CBSE Class 8 Social Science Political Science Revision Notes Chapter 7

Class 8 Political Science Chapter 7 Notes

CBSE Class 8 Political Science (Civics) Chapter 7 Notes – Understanding Marginalisation 

Class 8 Political Science Chapter 7 Notes discuss what marginalisation is and what efforts are made to promote equality in society. One of the roles of the democratic government in India is to identify the marginalised religions, castes, and sects to provide them with equal opportunities as the other citizens of the country. The constitutional rights are accordingly specified and amended for marginalised groups from time to time.

To understand this chapter well and attain conceptual clarity, students can refer to the Class 8 Political Science Chapter 7 Notes provided by Extramarks.

Understanding Marginalisation Class 8 Political Science (Civics) Chapter 7 Notes

Access Class 8 Political Science Civics Chapter 7 Notes – Understanding Marginalisation

Understanding Social Marginalisation

To be marginalised means to be on the outside of things rather than at the centre. For example, if your preference for music or films differs from that of others, you are unlikely to be considered ‘in’ by your peers. As a result, you frequently experience the impression that you are “not with them” and that what you say, feel, think, and do is not quite correct or acceptable to others.


The term “Adivasis” refers to the native populations or tribes who have lived and continue to dwell close to the forest.

Adivasis, or tribal people, make up about 8% of the Indian population.

The most significant small-scale industries, mining operations, and industrial hubs are located among Adivasi communities in places like Bhilai, Jamshedpur, Rourkela, Bokaro, and many others.

There are around 500 groups of Adivasis in India, particularly in the states of Gujarat, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Odisha, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh,  Rajasthan, and the north-eastern states of Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Manipur, Tripura, Assam, and Mizoram.

Odisha has 60 tribal groups, which are classified as scheduled tribes and scheduled castes. The Adivasi society is quite distinct because of the limited levels of hierarchy within it. This makes them significantly unique and different from the traditional societies that followed the jati-varna (caste) system or from those societies that were ruled by kings.

Different tribal religions are followed by the Adivasis, which involves praying to ancestor spirits, animal spirits, mountain spirits, village spirits, etc.

In various regions of Odisha, Assam, and West Bengal many Adivasis practised Lord Jagannath, Tantrik, and Shakti worship. However, throughout the 19th century, many of them converted to Christianity, which later became one of their primary religions.

They speak several languages that vary from the mainstream state languages. About 70% of them speak the Santali language, and many magazines and publications relating to this language are available on the internet.

Adivasis and Their Stereotypes

Adivasis are often stereotypically represented through their vibrant clothing, headgear, way of life, dance, etc. They are considered unusual or archaic because of their origin, which is that the community has been making efforts to accept new concepts and ideas to evolve and change with the times. For a more detailed description, For a more detailed description, refer to the Chapter 7 Political Science Class 8 Notes available on the Extramarks website.

Adivasis and Development

History of Adivasis

In India, forests played a fundamental role in the rise of all empires and early settlement civilisations. The majority of medical herbs, and animal products such as wax, lac, honey, metal ores like iron, copper, gold, and silver, as well as coal and diamonds, came from forests. Forests were essential to life’s continuation because they preserved the quantity and quality of air and water and replenished many of India’s rivers.

Up until the 19th century, forests covered a sizable portion of the nation, and the Adivasis had extensive knowledge of and authority over those forests. They frequently helped empires access the resources of the forests. The current perception of Adivasis being relatively marginal and powerless is in sharp contrast with this.

They were hunters during the pre-colonial period who were dependent on cultivation and agriculture, and led a nomadic life. With the emergence of the public and private sectors, they were forced to change owing to economic changes, forest policies, and political pressures. They had to switch jobs as workers in industries, construction sites, and domestic workers and were forced to leave the forest and its access. Most of the time, these lands were forcefully taken away from the Adivasis.

These forests were then cleared for agriculture and industrial processes like mining. Large portions of their land were submerged by water as a result of the construction of numerous dams in independent India. Their areas are still heavily militarised in the Northeast. India has 543 wildlife sanctuaries spread across 1,19,776 sq km and 101 national parks spanning 40,564 sq. km. These are sites where tribes once lived but were forced to leave.

Statistics suggest that tribal people make up more than 50% of those who have been displaced by mines and mining developments. According to a new survey study from organisations that work with Adivasis, 79 percent of those who have been displaced from the states of Andhra Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Odisha, and Jharkhand are tribal people.

After 1830, they moved to the States and foreign countries like Australia, Mauritius, and the Caribbean. Over 70 lakhs of Adivasis successfully launched a tea factory and became famous for it in Assam.

Adivasis have relocated to urban areas in search of employment, where they are hired for jobs that pay minimum wages in small-town businesses or on building or construction sites. They consequently fall victim to a cycle of exploitation and poverty.

