Important Questions Class 11 Economics Indian Economic Development Chapter 9

Important Questions Class 11 Economics Indian Economic Development Chapter 9 – Environment and Sustainable Development 

For the economic development of any economy, the environment plays a vital and primary role. The environment provides the industries in the country with crucial raw materials and assimilates the waste generated by the industrial units. For many years economic development has taken place at the cost of the environment. The quality of the environment has deteriorated immensely at the hands of unsustainable developmental activities. Continuing down an untenable path might adversely affect the economy and economic growth of a nation. Thus it becomes imperative for the current students to understand the significance of the environment and its role in the development of an economy. Chapter 9 of Class 11 Economics explains in detail the environment and concepts relating to sustainable development.

It includes three primary parts, the first part of the chapter explains the functions and role of the environment, the second part explains in depth the state of India’s environment, and the third part deals with steps and strategies to undertake to achieve sustainable development. To study this chapter, students can refer to the Important Questions Class 11 Economics Indian Economic Development Chapter 9 provided by Extramarks for self-assessment of their understanding of the chapter.

Economics is a subject that necessitates students to read and comprehend the concepts thoroughly. At Extramarks, we understand the value of answering questions to put the lesson’s contents into practice. The subject matter experts at Extramarks have collated a list of Important Questions for Class 11 Economics Indian Economic Development Chapter 9 for students to practise. These questions are carefully selected from various sources, including NCERT books, reference books, and CBSE past years’ papers. Additionally, the step-by-step solutions provided by the expert aid in students’ understanding of the topic and help in exam preparation to ensure that students receive various questions for an all-encompassing study session.

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Important Questions Class 11 Economics Indian Economic Development Chapter 9 with Solutions

Chapter 9 on the environment and sustainable development include various topics such as the environment, nature of the environment, the environmental challenges India faces, analysis of the cause and effect between environmental degradation and resource depletion, and sustainable development. A comprehensive list of Important Questions Class 11 Economics Indian Economic Development Chapter 9 has been compiled by experts in Economics with years of experience. The questions are included in all the crucial parts of the chapter. So that students while practising these questions, they are also reviewing the chapter.

Present below is a list of Important Questions Class 11 Economics Indian Economic Development Chapter 9 provided by Extramarks for students to practice:


Question 1. What is the environment?

Answer 1: All of the external factors that impact human life are referred to as the environment. Our environment and available resources ultimately influence our existence and quality of life. It comprises all biotic and abiotic elements. Abiotic factors are all non-living things that nature provides for free, such as air, water, land, etc., while biotic factors are all living things, such as plants, animals, forests, etc. Both biotic and abiotic elements contribute to the environment we live in and have an effect on how we live. In other words, the environment includes biotic and abiotic factors and their relationships.


Question 2. Classify the following into renewable and non-renewable resources of energy

  1. Trees
  2. Fish 
  3. Petroleum 
  4. Coal 
  5. Iron-Ore 
  6. Water

Answer 2: 

  1. Renewable Resources- Trees and fish
  2. Non-renewable resources- Coal, iron-ore, petroleum


Question 3. The ozone depletion refers to the phenomenon of reductions in the amount of ozone in the: 

  1. Exosphere 
  2. Stratosphere 
  3. Troposphere 
  4. Mesosphere

Answer 3: b) Stratosphere.

Explanation: Depletion of the ozone layer is simply the wearing out (decrease) of the ozone content of the stratosphere.


Question 4. The two major environmental issues that the world is facing today are_____________ and_____________.

Answer 4: Two major global environmental issues today are Global Warming and Ozone Depletion.


Question 5. The problem of ozone layer depletion is caused in the stratosphere by high levels of compounds 

  1. Chlorine and Bromine 
  2. Chlorine and Carbon 
  3. Silicon and Bromine 
  4. Silicon and hydrogen 

Answer 5: a) Chlorine and Bromine.

Explanation: High concentrations of chemicals, including chlorine and bromine, in the stratosphere, are the root cause of the ozone depletion issue.


Question 6. What do you mean by global warming? 

Answer 6: Global warming is the gradual increase in the earth’s temperature brought on by large amounts of carbon dioxide and other chemicals released into the atmosphere. The greenhouse effect is assumed to cause a rise in the average world temperature.

