The political conditions of India in the 18th century changed quite dramatically and within a relatively short span of time. The Mughal Empire shrank due to the formation of independent kingdoms. Throughout the second half of the century, the British also acquired a substantial presence in eastern India.
Learn more about the political forms of the 18th century in Chapter 10 of CBSE Class 7 History. The NCERT solutions for Class 7 History Chapter 10 provides the solutions to the exercises in the book. These solutions also help students prepare for the tests in the best possible manner.
NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Social Science:History Chapter 10 - Eighteenth-Century Political Formations
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Access NCERT Solutions for Social Science: History - Our Pasts-II Chapter 7 – Eighteenth-Century Political Formations
The political structures of the eighteenth century are discussed in chapter 10 of Class 7 History. The NCERT solutions for Class 7 History Chapter 10 can help students to grasp the main concepts topic wise in a systematic manner. It consists of elaborately written responses to textbook questions that highlight the most relevant topics. Additionally, all of the solutions are chosen by subject matter experts following the most recent CBSE syllabus.
NCERT Solutions for Class 7 History Chapter 10
The NCERT solutions are prepared by subject experts and faculty experts with years of experience in their respective fields. The best part about the solutions is that they are easily accessible on the Extramarks official website.
Chapter 10 – Eighteenth Century Political Formations
The Mughal Empire faced a series of crises towards the end of the 17th century, and it started declining due to several factors. Emperor Aurangzeb waged a long war in the Deccan. His empire's military and financial resources were reduced considerably. With the help of NCERT solutions for Class 7 History chapter 10, learn more about how the great Mughal Empire administration broke down under his successors. The rule of powerful mansabdars and subadars(governors) followed by peasant and zamindari rebellions in parts of northern and western India further worsened the situation. The empire was reeling under severe political pressure; the ruler of Iran, Nadir Shah plundered Delhi in 1739 followed by invasions of the Afghan ruler, Ahmad shah Abdali who raided India five times between 1748 and 1761.
The Crisis of the Mughal Empire and the later Mughals
Towards the end of the 17 century, the Mughal Empire started declining due to a number of factors. Aurangzeb had depleted his resources by fighting long wars in the deccan. His successors were unable to keep a check on their powerful mansabdars and the nobles who controlled the revenue and military administration. Revolts by peasants and zamindars in parts of northern and western India further added to the problems. While it was still reeling under pressure from all sides, invasions by Nadir Shah, the ruler of Iran in 1739 followed by raids of the Afghan ruler Ahmad Shah Abdali five times between 1748 and 1761 further helped in the decline of the Mughal Empire. The Mughal Emperors became mere puppets in the hands of two major factions- the Iranis and Turanis.
Emergence of New States
Through the 18 century, the Mughal Empire started breaking up into a number of independent regional states, and it can be divided into three overlapping groups: i) States that were old Mughal Provinces-Awadh, Bengal & Hyderabad ii) States that enjoyed considerable independence as watan jagirs. Several Rajput principalities were amongst these states. iii) States under the control of Marathas, Sikhs, and others like the Jats.
The Old Mughal Provinces
The states of Awadh, Bengal and Hyderabad were carved out of the old Mughal Provinces in the 18th century. These three states were founded by the high Mughal nobility and enjoyed the special patronage of the emperors.
Hyderabad's history will be described and simplified in the NCERT History book Class 7 Chapter 10 solutions. Telangana, a state in India, with Hyderabad as its capital. It's a historic city known for its numerous monuments, temples, mosques and bazaars.
The first Nizam of Hyderabad captured the town in 1724 after a brief time of Mughal domination. The Nizams and the British later formed a supplementary alliance.
Hyderabad developed industry, railways, modern education and airlines throughout this time. The Nizam of Hyderabad refused to join the newly created nation when it became independent in 1947. Because of the Telangana agitation, his power had diminished by that time. The Indian Army conquered Hyderabad in 1948.
Nizam -ul- Mulk Asaf Jah, once a powerful member of the Mughal court took advantage of the turmoil in the Deccan and competition among the court nobility, and became the actual ruler of that region. He brought skilled soldiers and administrators from northern India, appointed them as mansabdars and granted jagirs. Mughal emperors merely confirmed the decisions taken by him. However, his powers were checked by the British who were becoming powerful in the region.
