Important Questions Class 12 Biology Chapter 12
Important Questions Class 12 Biology Chapter 12
Important Questions for CBSE Class 12 Biology Chapter 12 – Biotechnology and its Applications
The Class 12 Biology Chapter 12 Important Questions outlines biology as a broad area and the uses of technology and its application. In these Class 12 Biology Chapter 12 Important Questions, the term “Green Biotechnology” or “Green Revolution” refers to the use of biotechnology in agriculture.
Organic agriculture, agrochemical-based agriculture, and genetically engineered crop-based agriculture are just a few of the ways that biotechnology has impacted the agricultural industry.
Moreover, in these Class 12 Biology Chapter 12 Important Questions, Extramarks will provide students with detailed and authentic solutions to important questions framed on the parallel lines to CBSE past years’ question papers so that students can prepare for their examination according to the CBSE syllabus.
CBSE Class 12 Biology Chapter 12 Important Questions
Study Important Questions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 12 Biotechnology and its Applications
Very Short Answer Questions (1 Mark):
- What is a patent?
Ans. An inventor of biological material who obtains a patent is protected by the government and is given temporary, exclusive rights to produce, use, and sell his or her invention.
- What are genetically modified organisms (GMOs)? Explain the difference between GMO and hybrid.
Ans. Genetically Modified Organisms are known as GMOs. To create them, genes from a species with the desired traits are inserted into the genes of an unrelated plant or animal. When a plant’s pollen is utilised to fertilise many unrelated plant species, a hybrid is created. A hybrid animal is created when two different species of animals breed. GMOs, on the other hand, are made by fusing the DNA of a different species with the desired genes from an animal or plant of any different species.
- How is the insulin produced through recombinant DNA technology more beneficial than the insulin taken out of the pancreas of slaughtered pigs and cattle?
Ans. Allergies are brought on by animal-derived insulin, and the slaughter of animals used in its manufacture constitutes animal cruelty. Recombinant DNA technology thus has an advantage over other options.
- Tobacco plants are affected by which is nematode reduces yield?
Ans. The nematode Meloidogyne Incognita attacks the roots of tobacco plants, greatly reducing their output.
- What is the technology used in the detection of the HIV virus?
Ans. ELISA or Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay is a method used to detect the virus (HIV) that is based on the idea of antigen-antibody interaction.
- What is the bacteria in genetic engineering used to produce insect-resistant plants?
Ans. A bacteria called Bacillus thuringiensis is employed in genetic engineering to develop plants that are resistant to insects.
- Define biopiracy.
Ans. Obtaining patents that limit the use of naturally occurring genetic material or biochemicals for commercial purposes without compensating the local population is known as “biopiracy”.
- Define ELISA.
Ans. The Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay is known as ELISA. A particular antibody is used to capture the target antigen in samples, and an enzyme reaction with a substrate is used to detect the target molecule.
Short Answer Questions (2 marks)
- Name the two methods used to correct ADA deficiency in a child.
Ans. Bone marrow transplantation with a functional and active ADA enzyme and enzyme replacement therapy.
- What is GEAC and its objectives?
Ans. The organisation in charge of approving genetic engineering initiatives is called the Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC). The GEAC wants to achieve the following things:
- Determine whether GM research is legitimate.
- Determine whether it is safe to introduce GMOs for usage by the general public.
- Justify the statement “industrialised nations are exploiting the bioresources of under-industrialised nations”.
Ans. Industrialized nations are gathering and patenting the genetic resources of underdeveloped nations, including India. An American business patented basmati rice. Valuable biomolecules generated from bioresources are patented and used for business.
- What is a recombinant vaccine? Give examples.
Ans. Recombinant DNA technology is used to create a recombinant vaccination. To trigger an immune response, the DNA encoding an antigen is introduced into bacterial or mammalian cells. These cells subsequently express the antigens and purify them. Vaccination against the Human Papillomavirus, for instance, is Hepatitis B.
- Define golden rice and its advantages.
Ans. Golden rice is a gene that codes for vitamin A and is found in the transgenic rice variety known as “golden rice”. This kind, which has greenish-yellow grains and is strong in vitamin A, is nutritious.
- How does RNA control gene expression?
Ans. RNA interference can be utilised to function gene expression. It is the mechanism through which the creation of sense and antisense strands inhibits the gene’s function.
- RNA with two strands would be created.
- It is divided into little pieces known as short-interference RNA.
- The siRNA is incorporated into a silencing complex known as RISC.
- With the aid of a complementary base sequence, RISC silences mRNA.
- This process is called mRNA silencing.
Short Answer Questions (3 Marks)
- Some large firms and other groups take advantage of bioresources for financial gain without properly compensating or authenticating the appropriate authorities.
- What is the term used for the act?
- What are the two ways to get rid of this unauthorized act?
Ans. The advantages of bioresources ought to be distributed equally between industrialised and developing nations. To prevent the illicit use of bioresources, laws should be created.
- Why are genetically modified animals created? Explain with examples.
Ans. For the following uses, transgenic or genetically modified animals are created.
- To be able to research how genes are controlled and how they impact the body’s development and regular operation. For instance, knowledge of the biological function of insulin-like growth factors.
- Recognize the role that genes play in the aetiology of the disease.