The natural greenhouse effect makes the existence of humans and many other life forms possible, maintaining the earth’s temperature constant. Ever since the Industrial Revolution, human activities have significantly enhanced the greenhouse effect, pushing the planet’s average temperature by almost 1°C. The result is global warming. Natural and artificial factors that cause global warming—include deforestation, industrialisation, forest fires, rising populations, chlorofluorocarbons, etc.


Question 7. Explain how the opportunity costs of negative environmental impact are greater.

Answer 7: Opportunity cost is the price we pay when we choose or do something. If a plot of land is to be used for growing wheat, another crop, like rice, must be sacrificed. The opportunity cost of producing wheat is the loss of rice production. Similar to this, the opportunity cost of significant spending on health and finding new options outweighs the cost of a bad environment. It is described in detail in the paragraph that follows;

The environment’s carrying capacity is said to be reduced when resources are withdrawn more quickly than they are replenished. Environmental crises happen when the environment cannot provide the necessary conditions for life.

In other words, environmental crises result from the overuse of natural resources and waste production. Exploring new, eco-friendly resources is necessary to prevent an ecological crisis. Environmental problems also increase the prevalence of respiratory and water-borne illnesses, requiring more investments and spending on healthcare. The opportunity costs of poor environmental effects are the costs associated with looking for new alternative resources and the higher health costs. Such opportunity costs are quite large and necessitate significant financial outlays on the part of the government. As a result, unfavourable environmental effects have substantial opportunity costs.


Question 8. Define Bio-composting.

Answer 8: 

  • In the process of bio-composting, organic waste breaks down naturally in an environment with plenty of oxygen. Even while all waste eventually breaks down, only some types of waste are biodegradable and ought to be disposed of in compost bins.
  • Eggshells, coffee grounds, and banana peels are compostable food waste. Along with food waste, yard waste like leaves and grass clippings can be placed in compost bins. These things will speed up decomposition and minimise odour when materials break down.
  • Composting shouldn’t be used to eliminate perennial weeds because they will just come again and spread. They are reducing the garbage sent to landfills and large-scale incinerators by composting these items.
  • Composting creates a useful product in addition to reducing trash. The final compost, known as humus, is nutrient-rich and can be used to strengthen weakened soils and nourish gardens in place of synthetic fertilisers. Additionally, compost enhances soil retention capacity, which can improve growing conditions.


Question 9. Is the environmental crisis a recent phenomenon? If so, why?

Answer 9: Yes, the environmental problem is a comparatively recent phenomenon; its early signs were never visible. The population was growing slowly in the early centuries before industrialisation. The availability of environmental resources was far greater than the demand for them. In the past, the environment sustained the world’s population since fewer resources were being used at a given time. Additionally, the rate of resource regeneration outpaced the rate of resource exploitation. In other words, because natural resource exploitation never exceeded the environment’s carrying capacity, there was never a prospect of an environmental disaster.

But today, man has begun to recklessly exploit the natural world due to intensive industrialisation and urbanisation. The environment has been impacted by nuclear and industrial wastes being deposited into water bodies and air and soil pollution. The pace of exploitation of natural resources is falling behind the rate of natural resource regeneration. As a result, environmental disasters become more likely as pressure on the environment’s carrying capacity increases.


Question 10. What is Chipko Movement? How has India benefited from it? 

Answer 10: The nonviolent Chipko movement was started in 1973 to conserve and protect trees. The enormous mobilisation of women for the preservation of forests, which also led to a change in ideas and perceptions about women’s role in society, is what is most recalled about it, though. Consequently, a revolt against tree cutting and the maintenance of ecological balance started in 1973 in Uttar Pradesh’s Chamoli district (now Uttarakhand).

The word “chipko” comes from the word “embrace” since the natives would clasp and encircle the trees to prevent them from being cut down.

The Bishnoi people of Rajasthan also launched the first Chipko Andolan in the 18th century. It was started by the well-known environmentalist Sunderlal Bahuguna. The Chipko saying “ecology is the perpetual economy” is also attributed to Bahuguna.

An important accomplishment of the Chipko campaign in 1980 was a 15-year ban on tree cutting in the woods of Uttar Pradesh. Later, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Bihar, the Western Ghats, and the Vindhyas received the restriction. Following widespread protests by activists around the nation, the Indian Prime Minister gave orders for it to be done.


