Important Questions Class 11 Economics Indian Economic Development Chapter 8
Important Questions Class 11 Economics Indian Economic Development Chapter 8- Infrastructure
In an economy, certain services are required that aid in industrial and agricultural production, domestic
and foreign trade and commerce. Such services are known as infrastructure and are important for other important economic functions to perform well. Infrastructure is a set of physical facilities and public services a country or business relies upon to function successfully, such as transportation and power supply. The nature of infrastructural development helps understand the nation’s economic development level. It helps a country’s economic growth by raising the productivity of its production components and improving the quality of life of its citizens. Chapter 8 of Class 11 Economics explains in detail the infrastructure of India. It includes; the role of infrastructure in the economic development of the nation, the role of energy as a critical source of infrastructure, understanding the prospects of the health sector and to know g about the current state of the Indian infrastructure.
Students need to study the state of infrastructure and its impact on the country to relate the textbook concepts with real-life scenarios. Students may benefit from using the Important Questions Class 11 Economics Indian Economic Development Chapter 8 from Extramarks to help them comprehend the chapter’s main ideas, to develop an interest in learning and mastering the topic with ease.
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Important Questions Class 11 Economics Indian Economic Development Chapter 8 with Solutions
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A thorough list of Important Questions Class 11 Economics Indian Economic Development Chapter 8 has been compiled by subject matter experts with years of experience utilising various sources while meticulously following the NCERT books and adhering to the CBSE syllabus and exam pattern. . All the key sections of the chapter contain the questions. Students can review the chapter while practising these questions and bring clarity of concepts to answer any question irrespective of the difficulty level..
Here is a list of the Important Questions Class 11 Economics Indian Economic Development Chapter 8 with solutions for students to practice:
Question 1. What percentage of India’s GDP is spent on health infrastructure?
Answer 1: India’s investment on health infrastructure accounts for nearly 5% of the total percentage of GDP.
Question 2. Explain the term infrastructure.
Answer 2: Infrastructure is a fundamentally supported framework created to offer multiple services to an economy. It also includes the country’s roads, railways, sports facilities, airports, dams, power plants, oil and gas pipelines, and telecommunications facilities. Educational institutions like schools and colleges, healthcare facilities like hospitals, sanitation like drinking water facilities, and the financial sector, which includes banks, insurance companies, and other financial institutions.
Question 3. Out of 65 per cent of total energy consumption of commercial energy in India, which of its source has the largest share of consumption?
- Natural gas
- Hydro energy
Answer 3: a) Coal.
Explanation: Coal accounts for the largest share of consumption for commercial energy in India. India’s most affordable and plentiful energy source is coal, which accounts for 74% of the country’s electric generation in 2018.
Question 4. Which plan is to provide for at least one community health worker for every village at a norm of 1000 population?
- National Health Programme
Answer 4: d) JSY
Explanation: JSY stands for Janani Suraksha Yojana. A safe motherhood intervention programme run by the National Health Mission is Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY). Its implementation aims to lower maternal and newborn mortality by encouraging institutional delivery among low-income expectant mothers.
Question 5. National Rural Health Mission was launched in
Answer 5: b) 2005.
Explanation: The Honourable Prime Minister established the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) on April 12, 2005, intending to provide quality, easily accessible healthcare to rural residents, particularly those who fall into disadvantaged categories.
Question 6. Explain the two primary categories into which infrastructure is divided. How are both these categories interdependent?
Answer 6: Infrastructure is broadly classified under two categories:
- Economic infrastructure.
- Social infrastructure.
Economic Infrastructure: The term “economic infrastructure” refers to the components of economic development that support the production and distribution process. It boosts the productivity of the economy as a whole by enhancing the quality of economic resources. It helps to foster economic expansion in this way. Some examples of economic infrastructure include power, transportation, communications, banking, and financial institutions. Production will expand, and there will be more opportunities for employment as the economic infrastructure develops. Therefore, economic infrastructure can be considered a prerequisite for economic growth.