It was one of the most important states to emerge after the break- up of the Mughal empire. Burhan-ul- Mulk was appointed as the subadar of Awadh in 1722. He was responsible for managing the political, financial and military affairs of the region. He decreased the Mughal influence by appointing his own office holders (jagirdars) and loyal servants to vacant positions. The state saw the development of new social groups like moneylenders, local bankers and mahajans influenced the management of the state’s revenue system, unheard of in the past.
Like the rulers of Awadh and Hyderabad, Murshid Quli Khan too commanded the revenue administration of the state, and he transferred Mughal jagirdars to Orissa. Eventually, Bengal gradually broke away from Mughal control. There was considerable change among the Zamindars in Bengal which saw the rise of the richest merchants and bankers gaining a stake in the new political order.
Students will be curious to learn more about the political formations in the 18 century through the NCERT solutions for Class 7 History Chapter 10 which gives more insights into later Mughals, rebellions, devastation of Delhi through foreign invasions, rise of independent rulers along with long and short question answers to cover the entire chapter in detail.
Learn about Bengal's History using the NCERT solution for Class 7 History chapter 10. In the late 16th and early 17th centuries, a Muslim Rajput chief named Isa Khan ruled over the Bengal delta. Murshid Quli Khan was named the Diwan of Bengal by Aurangzeb. He tried to prevent the English Malay Archipelago Company from collecting taxes to avoid squandering a substantial percentage of his province's interest.
The Watan jagirs of the Rajputs
Many of the rajputs enjoyed considerable autonomy under Mughals; they attempted to extend their control over adjacent regions like Gujarat and Malwa. Nagaur was conquered and annexed to the house of Jodhpur. Sawai Raja Jai Singh founded a new capital at Jaipur and got the subadari of Agra in 1722. However, their expansion was checked by Maratha campaigns.
Seizing Independence-The Sikhs, the Marathas and the Jats
The Marathas under Shivaji challenged the Mughals in the Peninsula. After his death, Shivaji’s successors, the Peshwas became powerful and the Maratha empire expanded between 1720 to 1761. It gradually moved away from the Mughal Empire. The Marathas were credited with ending the Mughal authority in the Indian subcontinent to a large extent.
The Jats consolidated their power in the late 17th and 18th centuries. Panipat and Ballabgarh were important trading centres. Under the leadership of Churaman, they controlled cities in west Delhi, and later by the 1680s, extended their domination over the imperial cities of Delhi and Agra. Moreover, the traditional style Bharatpur fort built by Jats is mentioned here.
During the 17th century, the Sikhs organised themselves into a political community which helped in the formation of regional state building in Punjab. Guru Gobind Singh successfully resisted against the Rajput and Mughal rulers, both before and after the institution of Khalsa in 1699. After his death, under the leadership of Banda Bahadur, they revolted against the Mughal authority and declared their sovereign rule by striking a coin in the name of Guru Nanak and Guru Gobind Singh. The Sikh territories in the late 18 century extended from the Indus to the Jamuna under different rulers and established their capital in Lahore in 1799.
The last section - Elsewhere
It briefly captures how the American and the French Revolutions challenged the social and political privileges enjoyed by the aristocrats.
Key Features of NCERT Solutions for Class 7 History Chapter 10
Extramarks' NCERT solutions Class 7: History Chapter 10 provides students with all the answers not only for History but for all the other subjects as well. . The sole purpose is to make the subject more understandable for students.
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NCERT Class 7 Social Science - History Our Pasts-II Chapter wise Solutions
NCERT Class 7 Social Science - History Our Pasts-2 chapter-wise solutions will help students to go through their chapters thoroughly without taking too much time, and give more time to revision to complete their syllabus ahead of the exams.
- Chapter 1 - Tracing Changes Through a Thousand Years
- Chapter 2 - New Kings and Kingdoms
- Chapter 3 - The Delhi Sultans
- Chapter 4 - The Mughal Empire
- Chapter 5 - Rulers and Buildings
- Chapter 6 - Towns, Traders and Craftspersons
- Chapter 7 - Tribes, Nomads and Settled Communities
- Chapter 8 - Devotional Paths to the Divine
- Chapter 9 - The Making of Regional Cultures
- Chapter 10 - Eighteenth-Century Political Formations
NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Social Science
Social science is one of the most interesting subjects to learn. However, at times it becomes very challenging for students since they have to memorise many facts, historical events, additional information, dates, key words, study maps and new developments and so on. The grades you secure in this subject will impact your overall percentage. Students would definitely score better if they follow the study material regularly and supplement their hard work by practicing important and challenging questions from Solutions which have been meticulously designed, revised and checked by the subject matter experts at Extramarks.
