CBSE Important Questions Class 6 Social Science Social And Political Life Chapter 9

Important Questions Class 6 Social Science, Social and Political Life Chapter 9 – Urban Livelihoods

Social and Political Life is an essential subject to know about how people work to sustain their livelihoods. If students want to learn about the different occupations that people have to lead comfortable lives, then there is no other bailiwick than Social and Political Life. The last chapter of Class 6, Social and Political Life, introduces learners to the lifestyle of people in big cities, their work and their problems. 

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Important Questions Class 6 Social Science, Social and Political Life Chapter 9 – With Solutions

The set of important questions Class 6 Social Science, Social and Political Life Chapter 9  includes all themes within the chapter, such as employment and the organisation of people in urban areas. 

Here are some of the important questions of Class 6 Social Science, Social and Political Life by Extramarks: 

Question 1. What jobs do people regularly perform on city streets?

Answer    1. The city streets start buzzing with activities in the morning itself.

  • Vegetable vendors arrange the fruits and vegetables in the baskets that need to be sold. People start selling hairpins, plastic bottles, clips, etc.
  • People can be seen selling flowers and newspapers.
  • Autowalas become ready to take children to school.
  • Cobblers and barbers start working in the morning hours.

Question 2. In what ways is a permanent and regular job different from a casual job? Discuss.

Answer  2. 

Permanent job Casual job
The employee gets a regular salary every month The employee is paid for the work done on a day to day basis.
People can save money for old age, medical facilities and housing. Casual workers are unable to earn enough to save for the future
Permanent workers have high job security Casual workers have no job security. They can be asked to leave if the employer feels fit
Permanent workers have fixed working hours. Casual workers can sometimes be asked to work for longer hours.

Question  3. How are markets significant places for people earning a livelihood in urban areas?

Answer     3. People in urban areas earn their livelihood by working on streets, in factories, businesses and markets. Following are some of the jobs people perform in markets to earn money:-

  • There are a variety of shops in marketplaces. People sell clothes, shoes, sweets, electronic goods and many more in the markets.
  • Many professionals, such as doctors, and dentists have their offices in or around marketplaces.
  • There are small and large restaurants around marketplaces that people often go to for eating when they get tired of moving around the market.

Question  4. Complete the following table and discuss how their work is different:

Name Place of work Earning Security of work Benefits received Work on their own or employed
Bachchu Manjhi Rs. 100 a day
Harpreet, Vandana Work on their own
Nirmala No security
Sudha Company Rs. 30,000 p.m


Answer  4. 

Name Place of work Earning Security of work Benefits received Work on their own or employed
Bachchu Manjhi Streets and Roads Rs. 100 a day No job security No benefits received On their own
Harpreet, Vandana Their showroom Flexibility in earning Job is secure Able to purchase a flat and a car Work on their own
Nirmala Works in a garment factory Earns 80 rs per day No security Can earn extra amount by working overtime Works for an employer
Sudha Company Rs. 30,000 p.m She has job security Medical and health facilities, regular vacations Sudha is employed 

Question 5. How does Bacchu Manjhi earn his livelihood in the big city?

Answer   5. Bacchu Manjhi was from a village in Bihar. He did not own any land. He worked as a mason but couldn’t find regular masonry work in the village. For this reason, he moved to the city.

  • He owned an auto rickshaw. He paid for it in instalments.
  • His work started in the morning and ended at 8:30 in the evening. 
  • Bacchu Manjhi was a casual worker. He earned 10 – 30 rs per trip. However, he couldn’t earn enough on sick days.
  • He earned around 200-300 rs daily, out of which he spent 100-150 on food daily. The rest he saved and sent to his family back in the village. His wife earned some money by doing agricultural work.
  • He used to stay in a rented house with his friends who worked at a nearby factory.

Question 6. What benefits does Sudha get along with her salary?

Answer   6. Sudha works as a marketing manager in an office. She is a permanent employee entitled to several benefits along with her salary.

  • Sudha has guaranteed savings for old age. Some of her salaries are kept with the government. She can earn interest on the savings. She will receive the money after retirement and will comfortably use that amount.
  • Sudha gets a lot of vacations, such as on national holidays and Sundays. She also gets annual leaves.
  • Sudha receives adequate medical facilities. Her company pays some of her medical bills, and her salary is not deducted when she is on leave.

Question 7. How do businesses facilitate a comfortable livelihood in urban cities?

Answer   7. Many markets in the city consist of various shops. These shops are run by people who have established their businesses.

