NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 3

NCERT Class 11 Biology Chapter 3 deals with the broader five kingdom classification of living organisms. It provides a detailed overview of various organisms such as Algae, Chlorophyceae, Phaeophyceae, Rhodophyceae, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, Bryophytes, Liverworts, Mosses and Angiosperms, as well as the concept of alternation of generation and plants life cycle.

Students looking for accurate answers to the questions given at the end of Chapter 3 can refer to the NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 3 by Extramarks. These solutions are the ultimate study material that can help students in scoring high marks in their exams.

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 3 – Plant Kingdom

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom are available on Extramarks website. They are prepared by subject-matter experts at Extramarks, in a simple and easy-to-understand language.

Access NCERT Solutions for Biology for Class 11 Chapter 3 – Plant Kingdom


NCERT Solutions of Biology Class 11 Chapter 3 – Free Download

Students who are having difficulty in finding answers to the questions given in NCERT Class 11 Chapter 3 textbook can access the NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 3  on Extramarks. The Plant Kingdom NCERT Solutions for Class 11 provides a step-by-step explanation of each question. 

Class 11 Biology Chapter 3 NCERT Solutions

Class 11 Biology Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom explains Algae and how it is categorised into many forms. The chapter also talks about the reductional division in detail. If students are looking for the right answers to questions that are given at the end of Chapter 3, they can access the Class 11 Biology Chapter 3 NCERT Solutions on Extramarks.

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 3 – Plant Kingdom

Class 11 Biology NCERT Solutions for Chapter 3 has answers to all the questions that are present in NCERT Biology Class 11 textbook. 

Many species are explored in-depth, providing students with significant study guidance on habitat, lifecycle, and other topics. The chapter also includes a complete classification of the Plantae Kingdom, also known as the Plant Kingdom.

Key Features of NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 3 – the Plant Kingdom

  • The solutions are simple to comprehend.
  • The answers are explained with diagrams, wherever possible.
  • The solutions are prepared by subject-matter experts.

Benefits of Class 11 Biology Chapter 3 NCERT Solutions

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 3 are essential for all students who want to improve their exam scores. The following are some advantages of going through our Plant Kingdom Class 11 NCERT Solutions:

  • The solutions have been curated following the latest syllabus prescribed by CBSE, offering students detailed and accurate answers to the questions.
  • The solutions have been created by some of the most experienced teachers.
  • With step-by-step explanations, students find it easy to understand the answer.

Q.1 What is the basis of classification of algae?


The algal classification into three different groups is based on the following characteristics:

  • Nature of pigmentation
  • Type of photosynthetic food reserve
  • Flagella type
  • Cell wall structure and composition

[Note: The algae are divided into three main classes: Chlorophyceae, Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae.]

Q.2 When and where does reduction division take place in the life cycle of a liverwort, a moss, a fern, a gymnosperm and an angiosperm?


Reduction division is a type of cell division in which the chromosome number is reduced to half in the process of forming gametes/ spores for sexual reproduction. It is also called as meiosis.

Liverwort: In liverworts, the main plant-body is haploid (gametophytic). It bears the male and female sex organs which produce gametes. These gametes fuse to form a zygote. The zygote develops on the gametophytic plant-body to form a sporophyte. The sporophyte is differentiated into the foot, seta, and capsule. Reduction division takes place inside the capsule to form haploid spores.

Moss: In mosses, the gametophytic primary protonema develops into the secondary protonema which bears the sex organs which produce gametes. These gametes fuse to form a zygote. The zygote develops into a sporophyte. Reduction division in the capsule leads to haploid spore formation.

Fern: In ferns, the main plant-body is sporophytic. Its leaves are known as sporophylls and these bear the sporangia. Reduction division takes place in these sporangia, thereby producing many spores.

Gymnosperm: In gymnosperms, the main plant-body is sporophytic. They bear two types of leaves – microsporophylls and megasporophylls which produce the microsporangia and megasporangia respectively. Reduction division takes place in the microsporangia and megasporangia to produce the microspores/ pollen grains and megaspores/ eggs respectively.

