CBSE Important Questions Class 6 Social Science Social And Political Life Chapter 8

Important Questions Class 6 Social Science, Social and Political Life Chapter 8 – Rural Livelihoods

Social and Political Life is a subject that provides an understanding of how people around us carry out their day-to-day activities. The information about people’s livelihoods is essential to the functioning of society. Chapter 8 of Social and Political Life provides interesting information about rural households and the problems people face earning their livelihood in rural areas. The concepts have been explained in the form of stories creating an enjoyable experience for learners.

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Important Questions Class 6 Social Science, Social and Political Life Chapter 8 – With Solutions

Extramarks provides solutions for Social Science, Social and Political Life Class 6 Chapter 8 important questions which follow NCERT guidelines for answers. The questions are in various forms, such as fill-in-the-blanks, true or false, multiple choice and long and short answers.

Here are some of the Extramarks Important Questions Class 6 Social Science, Social and Political Life Chapter 8 with detailed explanations.

Question 1. You have probably noticed that people in Kalpattu are engaged in a variety of non-farm work. List five of these.

Answer    1. The people in Kalpattu perform various jobs that are not related to farming.

  • The people here are engaged in making baskets, utensils, bricks, bullock carts, etc.
  • Some people in Kalpattu work as teachers, blacksmiths, weavers, washermen, barbers, etc.
  • Some people also own shops and are traders.
  • Some people are construction workers.
  • Some other people are lorry drivers.

Question 2. Describe the work that Thulasi does. How is it different from the work Raman does?

Answer   2. Thulasi works on the paddy fields from 8:30 to 4:30 in the evening. She is responsible for transplanting, weeding and harvesting the paddy. Along with the work in the fields, Thulasi takes care of her household, such as cleaning, washing clothes and cooking. She also goes to forests with neighbouring women to collect firewood and fetches water from the village borewell.

Ramana, on the other hand, sprays pesticides on paddy fields. He also sometimes works outside farms. He does jobs like loading sand from the river or stone from the quarry.

Question 3. What is terrace farming? Explain with the help of an example.

Answer    3. Terrace farming is a crop cultivation method where the hill slopes are carved out in steps and made into plots. The plots are raised to retain water. This method serves as one of the best rice cultivation methods.


Terrace farming exists in the chizami village. The people work in groups and individual fields as well. The groups are about six to eight members who clean the weeds on the mountainsides. The group spends time together and eats together till their work is done.

Question 4. What do you think the government can do to help farmers like Sekar when they get into debt? Discuss.

Answer    4. Sekar owns a few acres of land. Most of the paddy harvested on his field is sold to the trader at low prices as loan repayment. Sekar take loans for seeds and pesticides, etc.

To help farmers like Sekar, the government can take the following steps:-

  • The government can extend interest-free loans to farmers like Sekar.
  • The government can also provide fertilisers and pesticides to farmers at low costs.

Question 5. List the different types of people you read about in Kalpattu who depend on farming. Who is the poorest among them and why?

Answer   5. Thulasi, Sekar and Ramalingam are the people engaged in farming activities in the Kalpattu village.

  • Thulasi does not have a land of her own. She works on the paddy fields owned by Ramalingam from morning till evening. She also takes care of her household and collects firewood.
  • Sekar owns at least two acres of land but does not have enough fertilisers, seeds and pesticides to grow crops. So he often takes loans from a trader and sells his paddy to the same trader at half the price. He does it to repay the loans.
  • Ramalingam owns a rice mill and paddy field. He sells fertilisers and pesticides, buys paddy from the villages, and produces rice in the mill. The rice is then sold to traders, which guarantees him a substantial income.

The poorest of the people engaged in farming activities is Thulasi, as she does not possess land of her own and continues to work at Ramalingam’s paddy field even with low wages. She is unsatisfied but can’t leave because she has no choice but to work in the field.

Question 6. What problems did agricultural labourers who worked on Ramalingam’s land have?

Answer    6. Ramalingam paid only 40 rupees a day to agricultural labourers.

Question  7. What is migration? Why do people in rural areas migrate?

Answer     7. People in rural areas may have jobs in some seasons. While in other seasons, they might not have any work. Leaving a place temporarily or permanently in search of work is called migration.

People in rural areas leave their homes and migrate to other places with better job opportunities to earn more money to sustain their livelihood.

Question 8. What are the similarities and differences between Sekar’s and Thulasi’s lives? Your answer could be based on their land, their need to work on the land that belongs to others, or loans they need and their earnings.

