CBSE Important Questions Class 12 Biology Chapter 4
Important Question Class 12 Biology Chapter 4
Important Questions For CBSE Class 12 Biology Chapter 4 – Reproductive Health
Reproduction is a biological process through which an organism gives birth to its offspring. This process is essential for the existence and continuity of life on earth. People, however, often do not take care of their reproductive health in the way they care about their physical health. Unresolved reproductive problems may cause critical diseases at a later stage. The significance of reproductive health is not limited to the normal functioning of male and female organs, but rather has broader implications for physical, social, and mental well-being of individuals related to the reproductive system. Important Questions Class 12 Biology Chapter 4 will help students practise more questions from the chapter to enhance their preparation and get a 100% score in the board exams.
CBSE Class 12 Chapter 4 – Important Questions
Important Questions Of CBSE Class 12 Biology Chapter 4 – Reproductive Health
1 Mark Very Short Answer Questions
Q.1. Which technique is used to transfer an ovum collected from a donor into the fallopian tube of another female who cannot produce ova but can provide a suitable environment for fertilisation and development?
Ans. The technique that involves the transfer of an ovum from a donor into the fallopian tube of another female is known as Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer.
Q.2. Write the name of the prenatal diagnostic technique developed to know the sex of a developing foetus and detect congenital anomalies.
Ans. Amniocentesis is the prenatal diagnostic technique developed to determine the sex of a developing foetus and detect congenital disorders.
Q.3. Write the full forms of the following:
Ans. The full forms of the acronyms are as follows:
- GMT → Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer
- IUCD → Intrauterine Contraceptive Devices
Q.4. What is lactation amenorrhea?
Ans. Lactation amenorrhea is a period of temporary infertility in lactating mothers.
Q.5. How can the chromosomal disorders of a foetus be detected?
Ans. Fetal cells and substances extracted from the amniotic fluid are analysed to detect chromosomal disorders in a foetus.
Q.6. Write the name of the oral contraceptive pill developed by the Central Drug Research Institute of India.
Ans. Saheli is an oral contraceptive pill developed by the Central Drug Research Institute of India as a measure of birth control.
Q.7. Write the names of the causative agents of syphilis and gonorrhoea.
Ans. The causative agents of syphilis and gonorrhoea are Treponema Pallidum and Neisseria Gonorrhoeae respectively.
2 Marks Short Answer Questions
Q.1. Why is lactational amenorrhea considered a natural method of contraception? How long does it remain effective?
Ans. Females cannot conceive during the period of lactational amenorrhea because the natural process of ovulation does not occur during this period. Hence, lactational amenorrhea is considered a natural method of contraception.
This method remains effective up to six months following parturition.
Q.2. Write down four reasons for infertility.
Ans. Infertility in females could be due to many reasons. The four most common reasons among them are:
Q.3. How does copper-T act as a contraceptive?
Ans. Copper-T is an IntraUterine Device that diffuses into the uterus and releases toxic cytokines to suppress the motility of sperm, which reduces the chances of fertilisation.
Q.4. Explain in brief any two natural methods of birth control.
Ans. The two natural methods of birth control are mentioned below:
- Periodic Abstinence: In this method, the couple abstains from coitus from the tenth to the seventeenth day of the menstrual cycle, as chances of fertilisation are very high during this period. This period is called the fertile period.
- Coitus Interruptus: In this method, the male partner withdraws his organ to avoid ejaculation in the female vagina.
Q.5. How are non-medicated IUDS different from hormone-releasing devices? Give examples.
Ans. The difference between non-medicated IUDS and hormone-releasing devices is given below.
|Non-medicated IUDS||Hormone Releasing IUDS|
|These types of IUDSs increase the phagocytosis of sperms within the uterus, and the copper ions released suppress the motility and fertilising capacity of sperm.||These types of devices make the uterus and cervix unsuitable for sperm by releasing hormones. Thus, they prevent the implantation process and act as contraceptives.|
|Examples: Lippes Loop, Cu-T, Multiload 375, etc.||Examples: Progestasert, LNG 20, etc.|
Q.6. What is a vasectomy?
Ans. Vasectomy is a surgical method of birth control in which a small part of the vas deferens of a male is severed or tied up through a small incision on the scrotum to block the transport of gametes in the female body. Although highly effective, it is almost an irreversible technique.
Q.7. What are MTPs? Under what conditions are MTPs legal in India?
Ans. MTP is an abbreviated form of medical termination of pregnancy.
MTPs are legal in India under the following conditions:
- The conception happened due to casual, unprotected cohabitation.
- The contraceptives used during cohabitation did not work.
- There is a risk to the life of the mother, the foetus, or both.
Q.8. Write down any four objectives of the Reproductive and Child Health Care Programme.
Ans. The four major objectives of the Reproductive and Child Health Care programme,, or RCHC are as follows:
- To create awareness among people of various aspects of reproduction including STDs, birth control measures, etc.
- To provide medical facilities and care for the problems related to reproduction like menstrual irregularities, infertility, etc.
- To provide postnatal child care and maternal management.
- To remove stereotypical ideas about sex-related crimes.
3 Marks Long Answer Questions
Q.1. What are the other names for sexually transmitted diseases? Names of two STDs that are curable and two diseases that are not curable.
Ans. The other names for sexually transmitted diseases are: Venereal Disease (VD) and Reproductive Tract Infection (RTI).
The two curable STDs are: Syphilis and Gonorrhea.
The two non-curable STDs are: Hepatitis B and AIDS.
