NCERT Books Class 8 Science

Extramarks CBSE Class 8 NCERT Science Books Free Download

The Government of India created the NCERT in 1961 to function as an independent organisation. The primary goal of the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) is to promote and organise education-related research to enhance the overall level of quality of school instruction. Despite this, they are also responsible for creating and disseminating CBSE-appropriate textbooks, study materials, and other educational resources to students. For instance, the NCERT books for Class 8 science encompass this topic’s Central Board of Secondary Education syllabus.

In addition to the other books required for Class 8, students can obtain the NCERT science book in PDF format online. Because of these publications’ reliability, subject experts frequently give reference  NCERT science books for the eighth Class in their classroom teachings.

Extramarks is a website that gives students free access to PDF versions of the NCERT solutions and other educational resources. You may also download the NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Maths to help you review the entire syllabus and score good grades in your assessments, tests and exams. This can help you gain more points overall.

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Science | Chapter-wise PDF

NCERT Books for Class 8

NCERT Solutions for Class 8

NCERT Books for Class 8 Science PDF – Free Download

For your convenience and easy reference, chapter-by-chapter PDFs have been made available in both Hindi and English.

Unit 1: Crop Production and Management

Unit 2: Microorganisms: Friend and Foe

Unit 3: Synthetic Fibres  and Plastics

Unit 4: Materials: Metals and Non-Metals

Unit 5: Coal and Petroleum

Unit 6: Combustion and Flame

Unit 7: Conservation of Plants and Animals

Unit 8: Cell – Structure and Functions

Unit 9: Reproduction in Animals

Unit 10: Reaching the Age of Adolescence

Unit 11: Force and Pressure

Unit 12: Friction

Unit 13: Sound

Unit 14: Chemical Effects of Electric Current

Unit 15: Some Natural Phenomena

Unit 16: Light

Unit 17: Stars and The Solar System

Unit 18: Pollution of Air and Water

An Introduction to NCERT 8th Class Science Book

In the Indian elementary school system, Science is a required subject. Students need to understand the basics of science to analyse their surroundings. All occurrences, whether natural or man-made, have scientific reasoning.. NCERT books for Class 8  students are introduced to kharif and rabi crops, sugar cane production, natural resources, reproduction in animals, sound, and light are some of the chapters in science.

The themes covered in the NCERT Class 8 science textbook prepare students for higher grades. Therefore, get the NCERT science class 8 PDF and study the lessons based on different topics to develop their understanding of various concepts and try  to master the topic.

Chapter-wise Summary of the Book

Chapter 1: Crop Production and Management

The first chapter is a comprehensive guide on Indian agriculture and its many distinct crop types. Students will get an understanding of the many different processes that are involved in crop cultivation as they read this chapter. Additionally, numerous pieces of equipment are required to cultivate plants successfully. This chapter will provide an introduction to some of them.

It has activities for students which might arouse curiosity among them as well as deepen their understanding of crop production. By coming up with a solution to that problem, students will be able to assess how well they have understood topic or not. The NCERT science book for Class 8, chapter 1 PDF discusses various other topics connected to agriculture, including weeds, fertiliser, irrigation, and other topics.

Chapter 2: Microorganisms: Friend and Foe

Students will learn about various microorganisms and their significance in this chapter science textbook for Class 8. We need a microscope to see these microbes because they are too small to be seen with the naked eye. Students will take away from this chapter the knowledge that there are microbes that are beneficial to humans, such as the lactobacillus bacteria that are responsible for turning milk into curd. On the other hand, some bacteria and viruses can cause diseases in humans and plants that range from moderate to severe, such as tuberculosis and typhoid.

Pathogens are microorganisms responsible for causing diseases, and these pathogens can spread through various mediums, as the students will learn more about it from this chapter.

Chapter 3: Synthetic Fibres  and Plastics

Chapter 8 focuses on the production method and the applications of synthetic fibres and plastics. Most of the natural fibres we use come from plants or animals. However, humans have also been responsible for creating a few artificial fibres, such as rayon, polyester, nylon, and other similar materials.

In addition to that, students will acquire knowledge regarding the production of plastic as well as the many applications of this material. Plastics are harmful to the environment because they are not biodegradable and therefore cannot be broken down naturally. They pose a danger to the natural world because they can bring about the extinction of many different species, most notably aquatic organisms. As a result of this, we need to reduce the use of plastic and look for alternatives that are better for the environment.

Students take away from this chapter will be fundamental understanding of petrochemicals, thermoplastics, and other related topics.