Answer  8. Thulasi and Sekar are similar in the following ways:-

  • Both of them are agricultural labourers of the Kalpattu village.
  • Both are engaged in the growing and harvesting of paddy.

Thulasi and Sekar are different from each other in the following ways:-

  • Thulasi is landless, while Sekar owns two acres of land.
  • Thulasi borrows money from Ramalingam, whereas Sekar acquires loans from traders through fertilisers and pesticides.
  • Thulasi works in Ramalingam’s field and earns rs 40 per day.Sekar works in Ramalinga’s rice mill. He also works on the paddy fields and gets about sixty bags of paddy from the fields. He then sells the paddy bags to the trader at low prices to settle loans.

Question 9. Why are farmers sometimes unable to repay loans?

Answer   9. Farmers take loans to buy seeds, pesticides and fertilisers so that the process of crop production can go on smoothly. However, farmers are unable to repay the loans due to the following reasons:-

  • Crop failure occurs due to the bad quality of seeds. Sometimes pests might attack the crops as well.
  • Lack of rain ruins the crops, preventing farmers from repaying loans.

Question 10. Identify the different types of work that are related to farming and those that are not. List these in a table.

Answer   10. 

Farming jobs Non Farming jobs
Ploughing Selling goods in shops
Spraying fertilisers  Fishing
Hand-picking fruits Selling fruits

Question 11. Fill in the blanks:- 

  • The main crop of Kalpattu village is _________
  • Two- fifth amount of rural families in India are _______ 
  • People in Pudupet mostly do _________ to earn a living.
  • Many farmers commit suicide because of ________
  • ________, ________ and harvesting of crops are works done on the field.

Answer 11. 

1)The main crop of Kalpattu village is paddy.


Many farmers work in kalpattu village, and most work in paddy fields and rice mills.

2)Two fifths of rural families in India are agricultural labourers.


Most of the members of rural households are engaged in farming and few in non-farming activities. However, a majority of the people in rural areas are \.

3)People in Pudupet mostly do fishing to earn a living.


Pudupet is a village like Kalpattu. People earn their living in Pudupet by fishing since it’s a coastal area, unlike Kalpattu, where people earn their living by working in rice fields.

4)Many farmers commit suicide because of debts


Farmers are caught in debt when they continue to borrow more money and cannot repay loans. It happens due to crop failure. Due to the burden of loans, farmers die by suicide.

5)Sowing, weeding and harvesting of crops are works done on the field.

Question 12. Thulasi gets paid very little money for the work she does. Why do you think agricultural labourers like her are forced to accept low wages?

Answer    12. Thulasi worked in Ramalingam’s field for 40 rupees per day. The amount was extremely less, and she was unsatisfied. Yet she continued to work in his field because she had no other choice and option to earn money.

Agricultural labourers like Thulasi do not have land of their own and no source of substantial income. Due to this, they have no other ways of earning money to sustain their livelihood. They ultimately work on whatever jobs they get as they have to survive somehow.

Question 13. State whether the following statements are true or false.

  • Landless farmers and farmers having small lands are both prone to debts.
  • Thulasi’s field harvest was in November.
  • Most of the rural families in India are agricultural labourers.
  • Fishermen in Pudepet could go fishing all year round.
  • Paddy is the main crop grown on irrigated land.

Answer  13.

  1. True. Many farmers who do not own land work on other fields. The farmers having small lands often take loans for pesticides and fertilisers. Sometimes they are unable to repay loans on time. They end up borrowing more and are often caught in the cycle of debt with huge interest rates.
  2. True. Thulasi was an agricultural labourer. She worked in the paddy field. The harvest was in November.
  3. True. There are two in every five rural families who are agricultural labourers.
  4. False. Fishermen could not fetch fish for four months during monsoon because of the fish breeding season.
  5. True. Paddy is a rice-growing crop that requires an abundance of water. That is why it grows best on irrigated land.

Question 14. In what ways would her way of earning a living have been different if Thulasi owned some farmland? Discuss.

Answer  14. If Thulasi were an owner of the land, it could have given her a lot of advantages. Some of them have been discussed below:-

Thulasi could have cultivated her field. She would not have to work in other people’s paddy fields for low wages.

Thulasi could have sold the produce of her fields to the traders and in the markets.

The sale of the crops from her land could have been extremely beneficial for her. It could have made her capable enough to purchase better quality seeds for future cultivation of crops.

Question 15. How do people earn their livelihood in rural areas?

