CBSE Class 8 Social Science Political Science Revision Notes Chapter 8

Class 8 Political Science Chapter 8 Notes

CBSE Class 8 Political Science (Civics) Chapter 8 Notes – Confronting Marginalisation

People experience inequality and discrimination based on their gender, caste, religion, social status, etc. Some marginalised groups in our society have struggled, protested, and fought against being rejected, abused, or dominated by other social groups. These groups include Dalits, Adivasi communities, ST & SC, and other minority communities. Chapter 8 of Class 8 Political Science talks about how laws help prevent the exploitation of certain marginalised groups and assure them of their rights.

Students have already learned in the previous chapters about the various exploited groups and the experiences of inequality they faced. These groups frequently voiced their opposition to the exclusion or dominance they experienced through the use of various approaches. Several efforts by the government also supported them. Class 8 Political Science Chapter 8 Notes on Confronting Marginalisation gives a summary of how various organisations and people have fought against the inequalities that are present in society.

To assist students in gaining a complete understanding of the chapter, Extramarks provides Class 8 Political Science Chapter 8 Notes Confronting Marginalisation. They can easily access these notes to make the revision process simpler.

Confronting Marginalisation Class 8 Notes Political Science (Civics) Chapter 8 Notes

Access Class 8 Social Science – Civics Chapter 08 – Confronting Marginalisation Notes

Invoking Fundamental Rights

The constitution, as a set of guiding principles for our democratic society, lists a number of fundamental rights that apply to all Indians.

People who are marginalised have used their voiced their rights in two ways:

  • By advocating for their fundamental rights, they made the authorities recognise the injustice done to them.
  • They persisted in having laws that counter marginalisation approved by the government.

These struggles for justice and the implementation of favourable laws that these marginalised groups face have influenced the government to enact new legislation in accordance with the principles of fundamental rights.

Since Article 17 forbids untouchability, no one can prevent Dalits or any other citizen from exercising rights like accessing temples, receiving education, using public amenities, etc. It asserts that the democratic government opposes and outlaws untouchability.

According to Article 15, “No citizen of India shall be subjected to discrimination on the basis of race, caste, gender, religion, or place of birth.” It helped Dalits gain equality in areas where they had been excluded.

The Right to Freedom covered by articles 19-22, includes the freedom of speech and expression, unrestricted assembly, association, and movement across our nation. It also includes the freedom to live and work at any place in India and to pursue any profession.

In accordance with public order, morals, and health, Article 25 states that “all persons have freedom of conscience and the liberty to freely propagate, practice, religion.” Furthermore, Article 26 states that all denominations are free to do their own business in religious matters.

Students can refer to the NCERT book to learn and understand the various Articles covering the fundamental rights of citizens.

Laws For Marginalised Groups  

In our nation, specific laws and policies are made to safeguard the interests of disadvantaged groups. Here is an account of what occurred.

The state and federal governments have created various programmes for the Adivasi and Dalit populations. For instance, the government offers free housing and education to Dalit and Adivasi students.

The government passed several laws to combat community inequality. One such example is the importance of the policies of reservation.

Reservation rules are built on education and employment for these groups to provide Adivasis and Dalits with an equal opportunity to live in society, create new ideas, and learn new skills. Other marginalised groups, such as the economically underprivileged, Dalits, and Adivasis, are also given such reservations. For instance, the “cut-off” marks for marginalised communities are lower when applying to colleges or other institutions of professional education, and some seats are set aside just for them. These students also receive unique government scholarships.

Protecting The Rights Of Adivasis And Dalits 

Our country not only has policies, but also specific laws that forbid the exploitation and discrimination of marginalised people. Some of these acts and policies have been discussed below. Students can refer to NCERT Class 8 Political Science Chapter 8 to learn more about the rights of adivasis and Dalits and the various laws protecting their rights.

The 1989 SCs and the STs Act 

This law was enacted in response to Adivasi and Dalit demands that the government investigate major problems of exploitation and maltreatment faced by them in day-to-day life.

The Dalit communities demanded specific laws against the violence they had been facing for decades.

A similar movement for equal rights and the restitution of their resources, including their land, was made by organised Adivasi communities between 1970 and 1980. They had to put up with the rage and retaliation of other strong social groups in demanding these rights.

The new act included the following:

This act lists a number of different horrific crimes that the marginalised communities have been subjected to. These include coercing a member of the ST or SC community to consume harmful substances, forcing them to take off their clothing, or engaging in other activities that render them physically or morally humiliated.

Additionally, the act includes sanctions or penalties for those who assault women of tribal, Dalit, SC, or ST communities.

Several countermeasures have been taken by the government to prevent landlords from exploiting Dalits and Adivasis by forcing them to share produces harvested from the lands owned and cultivated by them. In various cases, the lands of the Adivasis and Dalits have been taken over by force. The government, through this act, ensured harsh punishment for such cases to defend the rights of the SC and ST communities.

