Important Questions Class 11 Economics Indian Economic Development Chapter 10
Important Questions Class 11 Economics Indian Economic Development Chapter 10- Comparative Development Experiences of India and Its Neighbours
Economic transformation has been taking place all over nations owing to globalisation. An economic transformation has implications for each nation. Each country aims to strengthen their domestic economies for economic growth. To do so, countries have also started to form economic groupings that help them put forward a stronger front among other big nations and developed economies. To develop the nation’s economy, it is equally important to understand what other economies are doing. It is essential as what one nation does in its economy will have a direct and shared impact on the other nation’s economy.
The last chapter of Class 11 Economics talks about the developmental policies of major economies and compares their growth with what is witnessed in our country. Chapter 10 dives deep into explaining topics such as comparative trends in various economic and human development indicators of India and its neighbours, China and Pakistan and an assessment of the strategies these countries have adopted to reach their present state of development. Students need to understand the ongoing scenario of India’s economy and other economies to assess what India is lacking and what more can we do as a nation to achieve economic growth that will make it equivalent to other developed economies. Students can study the Important Questions Class 11 Economics Indian Economic Development Chapter 10 provided by Extramarks.
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Important Questions Class 11 Economics Indian Economic Development Chapter 10 with Solutions
Chapter 10 of Class 11 Economics includes questions from all parts of the chapter so that students can revise the entire chapter while practising these questions. The topics include the development path taken by various economies, the demographic indicators, the GDP indicators and the sectoral contributions, indicators of human development, and an appraisal of development strategies. Studying Chapter 10 Class 11 Economics Indian Economic Development Important Questions. can aid a thorough comprehension of all these topics.
Here is a list of questionnaire from Important Questions Class 11 Economics Indian Economic Development Chapter 10:
Question 1. Which country has the highest life expectancy at birth among the ones, India, Pakistan or China?
Answer 1: China witnesses the highest life expectancy at birth compared to India and Pakistan.
Question 2. For meaningful differentiation common price level base is used because
- Domestic price differs in different countries
- 100 GDP of one country is not the same as 100 GDP of another country
- None of the above
Answer 2: C) Both.
Explanation: Nominal GDP÷Price Index ×100 = Real GDP & price index = Nominal GDP÷ Price index ×100 . So, that change in GDP is owing to the change in the price level.
Question 3. UNDP stands for
- United Nations Development Policy
- United Nations Development Programme
- Union Nations Development Programme
- None of these
Answer 3: B) United Nations Development Programme
Explanation: The UNDP or United Nations Development Programme was established in 1965 to assist nations in eradicating poverty and achieving sustainable human development, a method of economic growth that emphasises raising citizens’ living standards while protecting the environment and natural resources for future generations.
Question 4. The infant mortality rate is as low as ___ per thousand in China compared with ___ per thousand in India
- 30, 60
- 30, 63
- 35, 65
Answer 4: (2)30, 63
Explanation: Due to greater infrastructure and a higher standard of living among its citizens, China has an infant mortality rate of just 30 per thousand compared to 63 per thousand in India.
Question 5. Which sector is commonly known as the service sector?
- Tertiary sector
- Primary sector
- Secondary sector
- None of the above
Answer 5: (1)Tertiary Sector
Explanation: The services sector of the economy, which includes various companies like financial institutions, educational institutions, hotels, and restaurants, is referred to technically as the tertiary industry. An economy’s emphasis typically shifts from primary to secondary and tertiary industries as it develops.
Question 6. Mention the various indicators of human development.
Answer 6: The various indicators of human development are:
- Life Expectancy.
- Adult Literacy Rate.
- Infant Mortality Rate.
- Percentage of the population below the poverty line.
- GDP per capita
- Percentage of the population having access to improved sanitation
- Percentage of the population having access to improved water sources.
Question 7. Write in brief on the comparative development experiences of India and its neighbouring countries.
Answer 7: India and its neighbours have nearly similar growth policies, which are as follows:
- India, Pakistan, and China all started on different developmental paths simultaneously after gaining independence in 1947. On the other hand, the People’s Republic of China was established in 1949.
- The three nations had all started similarly outlining their development plans. Pakistan’s first Five Year Plan, known as the Medium Term Plan, was presented in 1956, while The government originally implemented India’s Five Year Plan between 1951 and 1956. China unveiled its initial Five-Year Plan in 1953.
- Similar strategies, such as creating a sizable public sector and boosting government spending on social development, were undertaken by Pakistan and India.
- The three nations had comparable growth rates and per capita incomes up to 1980.
- All three nations implemented economic reforms. In Pakistan and China, the reforms started in 1978 and 1988, respectively, while they started in India in 1991.
Question 8. Write a short note on the history of the revolution of the PRC.
