CBSE Class 8 Social Science Political Science Revision Notes Chapter 10

Class 8 Political Science Chapter 10 Notes

CBSE Class 8 Political Science (Civics) Chapter 10 Notes – Law and Social Justice

Class 8 Political Science Chapter 10 focuses on the law and social justice system, primarily in the workplace. The law governing minimum wages requires that an employee get at least the minimum wage from their employer. Other regulations safeguard the interests of producers and consumers in the market. The rule prevents exploitation in the interactions between the three parties—the producer, the consumer, and the worker. By making, enforcing, and upholding laws, the government can regulate the actions of people or private entities.

The government can regulate the actions of individuals or private entities by enacting, enforcing, and upholding laws.

Students can refer to the Extramarks Class 8 Political Science Chapter 10 Notes to learn about these laws for social justice. These notes, curated by subject matter experts, are easily accessible from the Extramarks’ website.

Law and Social Justice Class 8 Political Science (Civics) Chapter 10 Note

Access CBSE Class 8 Political Science Civics Chapter 10 Notes– Law and Social Justice

Case Study

Consider a market situation. The issue of workers’ wages is a very significant one.

To make a profit, private companies, contractors, and businesspeople may deny workers’ rights and fail to pay them wages, which is illegal under the law. Furthermore, there is a minimum wage law in place to protect those workers from being underpaid.

Just as the minimum wage law protects workers, some laws protect the interests of producers and consumers in the market. Workers, consumers, and producers are all protected by law.


Step 1: Formation of Laws

  • Wages should not be paid less than the specified minimum wage, which is revised annually by the government. This law is intended to protect workers of all types.
  • Workplaces must have adequate safety measures, according to the law. Such as an alarm system, emergency exits, and properly functioning machinery.
  • The law requires that goods meet certain quality standards. Electrical appliances, for example, must meet safety standards. Consumers may suffer as a result of poor product quality.
  • The law requires that the prices of essential goods not be excessively high to ensure that the poor can afford these products.
  • The law requires factories not to pollute the air or water.
  • Workplace laws prohibiting child labour state that no child under the age of 14 should be employed in factories, mines, or other hazardous settings.
  • The legislation allows for the formation of labour unions or groups. Workers can unite as a group with the help of unions or groups, giving them the authority to demand better pay and working conditions.

Step 2: Implementation of Laws

  • The government must inspect workplaces on a regular basis and take appropriate action when laws are broken.
  • Controlling malpractices on a large scale will reassure social justice.

Case Study

Bhopal Gas Tragedy

On December 2, 1984, a facility owned by Union Carbide (UC) in the city of Bhopal started leaking a highly hazardous gas called methyl-isocyanate (MIC), which was used to manufacture insecticides. In three days, more than 8,000 individuals passed away, and many others were affected by the gas.Those who survived experienced significant breathing troubles, visual issues, and other health problems. Even among children, unusual anomalies begin to appear.

What is a Worker’s Worth?

Why Did Union Carbide Establish its Plant in India?

  • To reduce costs. Less expense equals more profit.
  • Labour is less expensive in developing countries such as India than in other developed countries.
  • Companies can force employees to work longer hours for less pay.
  • Supplementary expenses, such as money spent on workers’ housing, are also reduced.
  • Cutting costs can also be accomplished by lowering the quality of working conditions, which includes reducing safety precautions.

Case Study

Between 1980 and 1984, the number of workers at the MIC plant was cut in half, putting people’s safety at risk. Instead of six months, the workers received only 15 days of safety training. The workers’ safety was put at risk.

Comparison of Safety Protocols in Virginia, USA and Bhopal, India


  • To maintain plant safety and to keep track of accidents like gas leaks, computerised warning and monitoring systems were implemented.
  • The emergency evacuation strategies were carefully considered.
  • It was mandatory to properly treat polluted resources.


  • There was no automated monitoring systems present. It was completely reliant on manual gauges and human perception to detect gas leaks or accidents.
  • There were no emergency evacuation systems in place.
  • The Union Carbide (UC) plant was not concerned about the pollution caused by its operations.

Why is There a Difference in These Safety Standards?

The lower investment would result in lowered safety standards. Labour will not be accessible in industrialised nations like the United States if safety standards are breached. People in emerging nations with high unemployment rates, like India, prioritise employment over safety. The Bhopal Gas Tragedy victims weren’t even given enough compensation. Such employers manipulate the need for employment and the income of the people.

Enforcement of Safety Laws

  • What was the government doing when the UC plant was clearly violating safety standards?
  • The safety laws recommended as per the Constitution are not particularly strong or legitimate.
  • Even the weakest laws are not properly implemented.

In the Case of the Bhopal Gas Tragedy

  • The officials chose to ignore the UC plant’s hazardous nature.

Reason: Despite many municipal officials’ objections to the UC plant, citing the unsafe working environment, higher officials ignored them because the UC plant was a large investment that could provide more job opportunities.

  • Despite the fact that repeated gas leaks were clearly dangerous, government officials continued to approve the plant.

Reason: The proposal from factory officials to switch to a safer working environment was illogical. In this case, the interests of the people were disregarded by both the government and private businesses.