Angiosperm: In angiosperms, the main plant-body is sporophytic and bears flowers. The male sex organ in the flower is the stamen, while the female sex organ is the pistil and both are present in the flower. Reduction division takes place in the anthers of the stamen (producing haploid pollen grains) and in the ovary of the pistil (producing haploid eggs).

Q.3 Name three groups of plants that bear archegonia. Briefly describe the life cycle of any one of them.


Archegonia is a female sex organ that produces female gametes. The three groups that show distinct archegonia are:

  • Bryophytes,
  • Pteridophytes and
  • Gymnosperms

Life cycle of a liverwort, a bryophyte:

The life of a liverwort starts from the germination of a haploid spore to produce a protonema, which is either a mass of thread-like filaments or else a flattened thallus. The protonema is a transitory stage in the life of a liverwort, from which will grow the mature gametophore plant that produces the sex organs. The male organs are known as antheridia and produce sperm cells. The female organs are known as archegonia. Each archegonium has a slender hollow tube down which the sperm swims to reach the egg cell.

When sperm reach the archegonia, fertilisation occurs, leading to the production of a diploid sporophyte. After fertilisation, the immature sporophyte within the archegonium develops three distinct regions a foot, capsule and a seta. When the sporophyte has developed the archegonium ruptures to release the haploid spores by meiosis/ reduction division. The haploid spores will germinate and the life cycle will start again.

Q.4 Mention the ploidy of the following: protonemal cell of a moss; primary endosperm nucleus in dicot, leaf cell of a moss; prothallus cell of a fern; gemma cell in Marchantia; meristem cell of monocot, ovum of a liverwort, and zygote of a fern.


Description Ploidy
Protonemal cell of a moss Haploid
Primary endosperm nucleus in dicot Triploid
Leaf cell of a moss Haploid
Prothallus cell of a fern Haploid
Gemma cell in Marchantia Haploid
Meristem cell of monocot Diploid
Ovum of a liverwort Haploid
Zygote of a fern Diploid

Q.5 Write a note on the economic importance of algae and gymnosperms.


Economic importance of Algae:

  1. Algae as food – Algae species are used as food and are found to be rich in proteins, vitamins (A, B, C and E), lipids and minerals. Laminaria species is an edible seaweed in Japan.
  2. Algae as fodder for cattle – Algae is also used as food for cattle for example spirulina.
  3. Algae as fertilisers – Blue-green algae are treated as bio-fertilisers. Nostoc, Oscillatoria, Scytonema, Spirulina, etc. are used as fertilisers in rice fields. All these algae help to fix atmospheric Nitrogen in the ground.
  4. Agar-Agar: Agar-agar is a jelly-like substance of great economic value. It is obtained from certain red algae. Agar is used as a culture medium for growing callus in tissue culture as well as in confectionaries.
  5. Antibiotics and Medicines: Antibiotic Chlorellin, obtained from Chlorella is effective against several pathogenic bacteria. Seaweeds have a beneficial effect on gall bladders, pancreas, kidneys, uterus and thyroid glands.

Economic importance of gymnosperms:

  1. Gymnosperms like pine, fir, spruce, and cedar are conifers that are used for lumber. The wood is used in packaging industries and also for making home furnishing.
  2. Ornamental use of gymnosperms like for making bonsai and for Christmas decorations.
  3. Resins of coniferous trees are used to make turpentine oil, wood methanol, disinfectants, paints perfumes etc.

Q.6 Both gymnosperms and angiosperms bear seeds, then why are they classified separately?


Both gymnosperms and angiosperms bear seeds but they are classified separately due to the following differences between the two groups:

Angiosperm Gymnosperm
Sporophylls form flowers. Sporophylls aggregate to form compact cones.
The microsporophylls consist of filaments called stamens and anthers contain pollen grains. The microsporophylls are not distinguished into filaments and anthers.
The megasporophylls are delicate consisting of ovary, style and stigma. The ovary contains the eggs. The megasporophylls are woody and do not contain the ovary, style and stigma. Therefore the eggs lie exposed.
Archegonia is replaced by an egg apparatus. Archegonia is present.
Two male gametes enter the egg apparatus at the time of fertilisation. One forms the zygote and the other forms the triploid endosperm. Single fertilisation event takes place to form the zygote. The endosperm is haploid.
The seeds develop inside a fruit. The seeds produced are naked as there is no fruit formation.
Examples: Apple, Guava, Peach Examples: Pine, Cedar, Fir, Ginkgo

Q.7 What is heterospory? Briefly comment on its significance. Give two examples?


