CBSE Class 8 Social Science Political Science Revision Notes Chapter 3

Class 8 Political Science Chapter 3 Notes

CBSE Class 8 Political Science (Civics) Chapter 3 Notes – Why Do We Need a Parliament?

We Indians are proud of our democratic country. Parliament is the government’s legislative assembly. It is situated in New Delhi where the people’s representatives from all over the country meet, hold conferences, discuss all the issues faced by the people, and accordingly formulate new laws. The citizens of the country are involved in the decision-making processes of the country.

Class 8 Political Science Chapter 3 Notes elaborates on the ideas of equal participation in decision-making and the requirement to gain the consent of citizens for all democratic governments. Students will learn how the Parliament gives authority to Indian citizens to engage in decision-making and control the government, therefore establishing itself as the most prominent symbol of Indian democracy and a key aspect of the constitution.

Class 8 Political Science Chapter 3 Notes include an in-depth explanation of the democratic working of a country, the need and role of a parliament, the election of a cabinet and other ministers, the people and their representatives in. Students can utilise these notes from Extramarks to help them with their thorough revision.

Why Do We Need a Parliament? Class 8 Notes Political Science (Civics) Chapter 3

 Access Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 3 – Why Do We Need a Parliament? Notes

People and Their Representatives

  • Democracy was founded on the concept of consent, which meant taking into account the desires, approval, and participation of people.
  • The people decide how a government is run, and they set the rules that are followed.
  • As per this type of democracy, the citizens are really important. The government and other public associations require the faith of the citizens in them.
  • Individuals approve of the government through their votes during elections. People can freely choose their representatives and then one group out of several representatives forms the government.
  • All representatives together form a Parliament which would command and guide the government. In this way, people can be involved in the decision-making process through their representatives.

The Role of Parliament

The Indian Parliament was formed after the country’s independence in 1947. People actively participate in the decision-making process of the country. Parliament is deemed to hold a lot of power as it consists of the representatives of the people. Elections for both the state legislature and the parliament are held in the same manner. Once every five years, the Lok Sabha is appointed.

There are several constituencies in the country, and each constituency selects one person for Parliament. A Member of Parliament is the elected candidate, and all the members constitute the Parliament. All the candidates are part of different political parties that participate in elections. The parliament carries out several roles, such as

  • Selecting the national government – appointing the members of parliament.
  • Controlling, guiding, and informing the government – The members of parliament control, guide, and inform the government as they are the representatives of the people and are involved in the decision-making matters of the country.
  • Law-Making – Before a law is made, the draft is passed through both houses and after their approval, the action is taken.
  1. Selecting the National Government 

The President, Lok Sabha, and  Rajya Sabha constitute the Indian parliament.

Lok Sabha

  • A list is generated that displays the numbers of MPs that relate to each political party after the Lok Sabha elections. The winner and the party that constitutes the government is the political party that has the maximum number of MPs appointed to the Lok Sabha. There are 543 members, including two Anglo-Indian elected members in the Lok Sabha. To have a majority, a party shall comprise at least half of the total number of members, i.e., 272 members or higher. The opposition in parliament is the one that did not attain the majority in comparison to the political party that has the majority.
  • The crucial role of the Lok Sabha is to pick an executive.A group of people who collaborate to enforce the laws enacted by ParliamentThe Prime Minister is the leader of the majority party and rules the Lok Sabha.
  • The Prime Minister chooses the ministers in  Parliament to work with them and enforce the decisions. The ministers manage the different parts of government operations like health, education, and finance.
  • It is challenging for a single political party to attain the majority that is necessary to form a government. Therefore, several parties with similar interests come together to form a coalition government.

The Rajya Sabha

The Rajya Sabha is one of the houses of the Indian parliament. It is considered to be the permanent house of parliament.

  • It is made up of 233 elected members along with 12 appointed members by the President for their immense involvement in areas such as science, literature, art, etc. Several other members are appointed by the members of the state legislative assembly.
  • The Rajya Sabha members serve a term of 6 years, out of which one-third of their members have to retire every year.
  • Rajya Sabha is the Parliament’s official state representative for India. Its primary duty is to evaluate and, if necessary, change the laws proposed by the Lok Sabha.
  • A bill is passed after it has been approved by both the Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha houses.
  • To become a member of the Rajya Sabha, one must be a citizen of India, be at a minimum age of 30, and must have all the qualifications stated by the parliament.
  1. Control, Guide, and Inform the Government 

Parliament starts its session with a question hour. The Question Hour is an important procedure in which Members of Parliament can obtain information about the workings of the government. Parliament’s ability to monitor how the government operates and keep it from becoming arbitrary depends greatly on this. By asking the government questions and expressing the opinions of the people they represent, the country’s citizens’ representatives in  Parliament alert the government to its shortcomings.