Answer 8: The People’s Republic of China (PRC) has a rich cultural heritage. Unlike many other nations, China was essentially governed by a single ruler for centuries. China was ruled by several dynasties, including the Xia, Shang, Han, and Tang. China’s final dynasty in power was the Qing (also known as Manchu Dynasty). Like many other nations, China has a long history of uprooting tyrannies and dictatorships to promote equality and prosperity.
The foundation of the People’s Republic of China in 1949 seemed to mark the end of the struggle for a better life. The Communist Party of China (CPP), a significant political organisation, was founded during the period. The four socioeconomic classes of workers, peasants, the petty bourgeoisie, and national capitalists were grouped.
The four classes were to be led by the CPP, which represented the working class. The Chinese Communist Revolution, sometimes referred to as the 1949 Revolution, marked the culmination of the Chinese Communist Party’s rise to power since its founding in 1921 and the second phase of the Chinese Civil War (1946–1949). The state media refers to this period as the War of Liberation. The Cultural Revolution, also known as the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, occurred in the People’s Republic of China between 1966 and 1976.
Question 9. What are the various ways countries try to strengthen their domestic economies?
Answer 9: The various strategies used by countries to strengthen their internal economies are as follows:
- Countries are joining various regional and economic organisations to strengthen their economy, including SAARC, the European Union, the G-8, the G-20, and ASEAN. To defend their shared interests, these organisations offer member nations a place where they can voice their concerns in unison.
- To evaluate their advantages and disadvantages, they are also curious about the growth strategies employed by their neighbouring nations. As a result, they implement policies to promote social and cultural development among member nations.
- Governments are also liberalising their economies. As a result, less of the government gets involved in the business. The forces of the market, or factors affecting supply and demand, control the economy.
- Nations also use the process of globalisation to open up their economies and create a sizable global market for their indigenous producers.
Question 10. Is it possible for India to introduce the ‘One Child Norm’ like China to reduce population? Write your views.
Answer 10: Our country has been deeply concerned about the growing population in recent decades. So far, we have turned to steps like offering married couples free Family Health Planning services to combat the sharp surge.
Implementing a one-child policy, similar to what the Chinese have done, is one of the possible solutions, although it is true that doing so in a nation like ours is not that easy. .
Given the probability of opposition from political parties, ethnic communities, religious organisations, and other inactive social organisations, implementing this would be challenging.
If India implements it, there is bound to be a lot of confusion. For instance, it should be in either the city or the country. Most people in India reside in urban or semi-urban areas, making up about 70% of the total population.
Even though China has a majority of rural residents, its programme has only been implemented for families that live in cities. Given that India is a labour-intensive country known for its cheap labour, such a restriction could eventually lead to a workforce shortage, impacting the country’s economic growth.
In conclusion, the One Child Policy seems necessary, but its implementation in India requires careful balancing of the available information.
Question 11. Group the following features about the economies of India, China and Pakistan under three heads
- One-child norm
- Low fertility rate
- A high degree of urbanisation
- Mixed economy
- The very high fertility rate
- Large population
- A high-density of population
- Growth due to the manufacturing sector
- Growth due to the service sector
Answer 11: The features can be divided among the three countries as follows:
|Mixed economy||One-child norm||Mixed economy|
|A high-density of population||Low fertility rate||The very high fertility rate|
|Growth due to the service sector||A high degree of urbanisation
Growth due to the manufacturing sector
Question 12. Explain the following:-
- Special Economic Zones.
- Great Leap Forward (GLF).
- GPCR (Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution).
- Special Economic Zones:
Regarding trade operations, duties, and tariffs, a Special Economic Zone (SEZ) is a defined duty-free area treated as foreign territory. To put it another way, a special economic zone (SEZ) is a region of the country having distinct economic regulations. It is a territory where trade and commercial laws differ from those in other parts of the nation.
SEZs are located inside a nation’s borders and work toward the following objectives:
- Improved commerce.
- Increased investment.
- Job development,
- Efficient administration.
There are currently eight SEZs in India, which are located in Santa Cruz (Maharashtra), Cochin (Kerala), Kandla and Surat (Gujarat), Chennai (Tamil Nadu), Visakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh), Falta (West Bengal), and Noida (Uttar Pradesh). In addition, an SEZ in Indore (Madhya Pradesh) is now operational.
- Great Leap Forward (GLF):
The Great Leap Forward is the name of China’s Second Five Year Plan (1958-62). The Great Leap Forward was an economic and social programme in the 1950s that aimed to modernise China’s rural economy. The Communist Party of China (CPC), under the leadership of Mao Zedong, also known as Mao Tse-tung, made a short-term effort to transform China into a society that could compete with other Western industrialised nations.
