Important Questions Class 12 Micro Economics Chapter 5

Important Questions for CBSE Class 12 Micro Economics Chapter 5 – Market Equilibrium

Students often attempt the NCERT textbook questions after reading a chapter to gain a better understanding of the topic. Additionally, they can solve Important Questions. It is one of the most effective and smartest ways to prepare for the Class 12 board exams.

Students can identify the main topics of Chapter 5 “Market Equilibrium” of Class 12 Microeconomics with Extramarks’ Important Questions Class 12 Microeconomics Chapter 5. These questions come with detailed answers, so students can practise them and identify points to improve their answers. Moreover, these questions are set by subject matter experts as per the CBSE Syllabus, exam trends, and past years question papers. As a result, it is recommended that Class 12 students solve these questions.

CBSE Class 12 Micro Economics Chapter 5 Important Questions – Free Download

Study Important Questions for Class 12 Economics Chapter 5 – Market Equilibrium

When the supply of an item is equal to the demand for it, a market is said to be in equilibrium. Chapter 5 Class 12 Micro Economics Important Questions covers a wide range of concepts, including an overview of the concept of “market equilibrium,” its definition and meaning, as well as its terms “equilibrium price,” “equilibrium quantity,” “excess demand,” “excess supply,” “non-variable industry,” “variable industry,” “price ceiling,” and “price floor.”

Given below is a sample of Micro Economics Class 12 Chapter 5 Important Questions. Students can view additional questions through the link provided here.

  1. Very Short Answer Questions – 1 Mark

Q1. What is a price maker firm?

Ans: An organisation that has the power to affect prices independently is referred to as a price maker. A company with market dominance can raise prices without losing customers.

Q2. What is a price-taker firm?

Ans: A firm that accepts the industry pricing because of its smaller transaction sizes is referred to as a price taker. It must consent to the price set by market forces.

Q3. If a single business cannot affect the market price in a situation of perfect competition, who can alter the market price?

Ans: In a market with perfect competition, the industry has the power to influence market pricing by altering its output.

Q4. What does “normal profit” mean?

Ans: The absolute minimal profit needed to sustain an entrepreneur’s business over the long term is called normal profit. The profit exceeds the potential cost that the company incurs by efficiently using its resources.

Q5. Explain advertising costs.

Ans: Advertising expenses are what a business spends to boost sales through channels like TV, radio, newspapers, magazines, and more.

Q6. Describe the cooperative oligopoly.

Ans: A cooperative oligopoly develops when businesses in an oligopoly market work together to determine pricing and output.

  1. Short answer Questions – 3 or 4 Marks

Q1. Why is there a small number of businesses in an oligopoly? Explain.

Ans: The main reason an oligopoly has a small number of enterprises is that there are obstacles to new businesses entering the market. Patents, high start-up costs, and ownership of essential raw materials are just a few of the barriers that prevent new businesses from entering the market. Only those who are able to solve these challenges will enter and survive in the market.

Due to this, an oligopoly has a small number of enterprises.

Q2. Describe two characteristics of a monopoly market.

Ans: The two most important traits of a monopoly market are as follows:

  1. Sole Seller: Since there is only one seller in the market, the seller has independent control over the market price. A company with market control can raise prices without losing customers or competitors.
  1. High Entry Barrier: Since there are barriers to entry for new businesses, sellers can generate anomalous profits that are significantly greater than typical earnings.

Q3. Describe the effects of the following:

  • Oligopolistic firm interdependence
  • A perfect competition with many sellers. 

Ans: The consequences of the aforementioned characteristics are as follows:

  1. A small number of enormous firms frequently make up oligopolies. Each company is so large that its actions have an effect on the market environment. Competing businesses will consequently be informed of a firm’s market activities and will react appropriately. When one company’s actions have a major effect on the other businesses in the industry, mutual interdependence arises.
  2. A market with perfect competition is characterised by a large number of buyers and sellers of a given good, which suggests that neither the buyers nor sellers in the market make purchases or sales that are substantial enough to have a significant impact on the market’s overall sales or purchases. Only a small amount of the market’s demand and supply is owned by each buyer and seller.

Q4. Briefly describe why a company operating in perfect competition is a price taker rather than a price maker.