New Laws To Protect the Environment

  • The Bhopal gas disaster had an impact on a large number of worker-populated areas. People who inhaled the vapours from the gas leak, including local residents, were injured or killed.
  • Aside from protecting workers, the law must be enforced to protect the environment, for which the government rarely takes any action.
  • In India, up until the 1980s, the environment was a free right that anyone could exercise without regard for the consequences.
  • Environmental activists emphasised the points and urged the government to act quickly.
  • The government enforced laws prohibiting the use of the environment for solely industrial purposes. Any pollution caused by the polluter’s industry is held accountable.
  • The Right to a Healthy Environment was incorporated into the laws governing the Right to Life.
  • The Supreme Court of India maintained that the Right to Life is a Fundamental Right under Article 21 which includes the right to pollution-free air and clean water in a citizen’s life.
  • The government is responsible for monitoring pollution levels, keeping rivers clean, and imposing heavy fines on those who pollute.

Important Questions and Answers

  1. What laws did the US government impose on industries to ensure their safety?

Ans. To ensure plant safety, there were systems in place to monitor accidents such as gas leaks. The emergency evacuation plans were well thought out. The proper treatment of polluted resources was required.

  1. How do consumers and producers differ from one another?

Ans. Consumers are those who purchase goods for their personal consumption and do not resell them. A producer is a company or individual who manufactures products for retail sale. Sometimes the maker would keep the product for personal use. For example, a farmer might set aside some of his farm products for personal use.

  1. Why is a law requiring a minimum wage necessary? Why is it crucial for safety laws to be upheld in factories?

Ans: A minimum wage law is required to safeguard the interests of employees. Workers may not receive appropriate compensation from the employer for the work demanded. The Minimum Wage Act was designed to stop this from happening, and as a result, the government sets the minimum wage each year.

To protect workers and the environment, safety regulations must be strictly adhered to. Both the basic requirements of the workforce and their safety must be satisfied. Controlling industrial environmental contamination is also necessary.

  1. What are the pros and cons of foreign companies setting up manufacturing units and factories in India?

Ans. The pros and cons of foreign companies setting up manufacturing units in India are listed below.

Pros: They provide better employment opportunities for all classes of people. It improves the country’s economic development.

Cons: Companies take advantage of their employees. In the case of inadequate safety measures, government officials do not question the industry. This leads to catastrophic accidents. These organisations also end up endangering the environment’s well-being.

  1. What is a labour union?

Ans. It is a union that only represents workers. In addition to being popular in workplaces like factories and offices, workers’ unions are also common among other categories of employees, like the domestic staff. On behalf of the union’s members, the leaders bargain and negotiate with the employer on issues that include pay, work regulations, policies affecting employee recruiting, firing, advancement, benefits, and workplace safety.

Law and Social Justice Revision Notes

How is the government ensuring the law and social justice for society?

The following are some insights into how the government ensures proper rights, laws, and social justice in society.

A Worker’s Worth

Due to widespread unemployment in India, any worker can be easily replaced by another. Many workers are willing to work in dangerous conditions for a small wage. Because of this, even years after the Bhopal Gas Tragedy, reports of accidents at factories, mines, or construction sites are still common. These incidents are frequently the result of employers’ indifferent attitudes.

A worker’s worth is the value he or she has in the eyes of the industry in which he or she works.

Enforcement of Safety Laws

Safety regulations must be upheld, according to the administration. The government must make sure that Article 21 of the Constitution’s guarantee of the right to life is not disregarded.

Government oversight is at fault for such a catastrophic tragedy, as the Bhopal Gas Tragedy shows.

Government officials allowed the plant to be developed in a populous region, denying the fact that it was unsafe.

The government did not request that Union Carbide Corporation use cleaner technology or safer processes.

It was evident that there was a severe problem even after numerous instances of leaks from the plant. The procedures in the factory were still being approved by government inspectors.

Both the government and the private companies were ignoring safety.

New Laws to Protect the Environment

The environment was regarded as a ‘free’ entity, and any sector was free to use air and water without any restrictions. The Bhopal disaster brought the issue of pollution to light. In response, the Indian government enacted new environmental laws.

The right to life, which is a fundamental right under Article 21 of the Constitution, includes the right to clean air and water. Numerous court decisions have upheld the right to a healthy environment as a fundamental right to life. The government enacts laws and procedures to combat air pollution and water pollution to maintain clean rivers while also imposing heavy fines for violations.

The government regulates private enterprise activities by enacting, enforcing, and upholding laws to prevent all unfair practices and ensure social justice. The Bhopal Gas Tragedy showed that laws that are weakly formed and poorly enforced can cause serious damage to human life and the environment. Citizens must also pressurise both the government and private companies to act in the best interests of society.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Did the Bhopal Gas Tragedy victims receive justice?

The Bhopal Gas Tragedy victims were never given fair compensation. Safety regulations were disregarded by the manufacturing management, which caused the disaster. The affected individuals were legally represented by the Indian government, which asked for $3 billion in compensation on their behalf. However, the company made a 470 million dollar payment. Many are still fighting for justice after 36 years. Many households are still having trouble finding safe drinking water, jobs, and healthcare facilities despite receiving enough financial compensation.

2. How can legislation ensure that markets operate fairly? Explain with two examples.

Fair working conditions in markets can be ensured through proper legislation. Here are a couple of examples.

  • Right Against Exploitation: It states that no one can be forced to work for low wages or in conditions that violate any contract.
  • Child Labor Prevention Act: It states that no child under the age of 14 may be employed in any capacity, including domestic help.


The laws enacted by the government ensure that companies do not exploit or overwork their employees. It also keeps track of market prices for essential commodities such as kerosene, sugar, food grain, and so on.