A part of GLP sent millions of Chinese citizens to communes to work on farms or in the manufacturing industry as part of China’s second five-year plan, the Great Leap Forward, launched in January 1958. Private agriculture was prohibited. It was the outcome of Mao Zedong’s frustration with the growth of manufacturing and the industrial sector.
- Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (GPCR):
Mao Zedong, the founder of the Chinese Communist Party, was concerned in the 1960s that the country’s present party leadership was moving more and more on a revisionist path and placing a greater emphasis on professional competence than on ideological purity. A group of political figures called the “Gang of Four” led the political, social, and cultural movement known as the Cultural Revolution, which mobilised and encouraged Chinese youth to criticise and attack anyone seen as an adversary of the goals of the Chinese Communist Revolution. Although the causes of the Cultural Revolution were numerous, at least two factors contributed. One reason was Mao Zedong’s attempts to regain control of China’s policymaking. The “Mao Cult” was the second.
Question 13. Compare and contrast the development of China, India and Pakistan concerning some salient human development indicators.
Answer 13: The following are the indicators of human development:
- Life Expectancy
- Adult Literacy Rate
- Infant Mortality Rate
- Percentage of the population below the poverty line
- GDP per capita
- Percentage of the population having access to better sanitation facilities
- Percentage of the population having access to better water sources.
An individual index of each of these criteria was used to create the Human Development Index (HDI). The HDI value directly correlates with a country’s development and growth rate. According to their HDI, the countries are ranked. Pakistan came in at 136th, China at 81st, and India at 128th. China’s high position is a result of its higher GDP per capita. Additionally, the one-child rule caused the GDP to increase steadily, which helped China score higher in the HDI than Pakistan and India.
Question 14. Mention the salient demographic indicators of China, India, and Pakistan.
Answer 14: The important demographic indicators of India, China and Pakistan are tabulated below.
|Demographic Indicators, 2000-01|
|Country||Estimated Population (in millions)||Annual Growth Rate of Population (1990-2003)||Density (per sq. km)||Sex Ratio||Fertility Rate||Urbanisation|
The important demographic indicators are as follows:
- Total Population: China is the most populous nation in the world overall, followed by India. According to the above table, China had a population of roughly 1303.7 million in 2000–01, compared to 1103.6 million and 162.4 million for India and Pakistan.
- Annual Growth Rate of Population: Although China is the most populous nation, its yearly population growth rate is only 1%, compared to 1.7% and 2.5% for India and Pakistan. . It is a significant advantage for China. Given this rapid population increase, it is reasonable to predict that India will surpass China’s population in the next decade..
- The density of Population: China has the highest population density among the three countries, despite geographically occupying the greatest area and having the highest population density. In comparison to 358 and 193 people per square kilometre in India and Pakistan, respectively, it is as low as 138 people per square kilometre. The less population density there is, the less strain on the nation’s natural resources, and the more likely it is that sustainable development will occur.
- Sex Ratio: The females per 1,000 males are counted in this ratio. All three nations have nearly identical sex ratios, with China having a slightly higher ratio of 937 girls to every 1000 males. It illustrates how women in India and Pakistan have a low economic and social status.
- Fertility Rate: The number of children a woman has during her lifetime is indicated by this rate. In this situation, China has the advantage. Chinese women have a fertility rate of only 1.8, compared to 3.0 and 5.1 in India and Pakistan, respectively. This suggests that a woman typically gives birth to between 3 and 5 children in India and Pakistan. Given their high reproductive rates, India and Pakistan should be most worried that their populations will eventually surpass that of China.
- Urbanisation: Finally, compared to India and Pakistan, China is more urbanised. China has an urbanisation rate of 36.1%, compared to India and Pakistan’s rates of 27.8% and 33.4%, respectively. The level of urbanisation reflects the standard and calibre of living of a nation’s citizens. Additionally, this supports the change in an economy’s economic structure. Higher levels of urbanisation indicate higher levels of industrialisation and tertiary sector development.
Question 15. Give some reasons for the slow growth and re-emergence of poverty in Pakistan.
Answer 15: The main causes of Pakistan’s slow growth and the resurgence of poverty are as follows:
- Greater Dependency on Public Sector Enterprises: The increased reliance on public sector enterprises is the primary reason behind Pakistan’s poor economic growth. Pakistan mostly relied on a protectionist policy that gave public sector enterprises a leading role. Dormant economic growth was caused by the operational inefficiencies of public sector businesses and the inefficient use of limited resources.
- Traditional Agricultural Practices: Low production was the outcome of Pakistan’s agricultural policies, which mainly relied on conventional techniques and the whims of the climate system. As a result, the agricultural industry could not prosper to the degree anticipated.
- Undeveloped Manufacturing Sector: Remittances from Pakistani workers in the Middle East and the selling of agricultural goods with significant volatility made up most of Pakistan’s foreign exchange profits. It could be considered one of the factors slowing down economic growth. It is because of the influx of remittances in place of the necessity for manufacturing sector expansion to generate foreign cash through exporting manufactured goods.