Answer   15. People in rural areas perform a variety of tasks to sustain their livelihoods. They perform farming and non-farming activities. Sometimes they also have to borrow money to continue the crop production in their fields. Some of their main jobs have been explained below:-

Farming activities:-

  • People in rural areas work in agricultural fields
  • They grow crops such as paddy.
  • They are engaged in several farming activities, such as sowing, winnowing and harvesting crops.
  • There are variations among the crops grown in different areas. However, most farmers face the same kind of problems.

Non-farming activities:-

  • People perform fishing and sell fruits, fertilisers and pesticides.
  • Some other non-farming jobs people perform are teaching, washing clothes, repairing cycles and owning shops.

Borrowing money:-

  • Often farmers borrow money to buy good quality seeds and other things that facilitate better crop production.
  • However, they cannot repay loans due to crop failure and are caught in debt.
  • Many farmers commit suicide because the burden of loans is too much for them to bear.

Question 16. Have you heard of the Tsunami? What is this, and what damage do you think it might have done to the life of fishing families like Aruna’s?

Answer   16. Tsunamis consist of huge destructive waves. They are so ruinous that they can even destroy huge buildings. Many people lost their lives due to the tsunami wave.

The Tsunami would have been a cause of loss of livelihood for Aruna and other fishing community members. Like the coastal areas, people who live near the sea are greatly affected by the dangers of tsunamis. They can lose their lives, houses, boats, fishing equipment and many other things due to a tsunami wave.

Question 17. What does Ramalingam do with the paddy grown on his land?

Answer   17. Ramalingam has a rice mill. He buys paddy from surrounding villages. He also grows good quality paddy on his land. He uses the rice mill to produce rice from paddy. Later he sells the rice produce to traders. It helps him earn sufficient income.

Question 18. What are the crops grown in Kalpattu?

Answer   18. Paddy is the main crop grown in Kalpattu. Cotton and sugarcane are grown as well. Mango orchards are also present in Kalpattu.

Question 19. Imagine you are a member of a fishing family, and you are discussing whether to take a loan from the bank for an engine. What would you say?

Answers  19. If a loan is being taken, it would be a correct decision. Moneylenders charge high-interest rates, making it difficult to repay loans. That is why it would be easier to acquire loans from banks.

Question 20. When are farmers caught in debt?

  • Farmers helplessly borrow a large amount of money.
  • The crop harvest is adequate.
  • Farmers have good quality seeds.
  • The crops are safe from pests.

Answer  20. Option (1) Farmers helplessly borrow a large amount of money.


  • Option (1) is correct. Farmers often have no choice but to borrow huge sums of money to improve the quality of the crops. They use the amount to purchase good quality seeds, pesticides and fertilisers. Due to lack of rain and attack from pests, crop failure happens. Farmers continue borrowing more money to overcome the problem and end up being caught in the cycle of debt.
  • Option (2) is incorrect as a good crop harvest would benefit the farmers. It will make it possible for them to repay loans promptly.
  • Option (3) is incorrect as good quality seeds would lead due healthy growth of crops. The farmers could sell them easily and earn a profit to repay loans.
  • Option (4) is incorrect as safety from pests ensures the crops are not destroyed, and the production process is not delayed.

Question  21. Agricultural labourers end up having inadequate paying jobs because:-

  • Agricultural labourers want to purchase land.
  • Agricultural labourers want to run their households.
  • Agricultural labourers want to migrate to other cities.
  • None of the above.

Answer    21. Option (2) Agricultural labourers want to run their household.


  • Option (2) is correct as agricultural labourers must continuously run their households by any means, even if it forces them to work for fewer wages.
  • Option (1) is incorrect. Agricultural labourers wish to purchase land to become independent and earn a sustainable income. But purchasing land is not an immediate need as running the households. That is why they work for low wages to earn a living.
  • Option (3) is incorrect. When agricultural labourers earn enough, they migrate out of the villages for better job opportunities.

Question 22. Compare the situation of Sekar and Ramalingam by filling out the following table:-

Answer    22.

Land cultivated Two acres of land Twenty acres of land
Labour required No labourers Labourers are hired
Loans required Loans of seeds and fertilisers are required Loans from govt taken for a rice mill
Selling of harvest Sells paddy at low cost to repay loans Sells rice to traders and earns sufficient income
Other work done by them He sells the milk of his hybrid cow Has a rice mill and pesticide shop

Question 23. Why did Thulasi sell her cow?

  • To repay loans
  • To pay the fees of her daughter
  • To repay money borrowed from Ramalingam
  • To buy jewellery 

Answer  23. Option (3) To repay money borrowed from Ramalingam.


