NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 6

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 6 – Anatomy of Flowering Plants

Chapter 6 of Class 11 Biology, Anatomy of Flowering Plants, is part of Unit 2 – Structural Organisation in Plants and Animals. Anatomy is the study of one’s internal structure. The chapter ‘Anatomy of Flowering Plants’ discusses the functional organisation and internal structure of higher plants. 

Students who are looking for accurate answers to the questions discussed at the end of Chapter 6 can refer to NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 6 – Anatomy of Flowering Plants by Extramarks. The solutions comprise the answers to all the questions that are in the NCERT textbook.

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 6 – Anatomy of Flowering Plants

Access NCERT Questions for Class 11 Biology

Extramarks offers NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 6 that are prepared by subject-matter experts while ensuring that every answer meets the guidelines laid by CBSE.

Along with NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 6, Extramarks provides a variety of learning aids, including NCERT books, solution sets, and past years’ question papers. Students can utilise them and take their exam preparation to the next level.

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 6 – Anatomy of Flowering Plants

The subject-matter experts at Extramarks ensure that answers are presented in a simple yet engaging tone. The use of diagrams and pictures in the solutions makes them even more easy-to-understand.

NCERT Solutions For Class 11 Biology Chapter 6 Anatomy Of Flowering Plants

The NCERT Class 11 Biology Chapter 6 explains the anatomy of the flower, the definition of a tissue, different types of plant tissues, and other related topics. In addition, students will also learn about the epidermal tissue system which is the outermost layer of the body of the plant. The secondary growth of a plant is also discussed in detail.

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 6 by Extramarks have answers to all the questions that are asked at the end of the chapter in NCERT textbook. With the help of the solutions, students can prepare better for the exams and attain higher marks.

NCERT Solutions For Class 11 Biology Chapter 6 Anatomy Of Flowering Plants- Chapter Description

The tissues of a plant have a variety of shapes and sizes. The assimilation and storage of food, the movement of water, minerals, and photosynthesis, and the provision of mechanical support are all important roles of tissues. Based on the kind of cells, plant tissues can be broadly divided into two: Meristematic Tissues and Permanent Tissues. Meristematic tissues have three major types of tissues which are Apical, Lateral, and Intercalary. Permanent Tissues further include two types of plant tissues which are Simple and Complex. Simple tissue is divided further into three types: parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma. The Complex tissue is divided into two types: Xylem and Phloem.

In Chapter 6, students will explore various plant tissue systems which are: epidermal, ground, and vascular tissue systems. The plant’s major mass is made up of the ground tissue system. Cortex, pericycle, and pith are the three zones. All three are present in a dicot system, whereas a continuous parenchymatous tissue mass is present in a monocot stem. 

The anatomy of Dicotyledonous and Monocotyledonous Plants will be covered in this chapter on Anatomy of Flowering Plants, as well as the stems of Dicotyledonous and Monocotyledonous Plants. The chapter further explains the Vascular Cambium- a single layer between the xylem and phloem in patches, and Cork Cambium- a meristematic tissue that forms in the cortex.

Key Features of NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 6 – Anatomy of Flowering Plants

  • The solutions presented are concise and to the point. 
  • The solutions have a simple language, making them easier to understand.
  • Solutions can be downloaded anytime and anywhere, giving students an opportunity to study offline.

NCERT Biology Class 11 Anatomy Of Flowers: Marks Distribution

Overall, Unit 2 of Class 11 Biology “Structural Organisation in Plants and Animals” carries 5% weightage in the NEET exam, and 12% of the total marks in final school exams.The unit is divided into three chapters, each of which has an equal topic weightage in the exam.

Benefits of NCERT Solutions For Class 11 Biology Chapter 6 Anatomy Of Flowers

The Anatomy of Flowers is a chapter that delves into the fundamental structure of a flower. The subject-matter experts at Extramarks have made sure that each answer is explained in the simplest possible manner. Here are some of the benefits of referring to NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 6:

  • The NCERT solutions for Class 11 biology chapter 6 have thorough answers that explain the anatomy of a flower in simple terms.
  • By referring to the solutions, students will get an idea of how to attempt a question in the right manner in an exam.

Related Questions

Q1. The location of xylem and phloem in a dorsiventral leaf is:

  1. Abaxial and Adaxial respectively
  2. Adaxial and Abaxial respectively
  3. Both are abaxial
  4. Both are adaxial

A1. Adaxial and Abaxial respectively. 

Q2. A tree’s age can be estimated using the:

  1. Height and girth
  2. Biomass
  3. Number of annual rings
  4. Diameter of its heartwood

A2. Number of annual rings.

Q.1 State the location and function of different types of meristems.


Depending on the location in plants, meristems are classified into the following three categories:

S.No. Type of meristem Location and Function
1. Shoot apical meristem It is present in the apical tissue of shoot and is responsible for the vertical growth and elongation of a plant.
2. Root apical meristem It is present in the tip region of root and is responsible for root growth.
3. Intercalary meristem It is present in between the permanent tissues and is observed in grasses. Its main function is to regenerate the damaged plant part.
4. Lateral meristem It is present in the mature regions of shoots and roots. It is responsible for the production of secondary tissues.