Question 11. Highlight any two grave adverse environmental consequences of development in India. India’s environmental problems pose a dichotomy-they are poverty induced and, at the same time, due to affluence in living standards one hand, population explosion and widespread poverty has led to deforestation in India. Is this true?

Answer 11: There are two significant negative environmental effects of development in India:

Air Pollution: The construction of thermal and industrial facilities in India cleared the door for prosperity, but the country’s air quality is deteriorating at an alarming rate due to pollution from these industries and cars.

Deforestation: Many forests are cut down to make room for more residential and agricultural areas to accommodate the enormous population’s expanding needs. Industries employ deforested timber and other raw materials as a source of raw materials for manufacturing goods.

Both poverty and high living standards indeed contribute to India’s environmental issues. For instance, deforestation results from poverty—where people need land and wood to cultivate and sustain a minimum quality of living—and affluence—where these natural resources are exploited to conduct production activities. India must identify efficient alternative resources to grow the country without depleting its natural resources.


Question 12. Describe the relevance of intergenerational equity in the definition of the term ‘sustainable development.

Answer 12: We have a moral obligation to distribute resources, so that everyone’s fundamental requirements are met. It becomes necessary to leave the earth in excellent condition for future generations. However, it is understood that if non-renewable resources are fully utilised, they would quickly run out and reduce the ability of future generations to produce. As long as no productive resources are available to future generations, the economic development that has been accomplished thus far cannot be sustained. Therefore, sustainable development is a method of economic growth that strives to satisfy current requirements without jeopardising future generations.

Maximising both current and future generations’ well-being is the goal of sustainable development. This development does not signal a slowdown in the current rate of economic expansion. It simply refers to using resources wisely or to the best of one’s ability so that intergenerational fairness is maintained while the rate of economic growth is maintained.


Question 13. Outline the acts involved in attaining sustainable development for India.

Answer 13: Sustainable development is the pursuit of economic growth through the prudent and responsible use of natural resources, ensuring that the demands of the present generation are met without jeopardising those of the following age. Giving the planet to the next generation in good condition becomes our moral obligation. According to Herman Daly, a prominent environmental economist, India has taken the following actions to advance the goal of sustainable development:

  • Population Control Measures:

India has supported several initiatives to stop population expansion. The many population control strategies include promoting literacy and knowledge of contraceptive methods.

  • Use of Environment Supportive Fuel:

The Indian government has advocated using CNG and LPG because fuels like gasoline and diesel release significant amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2), which contributes to global warming. These fuels are clean and eco-friendly and produce less smoke.

  • Use of Solar and Wind Energy:

India, a moderate nation, benefits from abundant solar and wind energy. These are two limitless, unrestricted blessings from nature. It addresses the issue of economic development while giving adequate consideration to sustainable development.

  • Recycling and Ban on Plastic Bags:

Waste from industry and households accumulates day in and day out. It is necessary to make recycling waste items a habit to preserve the environment. For organic farming, household trash can be used as manure. The Indian government recently banned the usage of plastic bags as a new measure. It is smart because recycling plastic bags causes pollution because they do not disintegrate readily.

  • Pollution Tax and Fines:

The Indian government has made efforts to reduce pollution. Regular vehicle inspections and the imposition of environmental taxes on enterprises producing smoke are a few measures. Along with these measures, lawbreakers face hefty penalties and perhaps incarceration.

  • Use of the Input Efficient Technology:

The development of input-efficient procedures has increased output and productivity and the efficacy with which inputs are employed. The effective use of information, on the one hand, results in reduced exploitation of natural resources and, on the other hand, improves India’s possibilities for future economic growth.


Question 14. What is a pollution control board?

Answer 14: The Central Pollution Control Board was founded by the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act of 1974. (CPCB). The Air Prevention and Control of Pollution Act 1981 also gave it authority and mandates.

The main functions of the Central Pollution Control Board include the following:

  • It enhances the cleanliness of streams and wells throughout the states by preventing, controlling, and reducing water pollution.
  • The board must keep an eye on the country’s air quality as it improves and endeavours to prevent, curtail, or lessen air pollution.
  • They are tasked with coordinating the work of the State Pollution Control Boards, resolving conflicts between them, establishing, amending, or repealing the requirements for streams or wells in collaboration with the relevant state governments, and establishing standards for air quality.
  • They coordinate the State Pollution Control Boards’ operations by offering advice and technical support.