- By introducing a fragment of the DNA encoding for that substance in another creature, a useful biological molecule is created. For instance, transgenic organisms can be used to manufacture antitrypsin. Emphysema is treated with the help of this protein.
- To assess the safety of vaccination. For instance, a genetically modified mouse was used to test the polio vaccine.
- How to produce a nematode-resistant transgenic plant?
Ans. Meloidogyne incognita, a nematode, infects tobacco plants and lowers the plant’s yields. The Agrobacterium vector is used to introduce specific parasite genes into plants. Both sense and antisense RNA are produced by the newly inserted genes. Since these two RNAs are complementary, double-stranded RNA (ds RNA) is then formed. By using a technique known as RNA interference, it neutralises specific nematode RNA, rendering the parasite unable to survive inside the altered host. The plant is shielded from pests in this way.
- Who was tested with the first gene therapy?
Ans. On September 14, 1990, at the NIH Clinical Center, a four-year-old girl received the first treatment using gene therapy. She had adenosine deaminase deficiency, a hereditary disease. Because the genetically modified lymphocytes utilised in the therapy are mortal and must be given to the patient on a regular basis, the treatment is ongoing.
- What is a cry protein? Explain it in detail.
The soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis creates a crystalline protein known as the “cry protein.” The larvae of insects like mosquitoes, beetles, and tobacco buds are poisoned by this protein. When consumed by the insect, the cry protein transforms from an inactive protoxin that is created into an active toxin. Insects’ alkaline gut pH has the power to dissolve cry protein crystals. When the activated cry protein binds to an insect’s midgut, holes are formed in the intestinal epithelial cells, which leads to cell lysis and ultimately insect death. This protein’s gene, which also contains bacteria, is inserted into the crops to confer insect resistance.
- Describe antigens and antibodies.
Ans. An antigen is like a foreign substance that causes the body’s immune system to react. Moreover, an antibody is a huge Y-shaped protein made by plasma cells that block the immune system’s response to invaders like bacteria and viruses. On this, two diagnostic kits are based:
- Kits for ELISA
- Pregnancy tests for HIV
- How does the production of insulin take place in genetically modified organisms?
Ans. Chains A and B are two short polypeptide chains that make up the protein known as human insulin. The disulfide bonds bind these chains together. Processing transforms or matures insulin from its prohormone or precursor state, where it is released. In order to make the precursor hormone functional, another polypeptide known as C-peptide is removed during processing. Genetic engineering was employed to transfer the two DNA sequences that code for human insulin chains A and B into the plasmid in Escherichia coli, which is then used to produce the insulin protein. A disulfide bridge is built to extract and link the two chains that result.
Long Answer Questions (5 Marks)
- How was rDNA technology used by Eily Lily to produce peptide hormones?
Ans. Eli Lilly Company developed two DNA sequences that correspond to the A and B peptide chains of human insulin, which were subsequently inserted into the plasmid E. coli to produce insulin chains. The insulin protein was made by creating and extracting Chains A and B separately, and then joining them to form an insulin-forming disulfide link.
- How can we cure people suffering from Adenosine Deaminase deficiency?
Ans. Gene therapy can treat ADA deficiency. Either enzyme replacement therapy or bone marrow transplantation, in which the patient receives an injection of functioning ADA, can be used to treat this condition. These strategies are commonplace, though. This is because the therapy’s genetically modified cells are transient, necessitating recurrent patient administration of the enzyme.
- Name the five areas of human lives influenced by biotechnology.
Ans. Biotechnology has affected human lives in the following areas:
- Biotechnology offers genetically engineered crops with a high nutritional value.
- Recombinant vaccine manufacturing has benefited from it.
- It has developed methods for treating genetic illnesses, such as gene therapy.
- Microbes that have been genetically modified are created to reduce environmental contamination.
- It is possible to create transgenic animals that can manufacture human proteins.
- List the drawbacks of the insulin produced from slaughtered pigs and cows.
Ans. The following are the negative effects of using insulin made from dead animals.
- Since the body only produces extremely small levels of insulin, a significant number of animals are killed, which is unethical.
- Insulin will get contaminated if the animals that were killed were infected, which will then infect the acceptor.
- Patients may experience an immunological reaction to the injected animal-derived insulin.
FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
1. Enlist some uses of biotechnology.
In the sphere of medicine, where it makes it easier to produce therapeutic proteins and other medications, biotechnology is particularly significant.
2. Explain cloning.
Scientists employ the process of cloning to create perfect genetic replicas of living creatures.
3. What is the use of biotechnology in medicine?
The study of medicine has benefited greatly from biotechnology, which also continues to progress in the area. Some of its uses are as follows:
- To find hazardous diseases in both humans and animals, diagnostic techniques are performed.
- Hereditary illnesses can now be treated using genetic alteration techniques like gene therapy.
- Recombinant DNA technology aids in the creation of therapeutic pharmaceuticals that are safer and more effective.
- Understanding the underlying gene issue and addressing it will help treat diseases caused by gene deficiencies.
- Patients with diabetes are frequently treated by ingesting genetically modified insulin at regular intervals.
4. What are the two important tenets of biotechnology?
Chemical engineering and genetic engineering are the two fundamental tenets of biotechnology. The scale of operation is where chemical engineering and biotechnology diverge. The idea behind this genetic engineering technique is to change the organism’s original genetic makeup.