  • Business persons are self-employed. They do not work under anyone. However, they give employment to many people to do their work.
  • The business can be small or large.
  • People who have a business have a flexible mode of income. They can save and purchase flats to live in the big city.

Question 8. Why do you think small workshops and factories employ casual workers?

Answer    8. Casual workers are employed temporarily. They are not permanent workers. Small workshops and factories get large orders during specific seasons. When the work is available, small factories prefer hiring casual workers daily. When the work contract is over, casual workers are free to search for other jobs to earn money.

Question 9. What are call centres? What work is done by people in call centres?

Answer    9. A lot of people are engaged in call centre jobs. It is an emerging area of employment in big cities.

  • Many times consumers might have queries or difficulties about the items they purchase. For instance, they would want to exchange it or obtain information about new offers related to a product, etc.
  • At other times, people might have to inquire about banking, booking tickets and other services.
  • Call centres have been set up to solve such queries. Call centres are centralised offices employing people who clear consumers’ doubts and queries.
  • Call centres are set up in large rooms with a computer, phone and supervisor’s stations.
  • Recently, many foreign companies have also established call centres for their products in India. They employ people at low wages.

Question 10. Describe the working conditions of people like Nirmala. Keep in mind the following: working hours, conditions in the workplace, earnings and the days of work available.

Answer   10. People like Nirmala are casual workers. They suffer from harsh working conditions.

  • Working hours – They have long working hours, sometimes up to 12-15 hours.
  • Conditions in the workplace – They do not have favourable conditions. They are sometimes paid low wages. If they complain about the low wages, they can be asked to leave the job.
  • Earnings – They earn money daily. They are not given payment for the days they fall sick and are absent from work.
  • Days of work available – Nirmala is a casual worker. It means, sometimes, she might get work while in another season, she could be jobless. It could happen that she won’t be able to find any work for an extended period such as years.

Question 11. How does Sudha earn a living as a marketing manager?

Answer   11. Sudha is a permanent employee who works as a marketing manager.

  • Sudha works as a marketing manager at a biscuit factory. She supervises around fifty salespersons to get orders and collect payments from people in different parts of the city.
  • Sudha has divided her work region and employed salespersons to manage the regions. She often talks to them and checks their progress reports. She also solves problems the salespersons face.
  • She plans the sale of biscuits in the entire city and ends up travelling long distances and working late hours.
  • She earns a substantial income from her job. She also has benefits of vacations, medical leaves and old age retirement funds.

Question 12. Why did Harpreet and Vandana start a showroom? What do they have to do to run the showroom?

Answer   12. Harpreet and Vandana started a showroom due to a business change. According to them, people prefer buying ready-made clothes. Harpreet knew how to manage a business, and Vandana was a dress designer. Together, they found an effective way to run the business. They run the showroom through the following means:-

  • They buy clothes from cities such as Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Gurgaon, Tripura, Ludhiana, etc.
  • They also advertise their business in newspapers, cinema, television and radio.

Question 13. What are the various ways people earn their livelihood in urban areas? Explain.

Answer   13. People perform a variety of jobs to sustain their livelihood in urban centres, towns and big cities. Some people can earn a secure income, while some might find it difficult to lead a sustainable Life. Following are some of the ways people In urban areas earn a living:-

Working on streets and roads:-

  • Many people sell things on the streets, such as flowers, fruits and vegetables.
  • Auto walas work from morning till evening to earn money.

Work in markets:-

  • Many people own shops in the marketplace. Some are garments shops, footwear, utensils, sweets and much more.
  • Some doctors, clinicians and dentists also have their offices in marketplaces.

Working as business persons:-

  • There is a section of people in big cities who are self-employed. They are owners of small or large businesses.
  • They own showrooms and sometimes rent buildings for their shops.
  • People engaged in business activities can earn enough for their livelihood in cities.

Working as casual labourers:-

  • Big cities also witness an influx of casual workers. They are hired for some time till the work is complete.
  • Casual workers, however, do not earn enough to save for the future. They are paid daily and don’t receive any amount when they take work leaves due to sickness.
  • They work for at least 12 hours a day.

Work at call centres:-

  • Many people are employed at call centres. Their job is to solve the queries of the consumers.
  • Foreign countries are also establishing call centres in India.

Work at offices:-

  • Other institutions or people employ people.
  • People who work in offices have job security and a regular salary. They are permanent employees of the company.
  • They are given many medical and vocational facilities. Besides, their wages are not cut off when they take leave.
  • People working in offices earn enough to save money for their retirement.