The question hour is the important part of each session wherein the opposition plays a significant role as they question the policies and decisions of the government. They divulge the appeals of the people and the workings of the government. The question hour raises people’s awareness of many political, economic, and social issues as Indian citizens learn more about how the government works.

  1. Making of New Laws

The most prominent role of  Parliament is to make laws. The legislative assembly sends propositions to  Parliament in the form of bills. A Member of Parliament first presents a bill in  Parliament which goes through a process that is:

  • The bill is introduced in the Lok Sabha or Rajya Sabha.
  • Later on, the principles and provisions of the bill are briefly discussed.
  • After the discussions related to the bill, and rectifications, the bill is to be passed.

Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 3 Notes

What Do You Mean by Parliament?

Parliament is understood to be a structure of people’s representatives that includes the Central Government’s members. Every constituency in the country conducts elections wherein each member of Parliament takes charge of their responsibility after being elected. The Parliament of India consists of the President, the Lok Sabha—also known as the lower house, and the Rajya Sabha—also known as the upper house.

  • The Lok Sabha has 543 elected members, with 2 extra reserved for the Anglo-Indian community in India. Rajya Sabha comprises 245 members, of whom 12 people exceeding their excellence in the fields of arts, sciences, etc. are appointed by the President of India. The Bills move from one House of Parliament to another, which eventually become law after the President’s signature is placed on the bill.

As a result, Parliament serves as a venue for deliberations and debates over proposed laws before they become law, and what transpires there serves as a reflection of the political climate at play throughout the nation.

Why Do We Need A Parliament?

In a democratic nation, the parliament is made up of representatives of the people, who are chosen through a fair election procedure.  A nation like India, which has more than a billion people and many diverse languages and cultures, needs a parliament. Since it is impractical to fulfil everyone’s wishes and demands, the administration follows the majority. The MPs, who were chosen by the nation’s minorities, are also included in  Parliament. The main reason for the need for a parliament is the way in which it is inclusive, involving citizens in decision-making through their assigned representatives in the Parliament.

Functions of Parliament (Class 8)

The Parliament is of primal importance as it plays several roles in the political and overall functioning of a country. The functions of the parliament are:

  • Legislative Functions
  • Executive Functions (Control over the Executive)
  • Financial Functions
  • Electoral Functions
  • Judicial Functions
  • Other Functions

To Constitute the National Government

Parliament is a combination of numerous political parties, and the party with the majority of votes is the one that assumes responsibility as the governing party, also known as the government. The remaining parties are all the opposition to the ruling party, and this is how the national government comes to be selected.

To Select the Cabinet and Other Ministers

The Prime Minister is responsible for guiding the President and helping him/her delegate the government’s work to various ministers. One of the duties of the Prime Minister is to choose members of his/her cabinet and those who will take over the duties of the other ministries in accordance with his/her judgement.

To Select the Executive

The Executive is one of the most significant departments of the government.  Parliament has a major role in electing the members of committees and jurisdictions to be included under the Executive.

Keeping the Government in Check

Every session of Parliament begins with a question hour during which the members can learn more about how the government operates. This promotes democracy’s seamless operation and helps the government in fixing its flaws. Through their representatives in  Parliament, they can also learn about the opinions of the people. The approval of  Parliament is required by the government in all financial matters. As the representatives of the people, it is the duty of the Members of Parliament to direct, oversee, and inform  Parliament to ensure the welfare of the nation’s citizens. 

To Make Laws

Making laws is the prime role of  Parliament. It consists of the president and two houses, namely the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. Regular discussions and debates take place in  Parliament about which laws should be implemented, what problems are faced by the common people, how they can be solved effectively, etc. Bills are drafted in Parliament, and they pass from one house to another before they become law. Therefore, both house members’ standpoints are kept in mind before a law is formulated in the country.