Ans: A company in perfect competition is a price taker rather than a price maker since the price is determined by the forces of supply and demand on the market. The price at which  demand and supply for a particularly good meet are called the equilibrium price. All businesses in the industry must sell their products at the equilibrium price. This is due to the large number of businesses that are in perfect competition. Therefore, the supply of any firm has no bearing on the price. The same kind of product is produced by all businesses.

  1. Long Answer Questions – 6 Marks  

Q1. An equilibrium exists in the market for a commodity. Both the supply of  commodities and their demand are rising at the same time. Describe how it affects the market price.

Ans: Equilibrium occurs when there is no desire for a circumstance to change. The number of commodities that consumers expect to purchase and the number of things that producers intend to sell are equal when equilibrium is attained. The laws of supply and demand cause the market to reach equilibrium. In three distinct instances, the impact of rising demand and supply on equilibrium price and quantity is examined:

  1. When demand growth equals supply growth: The rightward shift in the demand curve from D1D1 to D2D2 is equivalent to the rightward shift in the supply curve from S1S1 to S2S2. The new equilibrium is established by E2. The equilibrium price stays constant at OP1 because both supply and demand are increasing in the same ratio, while the equilibrium quantity is rising from Oq1 to Oq2.
  1. When demand growth surpasses supply growth: The demand curve’s rightward shift from D1D1 to D2D2 is proportionally bigger than the supply curve’s rightward shift from S1S1 to S2S2. The new equilibrium is located at E2, where the equilibrium quantity rises from Oq1 to Oq2, and the price from OP1 to OP2
  1. When supply growth surpasses demand growth: The rightward shift in the demand curve from D1D1 to D2D2 is proportionately smaller than the rightward movement in the supply curve from S1S1 to S2S2. The new equilibrium is found at E2. While the equilibrium quantity grows from Oq1 to Oq2, the equilibrium price lowers from OP1 to OP2.

Q2. How would an increase in the consumers’ income influence the equilibrium price and equilibrium quantity of a common good or service?

Ans: The demand curve for common goods shows a rightward shift as consumers’ income grows. The supply curve remains the same. It is assumed that consumers are willing to spend more for the same amount when their income increases. This increases the cost of the goods. Therefore, it motivates the production of the same good, which increases supply. 

Accordingly, a rise in demand and its ensuing shift to the right has an impact on producer choices since it causes the supply to increase in reaction to a rise in price. As a result, an increase in demand and the resulting shift to the right have an effect on producer choices because it causes supply to increase in response to a price increase.


Students can practise these questions after reading and understanding the chapter. It also helps them quickly review important concepts. These questions will help students boost their confidence in their preparations. Extramarks’ Class 12 Micro Economics Chapter 5 Important Questions are prepared by subject matter experts as per the revised CBSE exam pattern and syllabus. Students can visit the website and access this set of questions to ace their exams.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is the topic weightage of Chapter 5 Class 12 Microeconomics in the exam?

Class 12 Microeconomics Chapter 5 is worth 20 points and is one of the essential topics covered briefly in exams. The mark distribution for the chapter is explained below:


Unit Number Topic Type of Question
5.1 Equilibrium, Excess Demand, Excess Supply
  • 1 short
  • 1 long
5.1.1 Market Equilibrium: Fixed Number of Firms
  • 1 short
5.1.2 Market Equilibrium: Free Entry and Exit
  • 1 short
5.2 Applications 
  • 1 short
  • 1 long
5.2.1 Price Ceiling
  • 1 short
5.2.2 Price Floor
  • 1 short

2. What types of questions will be asked in the Class 12 board exams?

Both subjective and objective questions will be asked. The exam will have multiple-choice questions (MCQs), short-answer questions, and long-answer questions with varying marks.

3. How is preparing for important questions vital for acing the exam?

Exam preparation requires you to practise important questions. Some of the advantages are as follows:

  • Important Questions help students focus on common exam themes.
  • These  are actual exam-style questions, i.e., the questions are how they would be asked in the board exam.
  • Students can time themselves and plan how much time to spend on each question. 
  • This set of questions refines students’ exam-answering skills. Students can first try answering the question and then compare their answers to the ones provided in the set.