Chapter 4: Materials: Metals and Non-metals

The NCERT 8 science book continues on to the following chapter, which discusses a variety of metals and nonmetals. The students will gain an understanding of the physicochemical properties of a variety of materials as well as their applications.

Metals, for instance, play a significant role in the production of a variety of goods in factories all over the world. On the other hand, non-metals are utilised in the processes of respiration and combustion and in the production of fertilisers. The ideas of conductor, ductility, malleability, and a few other related concepts are discussed in this chapter.

The exercise at the end of the chapter contains questions that students can answer to check their level of understanding  regarding this chapter.

Chapter 5: Coal and Petroleum

Students will learn in this chapter of the science NCERT textbook for Class 8 PDF about the steps that are taken to obtain coal and petroleum, two essential fuel substances. Natural resources can be broken down into two categories.



Coal and petroleum are examples of natural resources that will eventually run out because of their limited availability. This chapter also discusses the formation of coal from fossils and the destructive distillation process that is used to obtain coal.

Many components make petroleum, such as gasoline, LPG, kerosene, diesel, bitumen, etc. The procedure for refining petroleum can also be found in this chapter.

Students will be able to gain a solid understanding of this topic by answering the l questions that are included in the exercise at the end of the chapter.

Chapter 6: Combustion and Flame

The science that underpins flame and combustion is dissected in depth within this sixth chapter of the science textbook for Class 8. Students will understand that combustion is a type of chemical reaction that occurs when oxygen is present. As a result of this, we can start a fire. Students ought to have an accurate understanding of the processes involved in the events like these, which are fairly common in daily life.

There are three distinct types of combustion:

i) Rapid

ii) Spontaneous

iii) Explosion

Students will learn about the characteristics of a flame and how the fire extinguishers work to put out a blaze. Nevertheless, combustion is the cause of forest fires, which frequently result in significant amounts of forest being burnt down.

Chapter 7: Conservation of Plants and Animals

The protection of wild plants and animals is an action that is of the utmost importance and one that we should take action on as soon as possible. Many plant and animal species are in danger of becoming extinct or becoming extinct altogether with each passing year.  Therefore, it is high time that students understand the gravity of this situation and take some action to deal with the critical problem facing the environment.

Chapter 8: Cell- Structure and Functions

The basic biological unit is called a cell. In this chapter of the NCERT textbooks for Class 8 science, various types of cells and their structures are explained in great detail. This chapter covers everything from the cellular processes that take place in plants to those that take place in humans. There are two primary categories of organisms:  i) unicellular and  ii) multicellular.  The following are three essential components of a  cell:

i) Nucleus

ii) Cytoplasm

iii) Cell membrane

This chapter contains a comprehensive analysis of each component in great detail. The meanings of the terms “eukaryotes” and “prokaryotes” are discussed in this chapter. In addition to that, the ideas of tissues, organs, vacuoles, and white blood cells can also be found in this chapter.

Chapter 9: Reproduction in Animals

This section of the NCERT 8 science book discusses the methods of reproduction in animal species. There are essentially two different modes of reproduction.

i) Sexual Reproduction

ii) Asexual Reproduction

The male and female reproductive systems are both discussed in this chapter, and their individual components are illustrated through diagrams that are clearly labelled for easy comprehension. Students will learn that sexual reproduction is the norm in most unicellular organisms. On the other hand, unicellular organisms engage in a type of reproduction known as asexual reproduction. Nevertheless, both of these reproductive methods can be found in certain organisms.

There is a  set of exercise at the end of this chapter that the students can work through in order to get a sense of the kinds of questions they should be preparing for on the exam based on this particular chapter.

Chapter 10: Reaching the Age of Adolescence

The characteristics of the adolescence phase of the human life cycle are analysed in depth in the tenth chapter of the NCERT science textbook for Class 8. This is a stage that everyone goes through, and it’s during this time that some significant mental and physical changes occur. The pituitary gland is responsible for secreting certain hormones, which is why this phenomenon takes place.

Different changes occur in the male and female anatomy due to these changes during adolescence. However, throughout this transition period, humans go through many different changes. The concepts of chromosomes, puberty, the menstrual cycle, menopause, and the pituitary gland will be explained to the students in this chapter.

They will also learn from this chapter that females possess oestrogen hormones and males possess progesterone hormones. This information and more can be learnt from reading this chapter.