Social Infrastructure: The term “social infrastructure” refers to all the resources and organisations that raise the standard of human capital. Social infrastructures include hospitals, nursing homes, housing facilities, and educational institutions. The presence of such infrastructures increases human productivity, which boosts the quality of life standards. Social infrastructure, as opposed to economic infrastructure, indirectly boosts the output and productivity of products and services. For instance, better medical services and facilities allow for a consistent supply of a healthy workforce, which is reflected in higher productivity levels.
Infrastructures on the social and economic levels are mutually dependent and supportive of one another. Social infrastructure improves living, whereas economic infrastructure promotes economic growth, which benefits the economy as a whole. These two infrastructures work together to benefit the economy and make it more prosperous. Without social infrastructure, which promotes human development, the economic growth gained with the help of economic infrastructure is insufficient. As a result, one infrastructure assists the other.
Question 7. Why are fluorescent lamps and LED (light-emitting diode) bulbs getting promoted nowadays?
Answer 7: The light-emitting diode (LED) is quickly becoming the most energy-efficient lighting technology. A compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) and a conventional incandescent bulb need half as much power to produce the same amount of light as an LED bulb (CFL). Compared to traditional lighting sources like fluorescent and incandescent bulbs, LED lighting is up to 70–90% more efficient. In addition, its lifespan is over 12 years longer than that of incandescent bulbs. Since only 5% of the energy used by LEDs is lost as heat, reducing energy consumption lowers the strain on power plants and reduces greenhouse gas emissions.
Question 8. What is the significance of energy? Give differences between commercial and non-commercial sources of energy.
Answer 8: The most crucial element of the economic infrastructure is energy. It is an important step in a country’s development. It is critical for industries since they can create no commodity without power. Today, even the agriculture industry uses energy. Tractors, thrashers, and tube-wells all require it to function smoothly and efficiently.
Additionally, it is needed in homes for cooking. A day without electricity or other forms of energy like gasoline, LPG, etc., is unimaginable. Therefore, we can conclude that energy is the foundation of all production activities.
|Commercial energy||Non Commercial energy|
|Commercial energy refers to energy sources that consumers provide for a fee.||Non-commercial energy sources are those that are freely available to all users.|
|This type of energy is employed for commercial purposes.||This type of energy is used for personal consumption.|
|Commercial energy examples include coal, natural gas, gasoline, and electricity.||Firewood, agricultural waste,solar energy and cow manure are a few non-commercial energy examples.|
Question 9. Discuss the primary drawbacks of our health care system.
Answer 9: India has built a massive health infrastructure recently. The decrease in the death rate, infant mortality rate, and increase in life expectancy are clear indicators of this. But there is still much work to be done in the healthcare sector. The following points highlight the drawbacks of our health care system:
- Unequal Distribution of Health Care Services:
Rural and urban areas do not receive the same health care services. Only one-fifth of the hospitals are located in rural areas, which are home to 70% of the population. Additionally, the doctor-to-population ratio is as bad as 1 to 2000. It suggests that there is just one doctor in India for every 2,000 people. Only half of the pharmacies are located in rural areas. The majority of medical facilities are only found in urban regions.
- Infectious Diseases:
Many contagious diseases, including AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome), HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Syndrome), and SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), have entered India. These fatal illnesses seriously endanger the human capital reserve, inhibiting economic progress.
- Poor Management:
In remote areas, the health care facilities lack qualified staff. As a result, rural residents must travel quickly to urban health care facilities. It worsens when poor roads and other affordable forms of mobility are unavailable.
- Lack of Modern Techniques and Facilities:
The most fundamental amenities, including X-rays and blood testing, are typically absent from government health centres. These facilities lack cutting-edge medical equipment like CT scans and sonograms, etc. People must rely on private hospitals, which demand exorbitant prices, to obtain these services.
The private sector was able to take over since the government could not provide enough hospitals and other medical services. Price signals control the private sector, which serves the needs of the higher income group while allowing the lower income and the needy to fend for themselves. It is because the healthcare industry has been privatised. Because government hospitals lack facilities, private hospitals draw more patients than public hospitals.