Question 14. Would you say that domestic workers like housemaids are also casual workers? Why? Describe the workday of one such woman detailing the work she does in other people’s houses.

Answer    14. Domestic workers are not casual workers because they are hired every month. They are also given regular salaries, food, house and sometimes even medical help whenever required. They work throughout the day, which can sometimes be tiring, so they rest in the afternoon. They perform household chores such as cooking, cleaning, washing, etc.

Question 15. State if the following statements are true or false.

  • Permanent employees do not get a salary when they take sick leave.
  • Casual workers have harsh working conditions.
  • Call centres can’t be seen in big cities.
  • Many people earn their living by working on the streets in big cities.
  • Business people do not require advertising their businesses.

Answer  15. 

  1. False. Permanent employees are given certain medical facilities. One of them is no deduction in their salaries even when they are absent from work due to sickness.
  2. True. Casual workers are employed temporarily. They work for long hours and sometimes work overtime for low wages. They are unable to save enough due to their low salaries. Sometimes their employers can ask them to leave the job if they complain about their salaries.
  3. False. Call centres have started generating new opportunities for employment in big cities. Call centres act as consumer care units as well.
  4. True. The big cities are full of people taking up various jobs such as selling flowers, garlands, fruits and vegetables, working at cycle repair shops, etc.
  5. False. People engaged in business need to advertise their business through newspapers, theatres, radios or television. People around the city must know about that business of its successful growth.

Question 16. What are the differences between those who sell goods on the street and those in the market

Answer    16. There are differences between people who sell goods on the streets and sellers in the markets. Some of them have been discussed below:-

People selling goods on streets:-

  • They are self-employed. The sellers are responsible for all their work, from opening the shops to cleaning and organising them.
  • Most of them earn wages daily and find it difficult to save due to expenses on food and shelter.
  • Their shops are present on pavements or sometimes in temporary structures.
  • They lack job security. Sometimes street sellers could be asked to leave the street and work elsewhere.

People selling goods in the market:-

  • People own licensed shops in the market.
  • They are mostly small or large businesses managed by the people. They do not work for any other employer.
  • Instead, the shop owners provide full-time or part-time work to many people in their shops.

Question 17. Bachchu Manjhi found it difficult to live with his family because:-

  • His family lived with him in the city
  • His wife was engaged in agricultural activities
  • He lived in a rented flat
  • None of the above

Answer   17. Option (3) He lived in a rented flat


  • Option (3) is correct. Bachchu Manjhi left his hometown to earn more money in the city. He did not have a permanent home in the city. Therefore, he lived in a rented flat with some of his friends who worked at a factory.

Question  18. Bachchu Manjhi has to think twice before taking a day off from work. Why?

Answer     18. Bachchu Manjhi is a daily wage earner and gets his salary every day. He does not earn anything when on leave. Due to this, he has to work on sick days as well. If he does not work, he might not be able to earn for an entire day and his weekly and monthly savings would be drastically affected. That is why he is always reluctant to take leave, even for a day.

Question 20. Business shops are provided licenses by which of the following institutions?

  • Municipal Corporation
  • Big business owners
  • Factory owners
  • None of the above

Answer  20. Option (1) Municipal Corporations


  • Option (1) is correct. The municipal corporation gives licenses to permanent business shops. The municipal corporation also decides when the shops are supposed to be closed.

Question 21. Why are foreign companies establishing call centres in India?

  • They can hire people to work at low salaries
  • They can hire people who can speak English
  • Their place do not have the facility to establish call centres
  • Both (1) and (2)

Answer  21. Option (4) Both (1) and (2)


  • Option (4) is correct. Call centres are thriving as places of employment. Many young people in big cities earn their livelihoods by working at call centres. Foreign companies set up call centre agencies in India because they can hire people who speak English at low wages.

Question 22. What help is given to street vendors by the government?

Answer    22. Street vending was previously seen as an obstruction to traffic but gained recognition as people’s livelihood. The government is modifying laws that are used to ban street vendors. The government has also suggested separate hawking zones around the cities. Besides, the government has also allowed street vendors to move freely to sell their goods.

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FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Why should students study the topics in Social and Political Life?

 Social and Political Life is a field of study for understanding how the social and political environment affects people’s lives. General awareness of society is a necessary part of any educational curriculum. The NCERT textbook for Class 6 Social and Political Life briefly introduces urban and rural livelihoods, diversity and government work. The topics have been well explained with the help of end text, in-text questions and many examples.

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