Heterospory is a phenomenon wherein two types of spores are produced by a plant as seen in pteridophytes. The two types of spores – megaspore and microspore – germinate into female and male gametophytes, respectively. The male gametophyte fuses with the female gametophyte which is retained on the parent sporophyte. The development of the embryos takes place in the female gametophyte.

This has evolutionary significance. This type of fertilisation and development could be the precursor to the phenomenon of seed development as seen in higher plants like angiosperms.

Examples: Genera like Selaginella and Salvinia are heterosporous and produce macro and microspores.

Q.8 Explain briefly the following terms with suitable examples:-

(i) protonema

(ii) antheridium

(iii) archegonium

(iv) diplontic

(v) sporophyll

(vi) isogamy


(i) Protonema: Protonema is the first stage in the life cycle of moss. The protonema develops directly from a spore. The protonema is a mass of thread-like filaments or a flattened thallus. The protonema is a transitory stage in the life of a liverwort, from which will grow the mature gametophore plant that produces the sex organs.

(ii) Antheridium: The male sex organs in bryophytes are called antheridium. They produce biflagellate antherozoids which swim up the archegonium to fertilize the female gametes to form a zygote.

(iii) Archegonium: The female organ known as archegonia is flask-shaped and produces a single egg. The antherozoids (male gametes) are released into the water where they come in contact with archegonium. Each archegonium has a slender hollow tube in which the sperm swims to reach the egg cell. An antherozoid fuses with the egg to produce the zygote.

(iv) Diplontic: A diplontic organism is one in which the somatic cells are diploid (having two sets of chromosomes) while its gametes are haploid (having one set of chromosomes). The diploid part is the dominant, photosynthetic, independent phase of the plant. This kind of lifecycle is termed as diplontic. All seed-bearing plants i.e. gymnosperms and angiosperms, follow this pattern.

(v) Sporophyll: Sporophyll is a leaf that bears spores/ sporangia. In heterosporous plants, the sporophylls can bear either microsporangia (megasporophylls) or megasporangia (microsporophylls). Examples of plants that have sporophylls are ferns and some types of algae. In some cases, sporophylls may form distinct compact structures called strobili or cones (eg. Selaginella, Equisetum).

(vi) Isogamy: Isogamy is a form of sexual reproduction that involves gametes of similar morphology (similar shape and size), differing only in allele expression in one or more mating-type regions. Because both gametes look alike, they cannot be classified as “male” or “female.” Instead, organisms undergoing isogamy are said to have different mating types, most commonly noted as “+” and “-” strains, for example Chlamydomonas and other plants.

Q.9 Differentiate between the following:-

(i) red algae and brown algae

(ii) liverworts and moss

(iii)homosporous and heterosporouspteridophyte

(iv) syngamy and triple fusion



Red Algae Brown Algae
1 Belong to class Rhodophyceae Belong to class Phaeophyceae
2 Contain Chlorophyll a, d and r-phycoerythrin Contain Chlorophyll a, c and fucoxanthin
3 Food is stored as floridean starch Food is stored as mannitol and laminarin
4 Flagella absent Flagella present
5 Cell wall made of cellulose, pectin and phycocolloids Cell wall made of cellulose and algin
6 Produce hydrocolloids called carrageen Produce hydrocolloids called algin


Liverworts Moss
1 Leaves do not have veins Leaves have veins
2 Leaves have lobes and cilia arranged in two rows Leaves are serrated and spirally arranged
3 Sporophyte less elaborate Sporophyte more elaborate
4 Gemmae present Gemmae absent


Homosporous Pteridophyte Heterosporous Pteridophyte
1 They bear spores that are of the same type. They bear two kinds of spores called megaspores and microspores.
2 The spores give rise to bisexual gametophytes. The megaspores and microspores give rise to female and male gametophyte respectively.


Syngamy Triple Fusion
1 The fusion of the male gamete with the female gamete to form the zygote in angiosperms. The fusion of the male gamete with diploid secondary nucleus to form the triploid primary endosperm nucleus (PEN) in angiosperms.
2 The zygote develops into an embryo (with one or two cotyledons) The PEN develops into endosperm which provides nourishment to the developing embryo.

