CBSE Class 8 Social Science Political Science Revision Notes Chapter 9

Class 8 Political Science Chapter 9 Notes

CBSE Class 8 Political Science (Civics) Chapter 9 Notes – Public Facilities

Water scarcity is a major problem in today’s times. This is why the affordability and accessibility of water vary depending on the income class of people. Wealthy people have access to municipal water and water tankers, while several working-class individuals own bore wells. They use water filters as the borewell water is unfit for consumption. The daily water requirements of poor people are not satisfied as municipal water is not available for them and a clean water supply is neither attainable nor affordable for these people.

Class 8 Political Science Chapter 9 Notes use water as the primary example for describing public utilities. The most crucial issues associated with public facilities are equal accessibility, affordability, and the quality of water. It is crucial to understand the importance of the government’s role in providing public facilities for everyone.

Extramarks provides Class 8 Political Science Chapter 9 Notes curated by subject matter experts discussing the role of the government in providing public facilities as well as in implementing laws that apply to market, factory, and the working conditions of people. These notes will help students to understand the ways in which this role of the government is linked to concerns addressed in our Fundamental Rights.

Public Facilities Class 8 Notes Political Science (Civics) Chapter 9 Notes

Access Class 8 Political Science Civics Chapter 9 – Public Facilities

Water as a Part of the Fundamental Right to Life

  • Water is essential for survival, and drinking clean water is one of the factors that determine one’s level of health. The availability of clean drinking water helps meet daily needs and prevents many water-related illnesses.
  • Numerous cases of diseases caused due to the consumption of unfit drinking water, such as diarrhoea, dysentery, and cholera, are found in India. Every day over 1,600 Indian death cases are reported due to the consumption of unsafe water, of which many are children below the age of five.
  • The availability of safe drinking water can reduce the number of deaths.
  • According to the Indian constitution, every human being, regardless of income level, should be able to access and afford their daily water requirement.
  • It was stated that there must be universal access to water.

India’s Constitutional Laws for Satisfying the Above Essentials for Every Citizen of India

  1. Under Article 21, the Indian constitution states that a person’s right to water is a part of their right to life. This assures that all citizens of the country, despite their economic status, will be able to afford and access sufficient water at a reasonable cost to fulfil their day-to-day requirements. The right to water is contemplated as a fundamental right to life by the High Court and the Supreme Court of India.
  2. In the Mahabubnagar district of Andhra Pradesh, a villager wrote a letter stating the problem faced due to the contamination of drinking water. The letter, written by the villager, briefly stated that a textile company was releasing poisonous chemicals into the stream near his village.  The groundwater used for irrigation and drinking purposes became contaminated as a result of the release of toxic substances, changing the villagers’ way of life. The case was held by the High Court in the year 2007 and, after careful consideration of the case, the Mahbubnagar district collector was ordered to supply a minimum of 25 litres of water to each individual in the village.

Public Facilities

Along with water, public utilities like sanitisation and healthcare are also necessary. The fundamental needs include access to services like public transportation, power, colleges,  educational institutions, and other public spaces.

The main feature of public facilities is that the benefits can be shared among everyone in the community. Let’s say a school in the village will empower many children to get educated. Likewise, the availability of electricity in an area can be utilised by several people, farmers can use pump sets to irrigate their fields, people can start small workshops that work on electricity, it can facilitate students to study, etc.

The Government’s Role

Public facilities are essential, and someone should take responsibility for doing so. This “someone” is the government. The government needs to ensure that these public facilities are accessible to everyone, which is one of its most significant roles. It is necessary to understand why the government should primarily bear this responsibility.

In many large cities, you may have witnessed that private companies supply water through tankers or drinking water in bottles that are sealed. Private companies provide public facilities at a higher price which only a few people can afford.

Why is the Government Responsible?

The scarcity of municipal water has led private organisations and companies to indulge in water supply for profit. These companies rarely have any interest in the social welfare of the people, in putting money into the public’s sanitation, or in initiating free campaigns. Any of their services come with a high cost, which makes it expensive for the poor and needy. If we follow the rule that people will receive a certain amount of facility as per their capacity to pay for it therefore several people who cannot pay for these facilities will not be able to have an access to a decent life. Public facilities are directly associated with the basic needs of the people. Every modern society needs these facilities which are provided so that the basic needs of people are met. Therefore, the government is responsible for providing public facilities so that it is affordable to everyone.

How Does the Government Afford It?

At the parliament meeting, the government designs the yearly budget. The various taxes collected from the citizens of the country are the source of income for the government. It has to put a fixed amount of money into sourcing and transporting water. The government charges citizens a certain percentage of tax based on their income slab. People belonging to the lower income slab are not liable to pay taxes. The money collected by the government is used to provide various public facilities to people, such as access to a steady and clean water supply.

Is Water Supply Available to All?

  • There is an uneven distribution of public amenities among the population.
  • Municipal water supply only fulfils half the water needs of the people of a particular area.
  • The accessibility of water is better in areas near water storage than in areas far from them.
  • The low-income group is the most affected. The middle class manages by digging bore wells, purchasing water from tankers, and using bottled water for drinking.
  • Only some can afford to regularly consume safe and clean water.
  • Private companies extract water from agricultural lands to satisfy the increasing water demands. The companies control the rights to extract water from the farmers’ land and pay them every month in return. But this process affects both the villagers and the farmers as the large-scale extraction of water drains the groundwater levels of the area.