Around 45 per cent of tribal groups in rural areas and 35 percent of tribal members from urban areas live below the poverty line. This causes a lack in other areas. Malnourished children are prevalent in tribal communities. Tribal literacy rates are likewise, quite low.

There is a connection between the social and economic aspects of tribal life. Naturally, loss in one area affects the other. When Adivasis are uprooted from their homes, they lose much more than just a source of income. It is a way of life brimming with tradition and ancient practices. This continuous process of eviction and migration is frequently violent and traumatic.

Adivasis Stepping towards Development

Adivasis were sheltered in places rich in mining areas, natural resources, minerals, and other industrial projects. With time, these forest areas were cleared for industrial and agricultural purposes.

According to sources, the beginning of mining ventures reportedly resulted in the uprooting of more than 50% of Adivasis. Independent India’s construction of multiple dams forced 79% of the residents of Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, and Andhra Pradesh to abandon their homes and ancestral lands.

The territories in northeast India, which were militarised to create 543 wildlife sanctuaries and 104 national parks covering 40501 km of land, were previously inhabited by tribal people. The tribe moved to towns in search of work and found employment in the local industries and construction sites since they were forced out of the forest and were unable to acquire food and shelter.

Adivasis now experience hardship and poverty, with 45% of them living below the poverty line in rural areas and 35% in urban areas. They also face problems such as unemployment, low literacy rates, malnourished children, the loss of traditions and customs, and other issues. For a more detailed description, students can refer to Class 8 Political Science Chapter 7 Notes.

Marginalisation and Minorities

Minorities refer to communities which are lesser in number. It is, however, a concept that extends far beyond numbers. It includes social and cultural aspects as well as power and resource accessibility in a country.

Communities that are small in comparison to the rest of society may have feelings of insecurity over their lives, possessions, and general well-being under specific circumstances. This unease could be worse if there are tense relations between the minority and majority communities.

The size of the community can be a disadvantage and may result in marginalisation because democracy usually favours the majority to form the government. As a result, the minority community needs to be protected to avoid being dominated by the majority. They need to be shielded from discrimination and other disadvantages that they might encounter.

The Constitution safeguards the cultural diversity of India and promotes equality, justice, security of life, property, and well-being of individuals while preserving harmonious relations between the majority and minority communities.

The judiciary is essential to maintaining the rule of law and enforcing fundamental rights. Every Indian has the right to go to court if they consider their fundamental rights have been violated.

Marginalisation and Muslims

Muslims constitute 14.2% of the total population in India, and they are considered a marginalised community because they have been denied equal opportunities and benefits given to other sections of society.

The social, educational, and religious circumstances of the Muslim community were assessed in 2005 by Justice Rajendra Sachar, who suggested that they be included among the marginalised groups like SCs and STs.


This chapter clarifies what it means to belong to a marginalised community through the eyes of several marginalised communities. As explained, marginality is often associated with disadvantage, prejudice, and helplessness.

Most religious groups and minority communities are marginalised for various reasons. However, marginalisation is not the same for everyone. Being marginalised causes one to have a low social position and unequal access to resources, including education.

Marginalisation is a complex idea that necessitates several protections and preventative measures to address the issue. Such people desire to preserve their cultural individuality with equal access to opportunities, growth, and fundamental rights. To preserve the country’s equality, diversity, and distinctiveness, people must uphold the rights, laws, and policies outlined in the constitution.

The next chapter will discuss how different groups challenged marginalisation.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Define minorities.

The communities that are numerically smaller than the major communities of a population are called minorities.

2. Discuss the Adivasis.

Tribal people who live in close association with forests in remote areas are referred to as Adivasis. The word ‘Adivasi’ stands for people who have been living since ancient times. The following factors contribute to the marginalisation of Adivasis.

  • The indigenous people were compelled to go to the cities in search of a job and a way of life when the government started building numerous new projects and enterprises.
  • In many regions, the Adivasis ended up losing claim to their own forest lands since the government introduced and changed several forest laws and regulations.

3. In India, why are some communities marginalised?

The following are some of the many causes of the marginalisation of several communities in India.

  • Some populations are marginalised because they practise two different religions, speak a different language, or have distinctive customs.
  • Because they are poor, they are often considered communities of the lower class and are deprived of several social benefits in comparison to the majority.
  • In several cases, the government also plays the role of manipulating these communities and benefits from social and political gains by influencing them.

4. What does marginalisation mean?

Marginalisation is the state of being confined to a lesser status in society, or not being considered to be in the centre of things and rather being sidelined. When people with lower social and economic status are denied access to fundamental rights, a circumstance in which a social group is compelled to live in seclusion from the majority, they are considered to be marginalised. This section does not have equal opportunities for social and economic growth.