Demands of the Adivasis and the 1989 Act

The 1989 Act is significant in addressing the rights of Adivasis. Adivasi activists the same year demanded their traditional land and the right to occupy it, adding that this law is used to prosecute people who have violently encroached onto tribal territories.

They have also emphasised yet another crucial fact by raising this demand and pointing out that the tribal people’s land could not be sold to other non-tribal people or the government.

According to Adivasi activist C.K. Janu, the tribe should receive compensation if they are forced from their home and are unable to return. If those people want to live and work somewhere else, the government must offer them enough opportunities.

In summary, the Scheduled Castes and Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989 is a law passed by the Indian Parliament to stop atrocities committed against members of the designated castes and tribes.

The Act guarantees that Adivasis won’t be evicted from their ancestral lands. Adivasi land cannot be sold to or purchased by non-tribal individuals. The Constitution ensures that indigenous people have the right to reclaim their territory in situations where this has occurred.

Refer to the NCERT text of Class 8 Chapter 8 Political Science for more information on the 1989 Act.


A law or policy can only be written down. However, people need to put in a lot of effort if these written policies are to become reality. To accomplish this, they should continue to create guiding principles for citizens’ and leaders’ behaviour. All individuals, including those who belong to the majority class, minorities, and indigenous peoples, must be treated with dignity and respect.

Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 8 Confronting Marginalisation Notes

Confronting Marginalisation Class 8 Notes

To oppose the inequalities that are currently in place, women, Muslims, Adivasis, Dalits, and people of other such communities have raised their voices. They all believed that, as lawful members of a democracy, they were entitled to the same rights as everyone else.

Invoking Fundamental Rights

The constitution outlines a list of essential rights that are equally available to all citizens. The marginalised group has largely succeeded in persuading the government to acknowledge the injustice done to them by pushing for the protection of fundamental rights. They have also convinced the government to implement these laws.

According to Article 17 of the constitution, untouchability has been abolished and is now a punishable crime. Every Dalit should be allowed to visit temples, pursue education, and exercise their fundamental rights.

No person may be subjected to discrimination on the basis of caste, creed, colour, or sex, as stated in Article 15 of the constitution.

The constitution guarantees that all groups receive cultural justice, doing away with any major group’s hegemony.

Laws for the Marginalised

The government enacts specific laws to safeguard the nation’s disadvantaged population. In addition, a number of committees are established, and surveys are conducted to develop specific policies and laws.

Promoting Social Justice

In tribal areas or areas with a large Dalit population, the state and federal governments work to implement constitutional policies. One of the significant policies is the reservation policy. According to this policy, giving the marginalised sections of society reservations in seats will give them an equal opportunity to learn and work.

Protecting the Rights of Dalits and Adivasis

The Dalits and other castes demanded that the government take their issues seriously, which led to the creation of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act of 1989. During the 1970s and 1980s, these communities took significant steps in demanding their rights.

Under This Act, Several Forms of Crimes Are Distinguished, which include

  • Modes of humiliation that are both physically horrifying and immoral
  • List of behaviours that displace Dalits and Adivasis
  • Acknowledges the crimes committed against tribal and Dalit women

Adivasis’ Demands and the 1989 Act

There is also another significant reason why the 1989 Act is relevant. The Adivasis use this statute to protect their right to live in what was once their ancestral home. This law gives control to the tribal population to exclusively own and use lands that traditionally belonged to them. Adivasi activist C.K. Janu protested against the government for allowing non-tribal intruders in tribal areas which often resulted in the displacement of the tribal population. She demanded that compensation be given to these displaced individuals.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What are the benefits of using revision notes to study Chapter 8 for studying Social Science for Class 8?

Students will find revision notes incredibly helpful with their exam preparations. For students, Chapter 8 of Class 8 Political Science, which addresses concepts like marginalisation and its difficulties, can be highly challenging and confusing. Extramarks’ notes are among the best since they include thorough yet concise explanations of all of these concepts, making it easier for students to study and give last-minute help on tests.

2. What are the concepts covered in Class 8 Political Science Chapter 8 Notes?

The topic of Chapter 8 is “Confronting Marginalisation”. The concepts of marginalisation and the various groups that are fighting it are introduced in this particular chapter. The most marginalised groups in the nation are the Adivasis, Dalits, Muslims, and women. The concepts covered in this chapter are as follows.

  • Invoking fundamental rights
  • Laws for marginalised communities such that they remain protected
  • Promoting social justice and equality
  • Protecting the rights of minorities like the Adivasis and Dalits
  • Different acts against marginalisation

3. What is confronting marginalisation?

The subject of Class 8 Political Science Chapter 8 is “Confronting Marginalisation.” Simply put, marginalisation is the practice of excluding members of minorities and their communities. To combat marginalisation, Adivasis, Dalits, Muslims, women, and other marginalised groups must speak out in support of their shared citizenship and the equal treatment they deserve under the law. Marginalisation is also countered through the demand for laws pertaining to these communities’ rights and protection.