Question 10. Infrastructure contributes to a country’s economic development. Do you agree? Explain.
Answer 10: It is true that the infrastructure supports the economy’s productive activities and aids in economic growth.
The following points aim to illustrate the part that infrastructure plays in a country’s economic development:
- Infrastructure boosts output. Infrastructure on the social and economic levels aids production.
- The presence of leading infrastructure ensures increased output and productivity. The infrastructure reduces industrial costs by facilitating the flow of goods and raw materials. By eliminating inefficiencies, industries can avoid waste and use scarce resources more effectively.
- Building infrastructure encourages investment. Infrastructure provides favourable investment conditions. Shortage of basic facilities deters investment. For instance, an investor won’t invest if the sector lacks fundamental infrastructure like transportation and communication. As a result of the expansion of forwarding and reverse links, economic growth becomes a dynamic process when the proper infrastructure facilities are available. A forward link will assist in explaining this. A linked industry that relies on agriculture to provide raw materials will also increase production if, for instance, irrigation technologies promote agricultural production.
- Market size is increased by infrastructure. The firm can distribute its goods across the nation and even internationally, thanks to the quick and efficient bulk delivery of raw materials and finished goods.
Question 11. How can we make health programs more effective?
Answer 11: Besides being a fundamental human right, health is a public good. Therefore, it should be accessible to all, and nobody should be denied access to healthcare. These amenities might be available to everyone if public health services are decentralised. It suggests that local governments should be responsible for delivering these services instead of the federal government.
The success of health care depends on several factors, including education, information sharing, awareness, and robust health infrastructure. It is essential to increase general public awareness of hygiene and health. The inefficiency of health care programmes could be made worse by the telecommunications and information technology sectors due to improper management of resources.
Additionally, providing affordable, high-quality medical care may help it establish credibility and appeal. The main emphasis should be on expanding the number of hospitals to increase the effectiveness of healthcare programmes, modernising medical facilities, creating infrastructure, raising the doctor-to-population ratio, and increasing the number of medical colleges in India.
Medical services are still not widely accessible or developed in rural areas. Furthermore, there needs to be legislation to limit the exorbitant fees charged by private medical facilities to make health care facilities affordable and accessible to everyone.
Question 12. What are the reasons that state electricity boards (SEBs) suffer losses in India?
Answer 12: India still has ongoing power shortages despite a significant increase in electricity over the last 60 years. The main causes of power shortages are:
- Increased output, which is not keeping up with the rise in demand.
- Dependence on the monsoon for hydropower.
- Delays in commissioning new coal-fired power plants, both thermal and nuclear.
- Shortage of Coal supply.
- Challenges with new power plants.
The reasons why the power outages still occur are as follows:
- Power pricing is incorrect.
- As a result of transmission inefficiencies, including theft, the state electricity board also has suffered a loss. The agricultural sector commits the majority of theft.
- According to common perception, the SEBs (State Electricity Boards) are inefficient and badly governed.
- Power is also heavily subsidised in the agriculture sector for political purposes, making the State Electricity Boards unprofitable.
Considering the difficulties, it should be possible for the State Electricity Boards to substantially improve their financial situation if the farm sector is eliminated.
Three reasons account for the financial difficulties of the State Electricity Boards are as follows:
- T&D losses, particularly commercial power losses, are rising while revenues are not. The economics of power generation are completely distorted as a result.
- Unsuitable investment patterns in generation lead to a sharp rise in the price per power unit.
- The difficulty facing SEBs is made worse by the high cost of power imposed on the industry. It serves as the foundation of the SEBs and is currently avoiding the grid in favour of the captive route.
Question 13. Describe the importance of public health. Discuss key public health measures the state has taken to fight disease in recent years.
Answer 13: Public health is preserving the general population’s health through research, education, and encouraging a healthy lifestyle. By addressing the health issues of a whole population, it seeks to promote the health and well-being of people everywhere. The government has taken the following actions to promote public health:
- The government established primary healthcare centres at the village level to provide healthcare.