Chapter 11: Force and Pressure

The concepts of force and pressure are into their simplest forms in this chapter of the NCERT textbooks for Class 8 science. These two things are necessary to carry out any work, such as pushing a car, throwing a ball, and other similar activities. In this chapter, we will discuss various types of pressure, such as atmospheric pressure, electromagnetic pressure, contact force, etc.

What students will take away from this chapter is that force has both a direction and magnitude and that both can change depending on the activity. This chapter, just like the ones that came before it, has an activity section where students will find a variety of questions to answer. Students will benefit from practising these questions because most of them can be expected in the exams. This will help students.

Chapter 12: Friction

The topic of friction and its various effects are covered in this chapter of the NCERT science textbook for Class 8. The first part of the chapter analyses the various aspects that lead to friction, such as the composition of the surface, the amount of pressure that exists between the two, and so on. The majority of our day-to-day activities, such as walking, writing, gripping any object, or stopping something, all involve friction in one way or another.

In addition to all of these factors, friction also affects the durability of various products, just as a tear in a machine will lower that machine’s overall productivity. Because of this, scientists have developed several tools that lessen the amount of friction that occurs, such as drag, ball bearings, interlocking, and various lubricants.

Chapter 13: Sound

The idea of sound encompasses a very broad scope. However, in this chapter of the NCERT science book for Class 8, students will obtain a basic understanding of sound and its characteristics. . Sound is necessary for our survival because it enables human beings to communicate and enables us to appreciate the aesthetic value of the sound of music. Each and every concept associated with sound has been discussed in this chapter.

This chapter covers various topics, including those frequencies, amplitude, audible frequencies, hertz, sound pitch, oscillation motion, and others. The high volume and the unnecessary noise contribute to noise pollution, and the students will learn how to avoid contributing to this problem as a result of reading this chapter.

Chapter 14: Chemical Effects of Electric Current

This section of the NCERT science book for Class 8 explains what happens to a liquid’s chemical composition when an electric current is passed through it and how that affects the reaction. Students will also gain an understanding of how certain fluids have the ability to conduct electricity while others act as insulators.

Water is one of the liquids that can be found in great abundance in our environment. In this chapter, students will learn about the chemical reaction that takes place in water whenever an electric current is passed through it. Electroplating, electrodes, and various electroplating applications will also be covered in this unit, and students will enhance their  knowledge about the good and bad conductors of electricity along with concrete examples from our daily life. . This chapter will also introduce you to the fundamental concept behind  LEDs.

Students are allowed to assess what it is that they need to take away from the information presented in this chapter. It also reflects their understanding of the chapter and its to clarify your doubt then and there. 

Chapter 15: Some Natural Phenomena

In the NCERT textbooks for class 8 science, the fifteenth chapter discusses various natural phenomena that we may observe daily or occasionally. This chapter starts off by providing some background information on electric and static currents. Students will understand the necessity of earthing in the home.

This chapter covers various topics, including the causes of earthquakes and the processes by which they occur. The students will learn about topics such as the seismograph, the earth’s plate, and the earth’s crust. The Richter scale is the instrument used to determine an earthquake’s severity. The steps one can take to reduce the severity of the damage caused by such natural phenomena.

The fundamental ideas behind electric charges, both negative and positive, and the transfer of charges are covered in this chapter.

Chapter 16: Light

The fundamentals of light are discussed in this chapter of the NCERT science book for Class 8. It is one of the more common occurrences in the natural world. You must have noticed that there is nothing visible when the lights are turned off.. Because of this, we require light, and more specifically, the reflection of light, to see things.

Despite this, light possesses a few distinguishable qualities, and we are going to cover them in this chapter. Kaleidoscopes are another example of something that can be attributed to multiple light reflections. Besides this, numerous other fundamental ideas about light are also stated in great detail.

Some of the fundamental ideas are given below: 

Angle of incidence

Angle of reflections


Braille system

Because of the cornea in our eyes, we can see the light; light enters our eyes through the cornea, and as a result, when we are exposed to extremely bright or flashing light, we tend to close our eyes reflexively.

The students will be able to better understand the chapter by participating in the exercise given in the  last section of this chapter.

Chapter 17: Stars and the Solar System

Students are given an engaging introduction to the fundamentals of the solar system and the stars that make up the system in this chapter. Because there are stars and the moon, the night sky has an incredibly beautiful appearance. The different phases of the moon that can be observed here on earth are broken down into their respective phases in this chapter of the NCERT textbook for Class 8 science. In addition to this, there are times when we can make out meaningful figures formed by groups of stars that we call clusters. Constellations are the collective names given to these groups of stars.