Q.10 How would you distinguish monocots from dicots?


Monocots and dicots are the two classes of angiosperms. They can be distinguished by both anatomical and morphological characteristics. Some of the key features that can help distinguish the two are stated below:

Morphological Characteristic Monocot Dicot
Number of cotyledons in the seed One Two
Major leaf veins Parallel Reticulated
Roots Fibrous root Tap root
Flowers Grow in multiples of 3 Grow in multiples of 4 or 5
Anatomical Characteristics Monocot Dicot
Stem vascular bundles Scattered Bundled
Secondary growth Secondary growth absent Secondary growth often present

Q.11 Match the followings (column I with column II)

Column I Column II
(a) Chlamydomonas (i) Moss
(b) Cycas (ii) Pteridophyte
(c) Selaginella (iii) Algae
(d) Sphagnum (iv) Gymnosperm


Column I Column II
(a) Chlamydomonas (iii) Algae
(b) Cycas (iv) Gymnosperm
(c) Selaginella (ii) Pteridophyte
(d) Sphagnum (i) Moss

Q.12 Describe the important characteristics of gymnosperms.


Gymnosperms mean naked seeds (gymnos – naked; sperma – seed). Some important characteristics of gymnosperms are listed below:

  1. The seeds of these plants are naked as in they are not enclosed in fruits.
  2. The plants can vary in size ranging from a small shrub to the largest trees known on earth – Sequoia (height of 286 feet (87 m) or more, a circumference of 113 feet (34 m) or more).
  3. They have taproots and many plants have roots with the fungal association in the form of mycorrhiza. Some plant roots are also associated with N2 fixing bacteria.
  4. The leaves of gymnosperms, for example, pine trees, can withstand harsh weather and extreme cold due to reduced surface area, thick cuticle and sunken stomata.
  5. Gymnosperms are heterosporous; they produce haploid microspores and megaspores.
  6. The two types of spores, male and female are arranged on separate cones (also called strobili) to form the male and female cones. Fertilization occurs by wind pollination and results in the formation of uncovered seeds in the female cones.

For viewing question paper please click here

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Explain the economic importance of algae as discussed in Chapter 3 of NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology.

The economic importance of algae as discussed in Chapter 3 of NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology is–

  1. Almost half of the total carbon dioxide fixation is done by algae through the process of photosynthesis.
  2. Spirulina and Chlorella are protein-rich and used as food supplements because some of the species of marine algae such as Laminaria, Sargassum and Porphyra are edible.
  3. Many red algae are used for the treatment of worm infections.

2. Explain the economic importance of gymnosperms as discussed in Chapter 3 of NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology.

The economic importance of gymnosperms is:

  1. Gymnosperms plants are used as ornamental plants.
  2. Conifers such as cedar and pine are used for construction and packing.
  3. Taxus has medicinal properties. An anticancer drug called Taxol is obtained from Taxus.

3. What is the significance of heterospory as discussed in Chapter 3 of NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology?

The creation of two types of different spores in the same plant is heterospory. Chapter 3 of NCERT Class 11 discusses the significance of heterospory. It says:

  1. Heterospory is the process through which seeds develop in angiosperms and gymnosperms.
  2. Microspores produce male gametophytes and megaspores produce female gametophytes.

4. What is the difference between Moss and Algae?

Algae are members of the Protista kingdom. They are a photosynthetic group of organisms that produce chlorophyll but lack genuine roots, stems, and leaves. They mainly develop in aquatic environments and are devoid of pores or stomata.

Moss is classified in the kingdom of Plantae as a bryophyte. It is a tiny, flowerless green plant with no roots and grows in moist settings on low carpets or spherical cushions. It grows in wet, shady environments and has pores or stomata, which are necessary for the exchange of gases

5. Where can I find the best NCERT Solutions for Chapter 3 Class 11 Biology?

Students can get access to the NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 3 on Extramarks. The solutions provided are reliable and factually correct as they have been created carefully by our faculty. They are accessible easily and going through them will aid Class 11 students in their studies.