Q.2. How does a nation keep track of its population growth? Write down two differences between the natality rate and the mortality rate.
Ans. Natality rate and mortality rate are two methods through which the government of a nation records whether its population is increasing or decreasing.
The differences between the natality rate and the mortality rate are as follows:
|Natality Rate||Mortality Rate|
|Natality rate measures the rate of birth, where the number of births per year per thousand individuals is counted.||Mortality rate measures the rate of death, where the number of deaths per year per thousand individuals is counted.|
|Natality rate records the increase in population.||The mortality rate records the decrease in population.|
Q.3. Define in vitro fertilisation? What are test tube babies?
Ans. In vitro fertilisation is a process in which the fertilisation of the ovum takes place in an artificial environment similar to that in the body.
The test tube babies are those who are born from the zygotes produced in an artificial environment by the process of in-vitro fertilisation. Like other normal babies, they grow inside the mother’s uterus.
Q.4. Describe three methods by which the fertilisation of an ovum by sperm can be prevented.
Ans. The three methods by which fertilisation of a female egg by sperm can be prevented are:
- Natural Method: In this method, the partner avoids the meeting of gametes.
- Periodic Abstinence: The couple avoids coitus during the fertile period when chances of conception are high. This period is counted from the tenth day to the seventeenth day of the menstrual cycle.
- Lactational Amenorrhea: During the period of intensive lactation the ovulation process does not occur in the lactating mother’s body.
- Barrier Method: In this method, the meeting of gametes is avoided artificially.
- Condoms: These are thin barriers made up of a rubber or latex sheath to cover the penis of males or the cervix of females.
- Diaphragms Cervical Caps: These are also made up of rubber and are reusable.
- Surgical Method: In this method, the meeting of gametes is avoided by preventing the transport of the gametes.
- Vasectomy: This is the process of sterilising a male by removing a small portion of the vas deferens or tying it up through an incision on the scrotum.
- Tubectomy: In this process, small portions of the fallopian tubes of the female organ are removed or tied up through the vagina.
Q.5. What is population explosion? Discuss four reasons for the population explosion in India.
Ans. The term population explosion refers to the rapid increase in the number of people in a given area.
The four probable reasons for the population explosion in India are mentioned below.
- The improvement of healthcare facilities has increased the average lifespan of men.
- Better living conditions are another reason for population growth.
- The practice of early marriage continues in certain rural areas.
- The lack of education and awareness in poor families also contributes to the population explosion in India.
Important Questions of Chapter 4 Biology Class 12
Chapter 4 Class 12 Biology Important Questions aims to help students practise more questions before the board exam. Students have to learn the concepts well to understand the differences among the various methods. They have to memorise the terminologies associated with reproduction. Class 12 Chapter 4 Biology Important Questions will help them revise the chapter as well as get an idea of what kind of questions they should prepare for the CBSE exam. The NCERT Books of the latest CBSE Syllabus and the questions from the past years have been consulted by the subject matter experts before preparing the questionnaires so that all the important topics are covered. Students can rely on this questionnaire to practise extra questions to get a few extra marks.
Chapter 4 – Reproductive Health
Reproductive health refers to the physical, social, and psychological well-being of individuals in all matters related to reproduction. India is one of the first countries to take measures at the national level to attain a reproductively healthy society.
Creating awareness about reproductive health among the masses is mandatory to address problems like infertility, sexual diseases, the health of pregnant women, post-natal child care, etc. With the amniocentesis process, it became possible to know the sex of unborn babies. However, the growing misuse of this technique for female feticide led the Indian government to ban it in the country.
The increase in population has put pressure on the country’s natural resources and economy also increases. So, the birth rate should be controlled to avoid the consequences of overpopulation. Natural methods, barrier methods, surgical methods, oral contraceptive pills, IUDS, etc. are effective to control the natality rate. MTPs are legalised in India to avoid undesired pregnancies due to rape, casual relationships, or possible harm to the fetus, the mother, or both. Thus, MTPs also help keep population growth in check.
Nowadays, infertile couples can also have children through various methods. In-vitro fertilisation is the most common of them. In this process, fertilisation takes place outside the body, and then the embryo is transferred into the uterus. Babies born by this method are called test tube babies. In-vivo fertilisation, intra-cytoplasmic sperm injections, artificial insemination, intrauterine insemination, etc. are other effective processes of conception.
However, one should not overlook sexual disorders. Unprotected cohabitation may cause non-curable diseases like AIDS, other pelvic inflammatory diseases, stillbirth, and even infertility. The reasons for these diseases could be manifold, but drug consumption, physical and psychological problems, heredity, etc. are the most common of them. It is noteworthy that, if an individual faces any problem related to reproduction, especially in the case of diseases, they should consult medical professionals immediately to prevent further complications.
Class 12 Biology Chapter 4 Important Questions include graded questions with varying levels of difficulty. The solutions are also provided here to help students save time and ensure thorough preparation of each and every question. Students should practise the questions before the exam to recapitulate the concepts and various terms related to reproduction. This set of important questions will help the students with a deep understanding of concepts so that they can handle any tricky questions and get excellent marks in the board exams.
FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
1. Why is amniocentesis banned in India?
Amniocentesis can also be used to detect congenital disorders and determine the gender of the foetus which is often misused by people. Therefore Indian government has banned amniocentesis to prevent female foeticide.
2. When did India adopt the “family planning” programme?
In 1951, India initiated the “family planning” programme.
3. What is sterilisation?
Sterilisation is a surgical method for preventing pregnancy.