of salt through legislation. A tax was also levied on the sale of salt. Mahatma Gandhi thought it was unfair to tax salt, a staple food item. The Salt March was linked to the general desire for freedom as well as the specific injustice done to every Indian in terms of the right to manufacture and consume salt. Gandhiji began a march that resulted in the violation of the salt law. The Salt March was inspired by a desire for liberty shared by all people, rich and poor. Gandhiji and his supporters marched nearly 240 kilometres from Sabarmati to Dandi, where they defied official regulations by collecting and evaporating seawater to make salt. A large number of peasants, tribals, and women participated in the march. Pamphlets were published to document the Salt Satyagraha.

2. Write about different ways in which the Non-Cooperation Movement took place in varied parts of India. How did the people of India understand Mahatma Gandhi?

People in various parts of India reacted differently to the Non-Cooperation Movement.

  • Patidar peasants in Kheda, Gujarat, launched non-violent campaigns in response to the British’s high land demands.
  • The Khilafat call encouraged the Muslim traders and peasants of Sind (now Pakistan).
  • The Akali (Sikh) agitation in Punjab sought to mitigate corrupt Mahants from their gurudwaras. The British themselves supported these Mahants.
  • In Bengal, the Khilafat non-cooperation alliance provided the national movement with extensive communal unity and power.
  • In Andhra Pradesh, tribals and peasants staged a ‘forest satyagraha,’ even sending their cattle into the forests without paying the grazing fee.
  • Assam tea garden labourers demanded a significant wage increase. When their demands were not met, they left the British-owned plantations.
  • The British-backed Sikh Akali agitation in Punjab sought to remove corrupt Mahants from their gurudwaras.
  • Most people saw Mahatma Gandhi as a charismatic leader. They saw him as a leader capable of overcoming poverty and the misery of the people. Agricultural labourers expected him to provide them with land, while peasants expected him to assist them in their fight against zamindars. Gandhiji worked to promote class unity as opposed to class conflict.

3. Why were the people dissatisfied with British rule in 1870 and 1880?

The East India Company came to India for trade but quickly began to exert political control over the functioning of states. Some of the reasons are as follows.

  • The Arms Act of 1878 prohibited Indians from carrying any kind of weapon with them. People became more enraged as a result of this.
  • The Vernacular Press Act of 1878 gave Britishers the authority to control the press and to shut down any newspaper that published anything critical of the British government.
  • The Ilbert Bill proposed in 1883 was opposed by the colonial population as it allowed senior Indian judges to preside over cases involving the British settled in India. The settlers did not want Indian judges to hear cases involving British and European citizens. This controversy further escalated problems in the relationship between the Indian people with the colonisers.