- Hospital beds increased to 7.2 million in 2000, while hospitals and pharmacies expanded from 9300 to 43300, compared to 1.2 million in 1951.
- The number of paramedical and nursing employees has grown from 0.18 lakhs to 8.7 lakhs. Similarly, the number of doctors practising allopathy climbed from 0.62 lakh to 5 lakh between 1951 and 2000.
- Polio, chicken pox, leprosy, and other diseases have been eradicated due to the introduction of various facilities and improved vaccination.
Question 14. What are the six systems in Indian medicine? Explain in detail.
Answer 14: The Indian system of medicine is an interdisciplinary field of study that looks at the human body’s system as a whole, encompassing biochemical, physiological, and environmental links.
March 1995 saw the establishment of the Department of Indian Systems of Medicine and Homoeopathy. (ISM&H). The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare oversees its administration. The current name of AYUSH was given to it in March 2003. On November 9, 2014, the Department of AYUSH was elevated, creating the Ministry of AYUSH.
The six systems of Indian medicine include:
- Ayurvedic medicine:
Ayurvedic ideology aims to keep structural and functional components in an equilibrium that indicates good health. The disease results from an imbalance brought on by internal or external sources, and treatment is reestablishing balance using various methods, routines, procedures, diets, and medications. The foundation of ayurvedic philosophy is the Pancha Bhootas (five element theory) idea, according to which all objects and living things are composed.
The Siddha system of medicine emphasises that in addition to treating the disease, medical treatment must consider the patient’s environment, age, habits, and physical condition. Siddha literature is published in Tamil and practised widely in Tamil-speaking India and other regions.
The Unani System of medicine is based on existing theories and techniques for improving health and avoiding illness. Although the Unani system originated in Greece and was practised in many different countries, it was refined by Arabs via their expertise and experience. Throughout the Middle Ages, the system was brought to India. The Unani system strongly emphasises using naturally occurring medicines, primarily botanical ones, although it also uses animal and marine substances.
Homoeopathy is a branch of medicine that advocates for a particular method of treating illnesses by giving patients potent medications that have been scientifically shown to have the ability to mimic human physiological processes on artificial systems.
Yoga is practised as a way of life that has the power to improve social and personal behaviour and physical health by promoting more oxygenated blood circulation in the body, restraining sensory organs, and producing mental peace.
Naturopathy is a way of living that offers drug-free disease therapy. The system is based on the conventional method of using straightforward natural rules. Natural health practitioners strongly emphasise purification techniques, hydrotherapy, baths, and massage, among other things.
Question 15. Justify that the energy crisis can be overcome with the use of renewable sources of energy.
Answer 15: India’s significant reliance on non-renewable energy sources for current use has endangered the country’s long-term development, leading to the country’s current electricity crisis. Most commonly, conventional energy sources, especially commercial sources, are exhausted (except hydropower). India has virtually limitless capacity to produce all three energy sources because it is a tropical nation. These sources can already produce energy using a few good, cost-effective technologies. It is necessary to research to create even more affordable technologies that would enable the generation of renewable energy. It will address the issue of finite energy sources and safeguard resources for coming generations.
There are various options for restoring renewable energy. It can be seen in the following examples:
- Solar Energy: The nuclear fusion power of the Sun’s core is the source of this form of energy. There are many ways to capture and transform this energy. There is something for everyone, from solar water heating with solar collectors or attic cooling with solar attic fans for home usage to the more difficult technologies of direct conversion of sunlight to electrical energy using mirrors and boilers or photovoltaic cells.
- Wind Power: The movement of the wind is caused by temperature fluctuations at the Earth’s surface due to the varying temperatures of the Earth’s surface when lighted by sunlight. Wind energy can generate electricity or pump water, but producing significant amounts of energy requires extensive geographic coverage.
