Chapter 7 - Transportation in Animals and Plants teaches students about the different modes of circulation in animals and transportation in plants. The chapter has practise questions at the end so that students can revise the concepts and prepare better for exams. To help students in solving the NCERT questions accurately, Extramarks offers NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Science Chapter 11. The solutions are excellent study material for students for revision and exam preparation leaving nothing for the last minute.
NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Science Chapter 11
Access NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Science Chapter 11 – Transportation in Animals and Plants
NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Science
With the help of NCERT Solutions, students can answer the textbook questions in a better way. The answers are written in a simple language and step-by-step manner so that students do not find any difficulty in understanding and it encourages the students in mastering the concept and increases their confidence in achieving a higher grade.
Chapter 11 – Transportation in Animals and Plants
In Chapter 11 of Class 7, students get to learn about various modes of circulation and transportation in animals and plants.
NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Science Chapters
Extramarks provides NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Science for the following chapters:
- Chapter 1 - Nutrition in Plants
- Chapter 2 - Nutrition in Animals
- Chapter 3 - Fibre to Fabric
- Chapter 4 - Heat
- Chapter 5 - Acids
- Chapter 6 - Physical and Chemical Changes
- Chapter 7 - Weather
- Chapter 8 - Winds
- Chapter 9 - Soil
- Chapter 10 - Respiration in Organisms
- Chapter 11 - Transportation in Animals and Plants
- Chapter 12 - Reproduction in Plants
- Chapter 13 - Motion and Time
- Chapter 14 - Electric Current and Its Effects
- Chapter 15 - Light
- Chapter 16 - Water: A Precious Resource
- Chapter 17 - Forests: Our Lifeline
- Chapter 18 - Wastewater Story
Here’s an overview of the topics covered in Chapter 11:
11.1 Circulatory System
We know the blood flows out if we get a cut on our skin. Blood is a fluid that flows through the blood vessels. It carries oxygen from the lungs to many parts of the body. It is also the means of conveying waste material from various body parts to the excretory system. Blood contains many types of cells. The fluid element of blood is named plasma.
Types of Cells in Blood
Red Blood Cells
Amongst the various types of cells existing in the blood, red blood cells or RBCs, form the main part. RBC contains haemoglobin, due to which the colour of blood is red. The fundamental function of haemoglobin is to carry oxygen to various body parts. Without haemoglobin, oxygen cannot be transported efficiently.
White Blood Cells
Blood also comprises white blood cells. The primary purpose of white blood is to preserve immunity against germs that can enter our bodies through various sources.
Veins and Arteries
There are two types of vessels present in the human body. They are veins and arteries. Arteries mainly transmit blood to various parts of the body. Veins transmit blood from multiple parts of the body to the heart. When we inhale, the lung is filled with oxygen taken up from the lungs by the veins and transferred to the heart. The heart pumps the oxygenated blood to various body parts via the arteries.
Likewise, several body cells use this oxygen and release carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is taken up by the veins and is returned to the heart. Another group of arteries transmits the deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs.
The heart is an essential organ of the body that continuously pumps blood to various parts of the body. It is located in the centre of the chest cavity. However, you can feel your heartbeat on the left side of the chest. It is because its lower tip is tilted towards the left.
There are four chambers of the heart. The upper two chambers are named the auricles, and the lower two chambers are known as the ventricles. These chambers work together to avoid mixing the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood by providing a partition between the chambers.
The walls of the four chambers relax and contract rhythmically. This process of contraction and relaxation in a rhythm constructs the heartbeat. You can realise the heartbeat by positioning your hand on the left side of your heart. Doctors listen to the heartbeat with the help of a stethoscope. By hearing the amplified heartbeat, physicians can recognize any change in the heartbeat pattern associated with any disease.
11.2 Excretion in Animals
The trash products of the body are transported into the blood. However, a mechanism for filtering the blood to eliminate the trash product is necessary. Blood filtering is done by the blood capillaries existing in the kidneys.
The blood going to the kidneys includes both beneficial and waste materials. The valuable items are filtered out into the blood, while the wastes are dissolved in water and eliminated as urine. The urine is transmitted from the kidneys into the tubular ureters, which pour it into the urinary bladder. The urine is then passed out from the bladder via an opening at the mouth of a muscular tube called the urethra. The excretory system contains the ureters, kidneys, urinary bladder, and urethra.
Sweating is another form of excretion. Sweating consists of water and salts of the body. The round patches in our clothes' underarm are usually formed due to the salt present in the sweat. It is a way to cool off the body.
Aquatic animals such as several fishes excrete waste products in the form of ammonia. Some animals, such as lizards, birds, etc., eliminate waste in the form of uric acid. Humans mainly excrete waste in the form of urea.
11.3 Transport of Substances in Plants
We know that plants take water, nutrients, and minerals from the soil through roots and transmit it to the leaves. The leaves generate the food of the plant in the presence of sunlight and carbon dioxide, which is called photosynthesis. Every cell in a living being creates energy by the breakdown of glucose received from their food.
Plants absorb water and minerals through root hairs present on the roots. The root hairs provide expanded surface area for more absorption of water, minerals, and nutrients by being in contact with them. Plants have vascular tissue to transfer water and nutrients from the roots to the leaves called xylem.
The leaves synthesise food which is transferred to various parts of the plant by vascular tissue called the phloem. Both xylem and phloem are used for the transportation of substances in plants.