  • Option (3) is correct. Thulasi’s daughter fell ill and had to be treated in the hospital. Thulasi did not have enough funds, so she borrowed money from Ramalingam for her daughter’s treatment. She took a loan from the band to repay the amount borrowed from Ramalingam.

Question 24. How does land cultivation influence people’s livelihood in rural areas?

Answer   24. The survival of the people in rural areas is affected by the land they cultivate. If there are people who have their lands, they make huge profits by selling the produce in the market. They are also able to repay loans on time in most cases.

However, some people do not have their land. They must work on the other’s lands at low wages to earn their living. They even end up borrowing money for their basic needs. Sometimes due to illnesses or crop failure, they are unable to repay loans and are burdened by huge debts.

Question 25. What are the activities poor people in rural areas perform differently from farming?

Answer   25. Poor people in rural areas collect firewood and collect water.

Question 26. What do you know about the livelihood of fishermen?

Answer    26. Fishermen live near the sea. Their main source of livelihood is fetching fish. They start fishing early in the morning in their boats and catamarans. Most of them return by 7 in the morning. Women gather and sell the fish. The fishermen do not go to fetch fish during the four months of monsoon as it is a fish breeding season. During this time, they are sustained by borrowing from the traders. They sell their fish to the trader to repay the loans at low costs. Their livelihood is prone to danger due to storms and tsunamis.

Question 27. What percent of large farmers are present in India?

  • 20
  • 80
  • 70
  • 10

Answer  27. Option (1) 20. 


  • Option (1) is correct. In India, 20 percent of the farmers have their land for cultivation. They are self-dependent. About 80 per cent account for small farmers who barely earn any amount for their survival.

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Q.1 Read the passage given below and answer the following questions:
“Nearly two-fifth of all rural families are agricultural labourers in our country. There are some who have small plots of land while others like Thulasi are landless. Not being able to earn money
throughout the year forces people in many rural areas to travel long
distances in search of work. This travel, or migration, takes place
during particular seasons.”
(a) What are the income sources for forest collectors (3 marks)
(b) How do village cooperatives serve as a livelihood for some members (2 marks)



(a) Forest collectors are those who collect fruits and other tree products from forests. They gather items like honey, fruits, bark, and other rare tree medicinal herbs. They sell these items to the trader who pays them the respective amount.
(b) Village cooperatives facilitate farmers to sell their milk at the centre. The cooperatives are set up so that people of the village can use them to sell their milk at a good price. This serves as a livelihood for many.

Q.2 Outline the working of terrace farming.



Terrace farming is a type of farming technique that is mostly followed in hilly terrains or mountain regions. This variety of farming involves levelling the terrain into flat plots. After the plots are laid, steps are carved out on either side to facilitate movement. The sides are also raised to ensure maximum water retention. Through this method, farmers can utilize terrain regions for agricultural cultivation.

Q.3 Read the passage given below and answer the following questions:
“Kalpattu is a village that’s close to the seacoast in Tamil Nadu.
People here do many kinds of work. As in other villages, here too there is non-farm work such as making baskets, utensils, pots, bricks, bullock-carts etc. There are people who provide
services such as blacksmiths, nurses, teachers, washermen, weavers, barbers, cycle repair mechanics and so on. There are also some shopkeepers and traders.”
(a) Describe the proportion of agricultural labourers families in India. (1 mark)
(b) What do agricultural labourers families depend on for a living (1 mark)
(c) How much land do agricultural labourer families in India own (1 mark)



(a) In India, nearly two out of every five rural families are agricultural labourer families.
(b) The agricultural labourer families in India mainly depend on the work they do in other people’s fields for a living.
(c) Most of the agricultural labourer families in India hold no land while a few own very small plots of land.

Q.4 How do the Chakhesang people coordinate to cultivate the land



The people of the Chakhesang community of Nagaland coordinate effectively to cultivate the terrain. Even though they own individual plots of land, members of the community work in each others fields. They work collectively, often forming groups of 6-8 men to clean weeds in the mountainside.

Q.5 What were the occupations of the people of Kalpattu village



The village of Kalpattu had diverse occupations. This included services like blacksmiths, nurses, teachers, washermen, weavers, barbers, cycle repair mechanics and so on.

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3. Which chapters are included in the CBSE syllabus of Class 6 Social and Political Life?

Below chapters are included in the CBSE Class 6 Social and Political Life subject:
Understanding Diversity
Diversity and Discrimination
What is Government?
Key Elements of a Democratic Government
Panchayati Raj
Rural Administration
Urban Administration
Rural Livelihoods
Urban Livelihoods