Q.2 Cork cambium forms tissues that form the cork. Do you agree with this statement? Explain.


During the secondary growth, the plant increases its girth as a result of the activity of vascular cambium. This leads to the rupturing of the outer cortical and epidermal layer. To protect the internal tissues from the exposure to the external environment, another meristematic tissue known as cork cambium develops in the cortex region. This tissue is a couple of layers thick and is made up of rectangular thin-walled cell. The outer cells divide to form cork and the cells of the inner layer form secondary cork cambium. Thus, it can be said that the cork cambium forms tissues that give rise to the cork.

Q.3 Explain the process of secondary growth in the stems of woody angiosperms with the help of schematic diagrams. What is its significance?


In the stems of woody angiosperms, a meristematic layer called intrafascicular cambium is present between the primary xylem and phloem. During the growing season, the cells of medullary rays adjoining the intrafascicular cambium become meristematic and form a continuous ring that divides bidirectionally. The cell that cut off toward the pith becomes secondary xylem, while the cell that cut outwardly form secondary phloem. The activity on the cambial ring is high inwardly, resulting in the production of more secondary xylem, compared to secondary phloem. This results in the formation of a compact mass at the centre of the stem.

Significance: Many physiological and environmental factors govern the activity of intrafascicular cambium. This can be distinctly observed in woody trees of temperate regions. They have clearly demarcated annual rings which are concentric rings formed due to the formation of two different kinds of woods during two different seasons. In the spring, cambium is active and produces a large number of xylary elements having vessels with wider cavities. This wood is called springwood and is lighter in colour with lower density. During the winter season, cambium is less active and forms fewer xylary elements that have narrow vessels. This latewood or autumn wood is darker in colour and has a higher density. This difference in the woods formed during two different seasons results in the formation of annual rings. One can find out the age of the plant, based on the number of annual rings seen in the cut stem of the plant.

Q.4 Draw illustrations to bring out the anatomical difference between

(a) Monocot root and Dicot root

(b) Monocot stem and Dicot stem


(a) Monocot root and Dicot root
Monocot root Dicot root
The roots grow randomly into the ground. The roots grow straight down and then branch out.
The central pith is large and very well developed. Pith is comparatively small.
Does not show secondary growth Shows secondary growth
More than six xylem bundles are seen. Few xylem bundles are seen in dicot root (less than six).
(b) Monocot stem and Dicot stem
Monocot stem Dicot stem
Hypodermis consists of sclerenchymatous cells. Hypodermis consists of few layers of collenchymatous cells.
Vascular bundles are scattered in ground tissue. Vascular bundles are arranged in a ring.
Vascular bundles are closed. Vascular bundles are open.
Starch sheath, pericycle, pith and medullary rays are absent. Starch sheath, pericycle, pith and medullary rays are present.
Phloem parenchyma is absent. Phloem parenchyma is present.

Q.5 Cut a transverse section of young stem of a plant from your school garden and observe it under the microscope. How would you ascertain whether it is a monocot stem or a dicot stem? Give reasons.


The well-differentiated ground tissue with the arranged vascular bundle is the characteristic feature of dicot stem while undifferentiated ground tissue and the scattered vascular bundle is the feature of monocot stem. If the cut section shows the presence of vascular bundle arranged in a ring, it is a dicot stem but if the vascular bundles are scattered, it is a monocot stem.

Q.6 The transverse section of a plant material shows the following anatomical features – (a) the vascular bundles are conjoint, scattered and surrounded by a sclerenchymatous bundle sheath. (b) phloem parenchyma is absent. What will you identify it as?


Conjoint, scattered and closed vascular bundles surrounded by bundle sheath cells, are some of the characteristic anatomical features of a monocot stem. Medullary rays as well as phloem parenchyma are also absent in these stems.

Q.7 Why are xylem and phloem called complex tissues?


The tissues which are composed of more than one type of cells working together to bring about a function are called complex tissues. Both xylem and phloem are made up of more than one type of cells, thus they are known as complex tissues.

The different types of elements present in the xylem tissue are:

  1. Tracheids,
  2. Vessels,
  3. Xylem fibres and
  4. Xylem parenchyma.

The different types of elements present in the phloem tissue are:

  1. Sieve tube elements,
  2. Companion cells,
  3. Phloem parenchyma and
  4. Phloem fibres

Q.8 What is stomatal apparatus? Explain the structure of stomata with a labelled diagram.


The stomatal aperture/pore and guard cells along with the subsidiary cells form the stomatal apparatus. Stomata are the special openings present in the epidermis of the leaves to facilitate gaseous exchange and transpiration. Stomata are made up of two kidney-shaped (bean-shaped) guard cells and the turgidity of these cells regulate the opening and closing of the stomatal pore. The cell wall of guard cells shows differential thickening. The outer wall is elastic and thin, while the inner wall that is close to the pore is very thick. These guard cells are photosynthetic in nature. The guard cells are surrounded by specialized epithelial cells called subsidiary cells which have a specific shape and size.