It is the top organisation in the nation for pollution control as a technical branch of the MoEF, which is the Ministry of Environment, Forest, and Climate Change. Along with monitoring air quality, the board also kept meteorological information like temperature, relative humidity (RH), wind direction, and speed track. Once a week, this information regarding the air quality in ITO is updated.

With 1019 stations which operate in 27 states and six union territories, the CPCB established a state-wide network of water quality monitoring stations in collaboration with the respective SPCBs/PCCs.

The inland water quality monitoring network is organised into three levels: 

  • Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS), 
  • Monitoring of the Indian National Aquatic Resources System (MINARS), and 
  • Yamuna Action Plan (YAP).


Question 15. How do the following factors contribute to the problem of the environmental crisis in India? What problem does this pose to the government?

Answer 15: The factors contributing to the environmental crisis in India are:

  1. Rising population
  2. Air pollution
  3. Water contamination
  4. Affluent consumption standards
  5. Illiteracy
  6. Industrialisation
  7. Urbanisation
  8. Reduction of forest coverage
  9. Poaching
  10. Global warming.


  • Rising population: 

In terms of two key areas, an increasing population has placed an overwhelming strain on the environment. The important resources have been depleted due to the extensive and intensive extraction of renewable and non-renewable resources. Additionally, the rapidly growing population has sparked an unsustainable housing demand, which has led to widespread deforestation and the rapid loss of other natural resources, creating ecological imbalances. Therefore, it is imperative that the Indian government act now to check the population boom.

  • Air pollution:

Life is supported by the oxygen present in the air. Air contamination denotes a lack of clean air (oxygen) to breathe. Air is polluted by several pollutants, including CO2, CO, SO2, and others. Asthma, respiratory, cardiovascular, and hypertension issues are all brought on by air pollution. Therefore, the Indian government should take necessary measures to reduce air pollution, prevent deforestation, improve health investment, and look for new, pollution-free technologies like CNG, among other things.

  • Water contamination:

Water pollution and contamination pose a severe hazard to human existence. It is the primary cause of all fatal illnesses, including cholera, hepatitis, and diarrhoea. It happens due to sewerage, industrial waste, and the agricultural waste being dumped into water bodies. As a result, the Indian government needs to regulate wastewater disposal. Significant capital expenditure is required to install and maintain purifier machines.

  • Affluent consumption standards:

Affluent Consumption Standards have significantly strained the ecosystem in terms of resource supply and waste assimilation. Resources are no longer available, and the amount of garbage being produced exceeds the capacity of the environment to absorb it, causing environmental disasters. The government must spend enormous sums on research and development To investigate alternate, environmentally acceptable resources.

Additionally, improving environmental quality is extremely expensive.

  • Illiteracy:

People will not use resources wisely if uneducated, eventually overusing or misusing limited resources. Only when individuals are conscious of and competent at using the resources can they be used wisely and efficiently (with the least amount of waste). Otherwise, a lack of knowledge and abilities could cause excessive resource extraction and, as a result, its misuse. Therefore, the government should take action to raise awareness of and disseminate technical information about numerous effective and cost-saving solutions among the populace.

  • Industrialisation:

On  one hand, industrialisation raises our living standard, but on the other, it leads to deforestation and the depletion of natural resources. Industrialisation catalyses the irrational rush to achieve economic development. Natural resources are being utilised quickly to hasten the industrialisation process. More trees are being cut down, and more harmful chemicals and industrial waste are being dumped into waterways. All of these lead to ecological imbalances that threaten the growth of a sustainable economy. Therefore, to restore ecological balance, the government should take action to stop unjustified industrial growth.

  • Urbanisation:

On  one hand, urbanisation brings about the modernisation of living standard, but on the other, it causes deforestation. More trees will need to be cut down to meet the rising demand for homes, lowering the land-to-person ratio. Rapid urbanisation overtaxes the environment’s resources, leading to their depletion. Additionally, urbanisation diminishes the land used for farming and affects farm productivity. Therefore, the government should take action to lessen the effects of urbanisation by encouraging small-scale rural industries and the development of rural infrastructure, thereby lowering rural-urban migration. Additionally, the government should promote afforestation and, more crucially, take action to stop the population boom.

  • Reduction of forest coverage:

Due to increased demand for land and wood, an increase in population, and projects involving river valleys, there is a need for deforestation or a reduction in the amount of forest cover. Deforestation causes soil erosion, a drop in atmospheric oxygen, climatic change, and global warming as a result of an increase in CO2 levels. Therefore, the government must take steps to encourage afforestation and the opening of sanctuaries and national parks like Jim Corbett National Park.