There are many planets in our solar system, and each one of them travels around the Sun in its orbit. This chapter provides information about these planets’ distance from the sun. For instance, Mercury is the planet closest to the sun, and Neptune is the planet located farthest away from it.

The ideas of artificial satellites, asteroids, and comets are broken down in great detail throughout this chapter. Because these are the fundamentals of astronomy, students need to pay close attention to these subjects, as they may come in handy when they move to higher classes.

Chapter 18: Pollution of Air and Water

In the final chapter of the NCERT textbooks for Class 8 science, various aspects of air and water pollution and how these types of pollution affect the environment are discussed. A variety of gases are present in the atmosphere in predetermined amounts. On the other hand, the substances that are responsible for pollution are referred to as pollutants.

To give just a few examples, some of the most significant pollutants include carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, tiny particles of CFCs, and others. They are to blame for various environmental problems, including acid rain, marble cancer, and greenhouse effects.

The following section of this chapter discusses various facets of water pollution, beginning with its causes. The most common types of substances that pollute water include industrial waste, sewage, chemicals used in agriculture, and others. Students will learn in this chapter about the Ganga Action Plan from 1985, as well as the numerous efforts that have been made to save the river Ganga.

Why are NCERT Books The Ultimate Guide for Students?

NCERT books are known for authentic content and have amassed a significant following over the years. Because they adhere so closely to the CBSE board syllabus, these books are of the utmost importance, particularly for students enrolled in middle and high school as they need to appear for various national-level tests conducted by CBSE. The following are some of the factors that contribute to it being a favourite among both the subject experts and the students.

  • In the same way as the other NCERT books, the ones for Class 8 science are written in clear and understandable language, and the concepts are elaborated one after the other in a logical progression. As a result, students shouldn’t have any trouble getting the hang of the fundamental ideas. Students can connect what they are learning in the classroom and the real world because all of the fundamental ideas are explained using real-life examples. The language is easy to understand while retaining its standard status. Because of this, it is much simpler for students to learn quickly and easily.
  • Diagrams and illustrations that are pertinent to the material being taught are included in NCERT textbooks, which helps students more effectively retain the information being taught. In fields such as science, an appropriate illustration or diagram is essential for supporting a theory and for memory retention.
  • After completing each chapter, students are given a comprehensive exercise to work through. This practice entails answering a variety of questions, some of which are very brief while others are more detailed. Students can get a sense of the questions on the test by working through the problems in the practice tests. Only questions from this book were allowed on the standardised tests. As a result, there is a possibility that you will face questions very similar to those in the exam.
  • The NCERT books offer a comprehensive and in-depth explanation of all the ideas. By reading them, students can develop a more profound understanding of the material and do well on the final examination. These books are recommended by parents, teachers, and other adults in authoritative positions to students.

Q. Why Should You Choose Extramarks?

Ans: Extramarks is one of the leading e-learning portals with a vast collection of sample textbooks, question papers and solutions, online books, and many other educational resources. Along with the NCERT solutions, PDFs of NCERT books, such as those used in Class 8 science, are easily downloadable from our website.

In addition to that, we also regularly hold online classes, and as a result, you are welcome to sign up for those classes to clear your doubts regarding any questions or to clarify any doubts. Please visit Extramarks website for further information regarding the Class 8 CBSE syllabus.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is the best science textbook for Class 8?

The best books for syllabi-focused study are unquestionably the NCERT books for Class 8 Science. Students might therefore be well-prepared for the exam by simply reading these books. A feature of these books is the section on intentional exercise. If young students are required to read too many different textbooks written by various writers, they might get confused and lose interest. For this reason, experts advise sticking to the single textbook recommended by the Council, such as the NCERT Books. . Put aside other reference books for the time being, and try reading your NCERT book as often as possible.

2. What should I do to get ready for Science Class 8?

First, students should read the complete book to understand the course material. Along with the necessary chapter-by-chapter PDFs for the Science chapters in Hindi and English, a comprehensive explanation of the syllabus is also provided in this post. Now, students can learn every idea in great detail while also answering questions about a certain chapter. Before you take your examinations, make sure you shouldn’t skip any topic, no matter how simple, boring and easy you may find. Finally, before the big day arrives, students should set aside adequate time to review each unit with all its chapters and topics there followed by chapter-end exercises.  carefully. To do well on any test, revision is essential. If you don’t review a subject weekly, you are likely to forget it. By following these instructions, students can thoroughly prepare for the class 8 Science textbook lessons.