Q.9 Name the three basic tissue systems in the flowering plants. Give the tissue names under each system.


The three basic tissue systems in the flowering plants are as follows:

Tissue System Tissue Names
Epidermal tissue system Stomata, root hairs and trichomes and epidermis
Ground tissue system Parenchyma, sclerenchyma, collenchyma and mesophyll
Vascular tissue system Phloem, cambium and xylem

Q.10 How is the study of plant anatomy useful to us?


Study of plant anatomy is useful in the following ways:

  • Classification: On the basis of anatomical features, a plant can be classified into monocot or dicot.
  • Adaptation: Anatomy reveals about the various modifications in the internal organization of tissue with respect to different environmental conditions; thus, it helps in studying evolution.
  • Economic value: Anatomical study suggests the quality of wood in the plant and helps in predicting the quality of fibres that can be obtained from the plants.

Q.11 What is periderm? How does periderm formation take place in the dicot stems?


During secondary growth, the plant increases its girth due to the activity of vascular cambium. This results in rupturing of the outer cortical and epidermal layer. To protect the internal tissue from the external environmental exposure, the meristematic tissue develops in this region, called cork cambium or phellogen. This meristematic tissue possesses a rectangular thin-walled cell, which divides outwardly to form cork or phellem and inwardly to form secondary cork cambium phelloderm. This tissues, namely phellogen, phellem and phelloderm, are collectively called periderm. Periderm formation in dicot stem takes place from the meristematic tissue of the cortex region.

Q.12 Describe the internal structure of a dorsiventral leaf with the help of labelled diagrams.


The dicot leaves differ in the structure and appearance of its upper and lower surfaces, thus they are called dorsiventral leaves. The vertical section of dorsiventral leaves under a microscope can be clearly distinguished into three parts. They are:

  • Epidermis: This is the outermost layer of tissue that covers the upper and lower surfaces of the leaf. The epidermis at the upper surface is called adaxial epidermis while that at the lower surface is called abaxial epidermis. Generally, the lower epidermis contains more stomatal opening while upper epidermis contains very few or no stomata.
  • Mesophyll: The mesophyll cells appear green as they contain chloroplast. This photosynthetic tissue is present between the upper and lower epidermis. The elongated mesophyll cells, arranged vertically in parallel direction are called palisade parenchyma. These are close to the upper epidermis. Below palisade parenchyma are loosely arranged oval cells, known as spongy parenchyma that extends down to lower epidermis.
  • Vascular system: These include densely arranged complex tissues like xylem and phloem.

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FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. How to Prepare for Class 11 Biology Chapter 6 Anatomy of Flowering Plants?

To begin with,students must be thorough with all the concepts explained in the chapter of the NCERT textbook.After this they should try to attempt the questions given at the back of the chapter. They can refer to NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology chapter 6  by Extramarks in case they get stuck on any question.

2. How is the study of plant anatomy from Chapter 6 of NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology useful for students?

Students will learn the following from studying plant anatomy:

  1. Plant structural responses to a variety of environmental settings.
  2. Differentiating between dicots, monocots, and gymnosperms.
  3. Physiological circumstances, which aid in crop improvement.
  4. Forecasting Wood’s strength, and using it the right way.

3. List the three basic tissue systems in the flowering plants from Chapter 6 of NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology.

The three basic tissue systems in the flowering plants from the Chapter 6 of NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology are –

  1. Ground tissue system – It is made up of simple tissues such as collenchyma, parenchyma and sclerenchyma.
  2. Epidermal tissue system – It includes both epidermal appendages and epidermis. The epidermal appendages include stem hair, root hair, glandular hair and stinging hair whereas the epidermis consists of guard cells and epidermal cells.
  3. Vascular tissue system – It consists of complex tissues such as phloem, xylem and vascular cambium.


4. Which is the best solution for NCERT Class 11 Chapter 6 Biology?

The NCERT Class 11 Chapter 6 Biology solutions by Extramarks are the best learning materials available to students. The solutions are prepared by subject-matter experts, which assures their high accuracy and adherence to CBSE guidelines.

5. Explain the location as well as the function of the meristems.

Meristems are divided into three categories based on their position in the plant’s body. These categories are – Apical meristem, Intercalary meristem, and Lateral meristem. The Apical meristem is found at the root and shoots apices, and it causes the plant to grow longer. The Intercalary meristem is found near the base of the leaves, just above or below the nodes, and it leads to the extension of the organ. The Lateral meristem is found on the plant’s lateral side.

6. Describe the epidermal tissue system.

Here’s the description of the epidermal tissue system:

  • This system includes the outer covering of the plants. For example, stomata, cuticle, trichomes, etc in root hairs and stem.
  • Through the process of transpiration, stomata regulate water loss and gaseous exchange.
  • Guard cells are bean-shaped. These cells contain chloroplasts.
  • Guard cells are of the shape of dumb-bell in grasses.
  • The root hair of the plants are unicellular.
  • The trichomes are multicellular.