11.4 What Do We Breathe Out?
The water-soaked from the plants is not entirely utilised in the food-making procedure. A large fraction of the absorbed water is given out by the plants by transpiration. Transpiration takes place through the stomata of the leaves. This water evaporation from the leaves creates a strong suction pull to pull water up the xylem through considerable heights. Transpiration also plays a part in the cooling of plants.
Key Features of NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Science Chapter 11
The key features of NCERT Solutions Class 7 Science Chapter 11 are:
- Solutions provide concise reference material with answers written in simple language, and explained with relevant diagrams.
- They are easily accessible on Extramarks website and mobile app.
- The subject matter experts have prepared these solutions and it has all the answers to the textbook questions.
Q.1 Match the structures given in Column I with functions given in Column II.
|Column I||Column II|
|(i) Stomata||(a) Absorption of water|
|(ii) Xylem||(b) Transpiration|
|(iii) Root hairs||(c) Transport of food|
|(iv) Phloem||(d) Transport of water|
|(e) Synthesis of carbohydrates|
The correctly matched contents of Column I with Column II are as follows:
|Column I||Column II|
|(i) Stomata||(b) Transpiration|
|(ii) Xylem||(d) Transport of water|
|(iii) Root hairs||(a) Absorption of water|
|(iv) Phloem||(c) Transport of food|
Q.2 Fill in the blanks.
(i) The blood from the heart is transported to all parts of the body by the ___________.
(ii) Haemoglobin is present in __________ cells.
(iii) Arteries and veins are joined by a network of ________.
(iv) The rhythmic expansion and contraction of the heart is called ___________.
(v) The main excretory product in human beings is _________.
(vi) Sweat contains water and _________.
(vii) Kidneys eliminate the waste materials in the liquid form called __________.
(viii) Water reaches great heights in the trees because of suction pull caused by ____________.
(ii) red blood
Q.3 Choose the correct option:
(a) In plants, water is transported through
(iv) root hair
(b) Water absorption through roots can be increased by keeping the plants
(i) in the shade
(ii) in dim light
(iii) under the fan
(iv) covered with a polythene bag
(a) In plants, water is transported through (i) xylem
(b) Water absorption through roots can be increased by keeping the plants (iii) under the fan
Q.4 Why is transport of materials necessary in a plant or in an animal? Explain.
The transport of materials is necessary in all organisms because it allows exchange of gases, supply of nutrients and removal of waste materials. All plants and animals have well developed transport systems to ensure continuous supply of oxygen, water and food to all parts of the body. Also, the toxic waste materials generated due to various activities is removed from the body by means of transport system only.
Q.5 What will happen if there are no platelets in the blood?
In the absence of platelets, clot formation will not take place that will result in severe blood loss in case of injury. When a blood vessel is injured, platelets form blood clot that covers the wound protecting it from disease causing microorganisms and preventing blood loss.
Q.6 What are stomata? Give two functions of stomata.
Stomata are small pores present on the surface of the leaves forming an opening for exchange of materials. Two important functions of stomata are as follows:
1. Stomata allow exchange of gases, that is, intake of carbon dioxide and release of oxygen through it.
2. Stomata regulate rate of evaporation of water from the leaf surface, which is called transpiration.
Q.7 Does transpiration serve any useful function in the plants? Explain.
Transpiration is the loss of water molecules from stomata that causes a suction pull on the water column in xylem. Due to this suction pressure, water is transported to a great height in large trees through the xylem.
Q.8 What are the components of blood?
There are four major components of blood:
2. Red blood cells
3. White blood cells
Q.9 Why is blood needed by all the parts of a body?
Blood is the only means of supplying oxygen and nutrients derived from digested food to all parts of the body and removing waste products from them. As blood is the sole means of transport of materials, it is needed by all parts of the body.
Q.10 What makes the blood look red?
Blood appears red because of the presence of a red-coloured pigment in red blood cells called haemoglobin. This pigment binds with oxygen and carries it to all parts of body.
Q.11 Describe the function of the heart.
Heart is a muscular organ that pumps blood to each and every organ of the body. It helps in pumping the blood to lungs for oxygenation. Pumping action of heart keeps blood circulating in the vessels through which various important substances, like respiratory gases and nutrients, are transported. Heart consists of two atria and two ventricles, which contract and relax rhythmically to give rise to the pumping action.
Q.12 Why is it necessary to excrete waste products?
Waste products need to be excreted because these are toxic in nature and their circulation or presence in body cause damage to various organs of the body.
Q.13 Draw a diagram of the human excretory system and label the various parts.
A well-labelled diagram of human excretory system is as follows:
FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
Animal transportation is the combined effort of the circulatory system and the excretory system. Animals need food, water and oxygen for survival and they need to transport to different parts of their body. Further, animals need to transport waste to parts where it can be removed.
Importance of Transportation in Animals
Transportation is vital in animals because without it, they cannot perform normal body functions without it. Food particles are carried to the digestive organs through transportation, where they undergo digestion and the digested food reaches different parts of the body. Different organs release waste material, which is transported to the excretory organs before being finally removed from the body.
The presence of pigment called haemoglobin in the red blood cells makes the blood appear red. Haemoglobin is a protein complex that contains iron, which helps in transportation of oxygen in the body. Our blood contains iron in abundance. Iron has the tendency of reflecting red light, as a result our blood looks red.