- Hydroelectric energy: The gravitational potential of rising water lifted from the oceans by sunlight is used to generate hydroelectric power. Because every reservoir eventually fills and needs to be emptied to be utilised again, it is not strictly renewable.
- Biomass: The term “biomass” refers to plant-based energy. The use of this kind of energy is widespread around the world. Unfortunately, the use of firewood for cooking and heating is the most common. This procedure contributes significantly to the bad air quality in many areas by releasing a lot of carbon dioxide into the environment.
- Hydrogen and fuel cells: Fuel cells and hydrogen are not exactly sustainable energy sources, but they are both readily available and produce relatively little pollution while in use. In a car, hydrogen can be used as fuel, with the only combustion byproduct being water.
- Geothermal energy: The globe steadily releases heat energy into the atmosphere, which is further fueled by the heat produced by radioactive decay. The geothermal gradient in some areas is potent enough to produce electricity.
- Geothermal energy: The globe steadily releases heat energy into the atmosphere, which is further fueled by the heat produced by radioactive decay. The geothermal gradient in some areas is potent enough to produce electricity.
- Additional energy sources: Tide, the ocean, and hot hydrogen fusion are other sources of energy that can be used to generate power. Each of them is carefully examined. The conclusion is that each has one or more significant flaws and cannot now be relied upon to resolve the upcoming energy issue.
Question 16. Rising healthcare is nudging the Indian population towards the poverty line. Comment on the statement.
Answer 16: India now has more top-notch hospitals and highly skilled medical professionals. The nation’s development as a popular location for medical tourism has been met with great excitement and appreciation. However, the less-than-optimistic aspect of the narrative is that millions more Indians continue to struggle to get healthcare treatments due to the cost and access restrictions. India performs poorly compared to other emerging nations regarding hospital bed density, physician-to-population ratio, number of medical schools graduating each year, and per capita public spending on healthcare.
The information below demonstrates how medical costs pushed some people below the poverty level:
- According to a representative of the World Health Organization, the escalating cost of medical diagnosis, medications, and hospitalisation is pushing millions of Indians into poverty (WHO).
- Compared to 30–40% in other Asian countries like Sri Lanka, most Indians spend over 70% of their income on medications and healthcare.
- Over 40% of low-income households in India must borrow money from people outside the family to pay for their medical expenses, according to a survey carried out in six Indian states by the Indian Institute of Population Sciences and WHO. Due to this pattern, the survey found that 16% of households are below the poverty line. Experts claim that despite increased spending, the problem of subpar healthcare remains unresolved.
- Public hospitals around the nation have established grievance redressal committees, but few people know how to contact the MCI.
- In urban and rural areas, 8–9% of all households reported borrowing money to pay for medical costs.
- Medical emergencies could have disastrous effects on households that are struggling financially. Poor people rarely receive preventive medical care, and illnesses are only treated when life-threatening. Consequently, there is a double risk of financial loss due to illness and high medical expenses.
- Most bottom-of-the-pyramid households (40 per cent) experienced income loss due to illness. Nearly 22% of Metro’s economically struggling families reported having a negative surplus. The share of households in Developed Rural is 33%. Therefore, a medical emergency may push such houses over the edge, as they already spend more on essentials than they earn.
- More than 60% of households save money to cover unexpected medical costs. Over 60% of households in underdeveloped rural areas and 50% of those in large cities ranked healthcare-related savings as their top priority.
Benefits of Solving Important Questions Class 11 Economics Indian Economic Development Chapter 8
Students must thoroughly comprehend the fundamental ideas taught in the chapters to succeed in economics. Students in Class 11 Economics will be given the foundational information they need to excel in Class 12 Economics and their future academic endeavours. Infrastructure is a crucial concept; thus, students should carefully read through the study materials provided, including the NCERT textbooks, NCERT solutions, reference books, etc., to ensure they fully understand the key concepts provided in every chapter. . Students can also practise the Important Questions Class 11 Economics Indian Economic Development Chapter 8 offered by Extramarks in order to perform well in their exams.
