CBSE Class 9 Social Science Economics Revision Notes Chapter 4

Class 9 Economics chapter 4 notes 

CBSE Class 9 Economics Chapter 4 Notes- Food Security in India

The Class 9 Economics Chapter 4 Notes outline the importance of food security in India and how the government schemes are working to improve the situation. In this Chapter 4 Economics Class 9 Notes, students will get to know the major details of the chapter that are important for their final examination. Moreover, Class 9 Economics Notes Chapter 4 will be a student’s last-minute revision guide providing all the necessary information.

Food Security in India Class 9 notes Economics Chapter 4

Access Class 9 Social Science Chapter 4- Food Security in India notes

Importance of Food Security in India: 

These CBSE revision notes will help students prepare for their exams quickly and easily. Chapter 4 defines food security and why the government and the nation must provide affordable food to the poor and weaker sections of society. Poor households are more exposed and vulnerable to food insecurity due to the problem of the production of crops or their distribution. Food security is regulated and checked by the Public Distribution System (PDS) and subject to government action whenever there is a potential food security threat. Food security is not just limited to getting meals twice daily. Instead, it has three major dimensions: availability, accessibility, and affordability. Food availability is the food produced within the country, food imports of the country and last year’s stock stored in government granaries. Accessibility is a situation wherein food is within reach of everyone in the country. Moreover, affordability means that an individual has sufficient money to purchase nutritious food that can meet individual’s dietary needs.

Food Security is important for any country because the people below the poverty line cannot afford nutritious food. Moreover, even people above the poverty line sometimes cannot afford food, especially when the country faces any type of natural calamity, including drought, earthquakes, floods, and widespread failure in crop production. Drought causes a decrease in the crop production of the country. Due to a shortage of food grains, the prices will automatically increase because of which the weaker sections of society will not be able to buy food. Furthermore, if this situation is stretched to a longer duration, it will lead to massive starvation, causing deaths, which is referred to as famine.

The famine of Bengal, which occurred in the year 1943, was the most devastating famine ever to occur in the country. The agricultural labourers, fishermen, transport workers, and casual labourers were the most affected by the dramatically increasing price of rice. These people were the ones who died in the famine of Bengal in 1943. The famine of Bengal took the lives of thirty lakh individuals. However, since then, the situation has improved. Still, some parts of the country face famine-like situations and starvation deaths, including Kalahandi and Kashipur in Orissa, Baran district of Rajasthan, Palamau district of Jharkhand and various other remote areas.

Moreover, certain sections of society are extremely food insecure, such as landless people with little or no land to grow crops, traditional artisans, people providing traditional services, self-employed workers and the destitute, including beggars. In the urban area, the worst affected populations are the casual labourers and people employed in the unorganised sector or ill-paid occupations. Other food insecure people include the SCs, STs and OBCs due to the social composition and poor land base or very low productivity of crops to earn a living. Additionally, people who migrate from one place to another in search of work, a large proportion of pregnant women and nursing mothers, and children under the age group of 5 years come under the category of food insecure population. The states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, West Bengal, Chattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra account for the largest number of food-insecure populations in the country.

Fun Facts about Food Security in India: 

Let’s note some of the major facts about food security in India:

  • More than thirty lakh people died in the Famine of Bengal, which was the largest and most devastating famine in India to date. It occurred in 1943 and affected agricultural labourers, fishermen, transport workers, and casual labourers.
  • Food security does not mean getting food twice a day. Instead, it has three major dimensions, availability, accessibility, and affordability. It simply means that the country is food secure when it has enough food for all the people, everyone can buy the food, and there is no social barrier to accessing the food.
  • Even today, there are extremely food-insecure regions, and starvation deaths are a common sight in these parts of the country. These regions include Kalahandi and Kashipur in Orissa, the Baran district of Rajasthan, the Palamau district of Jharkhand and various other remote areas.
  • Moreover, in the rural areas, the worst affected people by food insecurity are the landless people, traditional artisans, people providing traditional services, beggars, and self-employed workers. In urban areas, casual labourers and people involved in the unorganised sector are the worst affected by food insecurity.
  • Furthermore, SCs, STs, and OBCs who do not have land or have low productivity of crops are food insecure due to their social composition. Also, people who are affected by natural disasters and migrate from one place to another in search of work are prone to food insecurity. Additionally, there are many incidences of malnourished women and children, especially pregnant women and nursing mothers, and children under the age group of 5 years.
  • Also, there are backward regions and remote areas with a high ratio of poverty that are prone to food insecurity, including the states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, West Bengal, Chattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.
  • Hunger is not just an indicator of poverty. Instead, hunger breeds poverty. The existence of food security involves eradicating current hunger and eliminating the risks of future hunger. Hunger has two dimensions, including chronic and seasonal dimensions. Chronic hunger means not eating properly or eating with inadequate dietary and nutritional needs. Poor people and those working as farm labourers suffer from chronic hunger because they do not earn enough to purchase food for survival. On the contrary, seasonal hunger is a consequence of cycles of growing and harvesting crops. This type of hunger occurs in rural areas because of the seasonal nature of agricultural activities. Moreover, it occurs in urban areas when casual workers like construction labourers do not find work during the rainy season.
  • After independence, India aimed for self-sufficiency in food grains. The Indian government adopted various measures, including the Green revolution of 1968, which was then called the wheat revolution due to the special stamp status released by the government. The Green revolution was mainly targeting the production of wheat and rice. The highest growth rate in wheat production was achieved in Uttar Pradesh and Punjab, with an all-time high of 78.9 million tonnes of production in 2012–13. Moreover, foodgrain production dropped in other states, including Uttarakhand, Jharkhand, Assam, and Tamil Nadu.
  • India became a self-sufficient country in food grains due to the adoption of the Green revolution in the early 1970s and the variety of crops grown across the country.
  • Two major components governed the Indian food security system; Buffer stocks and the Public distribution system (PDS). Buffer stock is the maintenance of a stock of wheat and rice by the government of India through the Food Corporation of India (FCI). The FCI purchases wheat and rice from the farmers of various states with surplus production. The farmers are paid a pre-decided price for their production or crops. The pre-decided price is known as the Minimum Support Price (MSP). The buffer stock is maintained to distribute foodgrain areas with low productivity of wheat and rice and among the poorer and weaker sections of society at a price lower than the market price.
  • Furthermore, the stock purchased by the government is distributed to the people through the Public distribution system or ration shops. At present, there are approximately 5.5 lakh ration shops across the country. Any family with a ration card can purchase food grains, sugar, and kerosene oil, at a cheaper price.
  • Currently, there are various Poverty Alleviation Programs (PAPs), mostly in areas with an explicit food component. However, programs like mid-day meals and public distribution systems (PDS) are specifically developed to maintain food security.

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FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is the importance of food security in India?

There are numerous reasons why food security is important for any nation. However, one of the major reasons is drought. Due to droughts, the farmlands produce fewer food grains than expected. Shortage of food grains increases prices, due to which many people above and below the poverty line cannot afford food.

2. How is Food Security maintained in India?

Food security is maintained in India via two major components: buffer stocks and the public distribution system (PDS). In this system, the government purchases wheat and rice from the farmers at a Minimum Support Price (MSP). Later, it is sold to the poor section of society through ration shops at a price lower than the market price.