- Increasing Dependence on Foreign Loans: There was an increasing reliance on foreign borrowing for obtaining the necessary foreign currency. In the years of agricultural failure, Pakistan struggled more and more to repay these debts, together with the escalating interest commitments. The mounting debt hampered the chances for Pakistan’s economy’s growth from heavy international loans.
- Lack of Political Stability: Due to the absence of political stability, the government had to spend significant money on maintaining peace. The nation’s economic resources were depleted due to this massive public expenditure.
- Insufficient Foreign Investment: Pakistan also struggled to draw in enough foreign investment due to its unstable political environment, lack of international reputation, and underdeveloped infrastructure.
Benefits of Solving Important Questions Class 11 Economics Indian Economic Development Chapter 10
Even though studying Economics at first may seem a little intimidating, it will help students better comprehend their surroundings. They can understand the local populations, environment, enterprises, markets, and governments more. Students who have a sound knowledge of economics will also be able to comprehend the many models used to support the expansion of economies. They will be able to compare other countries and comprehend their growth trajectories with this aid. Chapter 10 of Class 11 Economics will help them understand the comparative situation between countries. Thus it becomes imperative to study the Important Questions Class 11 Economics Indian Economic Development Chapter 10 in order to have a deeper conceptual understanding of each topic and perform well in the examinations.
Some merits of studying Important Questions Class 11 Economics Indian Economic Development Chapter 10 are listed below:
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Q.1 Average is based on all the observations in a series in
Q.2 What are the mathematical properties of median?
The mathematical properties of median are:
(i) Geometrically the median divides a histogram or a frequency curve into two parts with equal area.
(ii) Remains unaffected by the magnitude of the extreme deviations from the average.
(iii) May be located even when the items in a series cannot be measured so long as they can be ranked or arranged.
(iv) Sum of absolute deviations of observations from their median is least.
Q.3 Arithmetic mean is affected by very large and very small values, but median and mode are not affected by them. Explain.
Arithmetic mean is based on all values whether values are very large or very small. However, median and mode are not based on all the values of a distribution. Hence, median and mode are not affected by very large or very small values. Median is the value of a variable which divides the series in such a manner that the number of items below it is equal to the number of items above it. Hence median is not affected by very large and small values. Since mode depends on the largest frequency, it is not affected by extreme values.
Q.4 What do you understand by the term measures of central tendency? Mention the objectives of calculating measures of central tendency.
A central tendency is a single figure that represents the whole mass of data. It is the average. It is the figure around which values of a variable tend to cluster and concentrate. In other words, a measure of central tendency is the value of a distribution which is considered as the most representative value for a series.
The following are the objectives of calculating measures of central tendency:
i) The calculation represents complex, comprehensive and unorganised data into simple and condensed form.
ii) This calculation facilitates comparison.
iii) These measures are the basis of economic analysis.
iv) Measures of central tendency are very much instrumental in policy formulations.
v) It facilitates further statistical analysis.
Q.5 What is the basic difference between simple arithmetic mean and weighted arithmetic mean?
In simple arithmetic mean, all items of the series are taken as of equal importance. On the other hand, in the weighted arithmetic mean, different items are taken as of different importance. In case of weighted arithmetic mean different weights are assigned to different values according to their relative importance. The weighted arithmetic mean will be less than the simple arithmetic mean when items of small values are given less weights and items of big values are given more weights.
FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
1. What are the topics covered in Chapter 10 of Class 11 Economics?
Economics Chapter 10 in Class 11 is Comparative Development Experiences of India and Its Neighbours. The topics covered in Chapter 10 Economics include the following topics:
- Developmental path – A snapshot view
- Demographic indicators
- Gross domestic product and sectors
- Indicators of human development
- Development strategies
Students might begin by studying this chapter from the NCERT book to comprehend the theoretical topics better. Class 11 Economics Indian Economic Development Chapter 10 Important Questions can be used as a practice tool to help students remember the key concepts covered in class.
2. How many books are there for Class 11 Economics?
Two books are available for students studying Economics in Class 11. The first book is: The Indian Economic Development. It discusses issues including the Indian economy, policies relating to privatisation, liberalisation, and globalisation, as well as issues like rural development, poverty, infrastructure, and the environment.
Statistics for Economics, the second book, covers themes like data collection, organisation, presentation, central tendency, measures of dispersion, correlation, and statistical techniques, among others.
Students can learn about difficult theories understandably by studying both the NCERT texts. The NCERT books are updated annually to reflect the most recent exam patterns and curricula.
As a result, reading these NCERT books would enable students to comprehend the fundamentals of microeconomics and macroeconomics. Additionally, it will assist students in getting good results and preparing for the exams.