In Search of Alternatives

  • During summers, it is common to experience water scarcity issues in most cities in India.
  • Municipalities are unable to provide the public amenities that are needed, which allows private firms to purchase water supply networks.
  • Each person uses 135 litres of water per day in urban areas. In contrast, slums require 20 litres of water per person each day. According to the urban water commission, hotels use about 1600 litres of water each day.
  • Municipal water scarcity is considered a sign of incompetency by the government.
  • As the government is not able to meet the supply requirements of water that is necessary and several municipal water departments are facing losses is making people argue about allowing private companies to take charge of the task of water supply.
  • There were a few cases wherein the responsibility for water supply was given to private companies. That led to a steep rise in the price of water, making it expensive and inaccessible to many. Some cities witnessed huge protests with riots bursting out in places such as Bolivia compelling the government to retract the service from private companies.

Throughout the Planet Water Supply is Done by the Government, Very Rarely Taken Over by Private Organisations

Example: The city’s water department has attained its goal of universal water access in Porto Alegre, Brazil.

  • The price of water is affordable, and the amount charged is half the affordable rate.
  • Water supplies are completely funded by the profit made by the government.
  • People are consciously involved and their opinions are considered in approaching schemes and water projects.
  • The steps taken by the water department are completely disclosed by the government.

When the water supply was turned over to private businesses, the prices significantly increased. For many people, this has made it expensive.

For instance, when Bolivia’s water supply was turned over to private businesses, riots and protests broke out with demands that the government retakes control.

Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 9 Public Facilities Notes

Public Facilities Class 8 Notes

Water and the People of Chennai

Anna Nagar is a lush area located in Chennai, green with lawns well kept by regular watering.  Tap water is operational in bungalows for the most part of the day. People who live in this neighbourhood occasionally experience problems with insufficient water supply. They notify the municipal water board, and a water tanker is dispatched to their home immediately.

On the other hand, most areas in the city, such as Mylapore, face the problem of water shortage. Municipal water is available once every two days in this area. Therefore, people own a borewell to fulfil their water needs. Since borewell water is saline, the residents can only utilise it to clean their toilets and for the purpose of washing and cleaning.

Water as Part of the Fundamental Right to Life

Water is important for survival and maintaining our health. Safe drinking water plays a fundamental role in lowering the risks of developing water-related diseases. Over 1600 people in India suffered from death, mainly children aged below 5, owing to water-related disorders like cholera, dysentery, and diarrhoea. Students will learn about how water is necessary for all living beings in Class 8 Political Science Chapter 9 Notes.

The right to water is a fundamental part of the right to life. The constitution states that there should be universal access to water for all individuals. With these notes, students will understand how the law on the right to water is essential to fulfil the right to life.

Public Facilities

People must have access to the wide range of public facilities provided in a country. For example, public facilities like public transport, electricity, and education, are fundamental amenities for every human.

Students can learn about this section by referring to the Chapter 9 Political Science Class 8 Notes by Extramarks. These notes will help them gain a better understanding of diverse public facilities, their examples, and the importance of water for sanitation and healthcare.

The Government’s Role

The role of government is highlighted in this section of the Class 8 Political Science Chapter 9 Notes. It briefly discusses the government and its responsibilities in relation to offering public facilities to the residents. The government should make sure of the distribution and availability of public facilities for each individual.  The only motivation for the majority of private businesses to operate in the market is profit. Since public facilities do not usually yield profits, private companies rarely consider taking up work related to public facilities. This chapter is insightful and teaches students more about how the government works with regard to the distribution of public facilities among the residents.

Water Supply to Chennai: Is it Available to All?

Public facilities are a basic right for all individuals. These should be accessible to every person living in the country. However, these facilities are short in supply. This section briefly describes the situation of the supply and distribution of water in Chennai.

In particular, Chennai’s water supply is minimal. Only half of the population’s needs are met by municipal supplies. The water supply varies significantly from one place to another. The shortfall in the water supply puts a burden mainly on poor people. Middle-class and rich people tend to cope with the alternatives they can afford in case of a shortfall of water. Students will also understand how rich people have easy access to water while the majority of the population who are needy and poor are devoid of such facilities.

In Search of Alternatives

The months of summer are a time of acute shortages and crises in many Indian cities. As municipal water supplies become more limited, private businesses that sell water for a profit are growing quickly. The Urban Water Commission has established a standard of 135 litres of water per person per day for urban areas.

In contrast, whereas a person in a luxury hotel might use 1,600 litres of water per day, a person in a slum must get by on less than 20 litres per day. Municipal water shortages are sometimes viewed as government negligence. Some people think that private firms should manage the water supply because the government is unable to provide the required amount of water and many local water departments are operating at a loss. They believe that private enterprises may perform more effectively.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What are your thoughts on how public amenities are distributed in India? Do you consider it just and sufficient?

While it is necessary to ensure that everyone has access to public facilities, we also need to consider the collective issue of scarcity. These public amenities are not distributed fairly or adequately in India. Nearly everyone in Delhi has access to all public services, such as water, power, healthcare, sanitation, and other things. However, these facilities are scarcely accessible in smaller cities like Mathura and Aligarh.

2. What were the shortcomings in the government's attempt to provide universal water access in the country?

The government has failed to equally distribute water and make it affordable.

  • The municipal water supply only fulfils half the water needs of the people of a particular area.
  • The accessibility of water is better in areas near water storage points than in areas away from the storage points.
  • Low-income individuals are those who are most impacted. For drinking water, the middle class uses bottled water, tanker deliveries, and bore wells that they have dug themselves.

3. How do private companies exploit agricultural land and farmers?

Private companies take water from agricultural lands to satisfy the increasing water needs, mainly from the villages near the metropolitan cities. The private company takes authorisation from the farmers to utilise the water from the land by paying them monthly. However, when 13,000 water tanks owned by private enterprises drain water from the area, it significantly affects the groundwater levels, which also affects both the farmers and the villagers of the area. As a consequence of such private initiatives, groundwater levels have fallen radically.