  • Poaching:

The illegal capture, killing, and hunting of animals is known as poaching. As a result, numerous species of animals are in danger of becoming extinct. There are major ecological imbalances as a result of overkill in hunting and slaughter. Therefore, new sanctuaries and national parks need to be established to safeguard endangered species like the tiger, Asian elephants, Grevy’s zebra, etc. Many environmental laws, such as the Endangered Species Act in the USA, which imposes harsh penalties on lawbreakers, are also necessary.

  • Global warming:

The continuous global temperature rise brought on by environmental pollution and deforestation is known as global warming. It is brought on by the release of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide. The temperature of the earth’s surface rises as carbon dioxide levels rise. This increased temperature hastens the polar ice’s melting, further raising the sea level. As a result, the frequency of natural disasters increases due to the disruption of the ecological balance, endangering human lives.

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The impact on the environment is massive when considering a country’s economic growth and development. Countries must start their journeys on the path of sustainable development to save the environment from reckless degradation. Chapter 9 of Class 11 Economics explains to students the concepts of environment and sustainable development. While this chapter can help students to understand the critical issues related to what is currently happening in the economy, it is also crucial from the examination point of view. Students can prepare for this chapter with the Important Questions Class 11 Economics Indian Economic Development Chapter 9 offered by Extramarks, which can enhance their understanding of the concepts and boost their performance.

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Q.1 The following table shows the distribution of Indian population by their working status. Draw a pie chart to represent the given data.

Status Population(crore) Per cent Angular component
Marginal worker 9 8.8 32°
Main Worker 33 32.4 111°
Non-worker 60 58.8 217°
All 102 100.0 360°











The following is the required pie chart.

Q.2 The table below shows the enrolment by gender at schools of children aged between 12-16 years in a district of Bihar. From the following table draw a component bar diagram.

Gender Enroled (per cent) Out of school (percent)
Boy 92.5 7.5
Girl 55.6 44.4
All 76.0 20.0








The required component diagram is shown below.

Q.3 Calculate the ‘less than’ and ‘more than’ frequencies for the following table.

Marks in English (x) Number of students (f)
0-20 5
20-40 6
40-60 36
60-80 13
80-100 4
total 64













The ‘less than’ and ‘more than’ frequencies for the table is shown below:

Marks (x) Number of students (f) ‘less than’ cumulative frequency ‘more than’ cumulative frequency
0-20 5 5 64
20-40 6 11 59
40-60 36 47 53
60-80 13 60 17
80-100 4 64 4
total 64













Q.4 Distinguish between a bar diagram and histogram.


A bar diagram is one dimensional because height of the bar is significant and not the width of the bar. A histogram is two dimensional because height of the rectangle represents frequency while width of the rectangle represents class-interval. A bar diagram is a graphical representation and can be used for both discrete and continuous series while histogram is a graphical representation of a frequency distribution of only a continuous series.

Q.5 Ogive is also known as

A. cumulative frequency curve.
B. mixed frequency curve.
C. positively sloped curve.
D. relatively sloped curve.
cumulative frequency curve.

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FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What are the topics covered in Chapter 9 of Class 11 Economics?

Chapter 9 of Class 11 Economics is on Environment and Sustainable Development. The following topics are present in Chapter 9:


  • Introduction
  • Environment definition and functions
  • Global warming
  • Ozone depletion
  • State of India’s environment
  • Chipko or Appiko movement – What’s in a name?
  • Pollution control boards
  • Sustainable development
  • Strategies for sustainable development

Students can study the chapter from the NCERT book to understand the theory. They can also refer to Class 11 Economics Indian Economic Development Chapter 9 Important Questions for practice to recall and practice whatever they have read and understood from the lesson.

2. Do the Economics Indian Economic Development Class 11 Chapter 9 Important Questions help for the exam preparations?

Developed by subject experts, the list of the important questions provided by Extramarks is a great resource for students to practice for their Economics examinations. The step-by-step explanation is presented in an easy-to-comprehend language. Students can make the most out of these by practising these questions along with the NCERT books, reference books and CBSE sample papers. 

The list of important questions is thus a good resource for students that can help them to earn better grades in their tests and examinations.