Here are a few advantages of solving Important Questions Class 11 Economics Indian Economic Development Chapter 8:
- Important Questions Class 11 Economics Indian Economic Development Chapter 8 is produced following the most recent CBSE syllabus so that students can rely on it for exam preparation.
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Extramarks believes in incorporating a joyful learning experience through its own repository of resources. It provides various resources, which include NCERT textbooks, CBSE sample papers, NCERT revision notes, CBSE additional questions, CBSE past years’ question papers, and mock exams. These concise, accurate study materials make it convenient for students to remember everything clearly and they come in handy while answering tough questions in exams.It’s a complete self-help guide so that students need not look for answers elsewhere.In addition to Chapter 8 Class 11 Economics Indian Economic Development Important Questions, these resources are available to students. Students can access the resources by clicking on the links below:
Q.1 Explain the exclusive and inclusive method used in making class limits.
There are two methods of classifying data into class intervals.
1. Exclusive method: Under this method the upper limits of one class is the lower limits of the next class. In this way continuity of the data is maintained. E.g. class intervals are 0-5, 5-10, 10-15 and so on. Now 5 is coming twice so is 10 and 15. So the upper limit of the class is excluded , means if a student has obtained 5 marks he is not included in the first group but in the second.
2. Inclusive method: Under this method upper limits of the class interval are also included in that class. The class interval will be made like 0-4, 5-9, 10â€“14 and so on. This does not exclude the upper class limit in a class interval. Both class limits are parts of the class interval.
Q.2 Distinguish between a variable and attribute with examples.
Variable: In statistics the term variable is used for that observation which can be measured numerically. Thus incomes of households, prices of commodities, size of households, etc are all variables.
Attribute: there are some observations which cannot be measured numerically like looks of people, aptitude for music. These are called attributes. Attributes can be ranked but not measured.
Q.3 Explain three objectives of good classification.
1. When data is collected it is very often very large and cumbersome to handle the first objective of classification is to organize it into some order or homogeneous classes so that it makes some sense.
2. Data should be properly compressed.
3. It should be classified in such a way that further statistical analyses is possible.
This systematic arrangement changes simple observations into statisticalseries.
Q.4 What do you understand by classification of data?
Classification means arranging things in an appropriate order and putting them in some homogeneous groups or classes. For example in a library books are kept in some order, according to the subjects or authors, or in alphabetical order. in a school register students are divided into boys and girls. Then their names are written in alphabetical order.
After data is collected the next task is to arrange it in such a way that becomes easy to handle and convenient for further analyses.
FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
1. What are the topics included in Chapter 8 Class 11 of Economics?
Chapter 8 in Class 11 Economics is titled infrastructure. This chapter explains the role of infrastructure in economic development and the primary challenges India faces regarding social and economic infrastructure. The following topics are included in Chapter 8 of Class 11 Economics:
- What is infrastructure
- Relevance of infrastructure
- The state of infrastructure in India
- What is energy?
- Some challenges in the power sector
- State of Health Infrastructure
- Saving energy
Firstly students can refer to the NCERT material to study the base concepts of Chapter 8 thoroughly. It will give them more profound insights into India’s infrastructural situation. In addition, students can also use the Class 11 Economics Indian Economic Development Chapter 8 Important Questions provided by Extramarks to complete revision and preparation for the examinations.Practising for the examinations with these questions can also help them to improve their academic performance, through revisions and make them aware of their mistakes through guided practice and help to get the best results.
2. How should I study for the Class 11 Economics exams to achieve the best possible results?
A good strategy for studying Class 11 Economics is fairly straightforward. To get good grades on their tests, students should follow the syllabus and prepare a strategy to cover all the chapters thoroughly.. The students should fully grasp the topics covered in their NCERT textbooks before studying and practising questions from different reference books. It will help them recall important information and strengthen their prior knowledge. Finally, students can review the Economics Indian Economic Development Class 11 Chapter 8 Important Questions before the test. These simple steps will certainly help students get good grades in the exams.