Q.1 Match the following:
|subadar||a revenue farmer|
|faujdar||a high noble|
|misl||Maratha peasant warriors|
|chauth||a Mughal military commander|
|kunbis||a band of Sikh warriors|
|umara||tax levied by the Marathas|
|faujdar||a Mughal military commander|
|ijaradar||a revenue farmer|
|misl||a band of Sikh warriors|
|chauth||tax levied by the Marathas|
|kunbis||Maratha peasant warriors|
|umara||a high noble|
Q.2 State whether true or false:
(a) Nadir Shah invaded Bengal.
(b) Sawai Raja Jai Singh was the ruler of Indore.
(c) Guru Gobind Singh was the tenth Guru of the Sikhs.
(d) Poona became the capital of the Marathas in the eighteenth century.
Q.3 What were the offices held by Sa‘adat Khan?
Sa‘adat Khan held the combined offices of subadari, diwani and faujdari; that is to say, he was responsible for managing the political, financial and military affairs of the province of Awadh.
Q.4 Why did the Nawabs of Awadh and Bengal try to do away with the jagirdari system?
(i) Nawabs of Awadh and Bengal tried to do away with the jagirdari system to decrease the influence of Mughal in their provinces.
(ii) The Nawabs reduced the number of office holders (jagirdars) appointed by the Mughals and appointed their own loyal servants to vacant positions.
(iii) The jagirdars appointed by the Mughals were corrupt so the Nawabs reduced the size of jagirs, and appointed their own loyal servants to vacant positions.
(iv) They checked the accounts of jagirdars to prevent cheating and corruption.
(v) The revenues of all districts were reassessed by officials appointed by the courts of the Nawabs.
Q.5 How were the Sikhs organised in the eighteenth century?
(i) The Sikhs organized themselves into a number of bands called jathas, and later on misls.
(ii) The combined forces of the Sikhs were known as the grand army (dal khalsa).
(iii) The forces used to meet at Amritsar at the time of Baisakhi and Diwali to take collective decisions known as “resolutions of the Guru (gurmatas)”.
(iv) A system called rakhi was introduced, offering protection to cultivators on the payment of a tax of 20 per cent of the agricultural produce.
Q.6 Why did the Marathas want to expand beyond the Deccan?
(i) The Marathas wanted to expand beyond the Deccan to occupy the Mughal territories and to collect taxes from the conquered regions.
(ii) Under the Peshwas, the Marathas developed a very successful military organisation.
(iii) Between 1720 and 1761, the Maratha Empire expanded. It gradually chipped away at the authority of the Mughal Empire.
(iv) Malwa and Gujarat were seized from the Mughals by the 1720s.
(v) By the 1730s, the Maratha king was recognised as the overlord of the entire Deccan peninsula.
(vi) He possessed the right to levy chauth and sardeshmukhi in the entire region.
Q.7 What were the policies adopted by Asaf Jah to strengthen his position?
The following were the policies adopted by Asaf Jah to strengthen his position:
(i) He, as the Mughal governor of the Deccan provinces, exercised full control over its political and financial administration.
(ii) He took advantage of the turbulent political condition in the Deccan amongst the court nobility to strengthen his power and became the actual ruler of that region.
(iii) Asaf Jah brought skilled soldiers and administrative officials from northern India; they welcomed the new opportunities in the Deccan.
(iv) He appointed mansabdars and granted jagirs. Although he was still a servant of the Mughal Emperor, he ruled independently without seeking any direction and interference from Delhi.
(v)The Mughal emperor merely confirmed the decisions already taken by the Nizam.
Q.8 Do you think merchants and bankers today have the kind of influence they had in the eighteenth century?
(i) In today’s world, merchants and bankers do not have the kind of influence they had in the eighteenth century.
(ii) The idea of democratic and republic institutions have changed the whole scenario.
(iii) Everything from revenue collection to the price of goods in the market comes under common financial rules which are governed by a parliamentary system, unlike in the eighteenth century.
Q.9 Fill in the blanks:
(a) Aurangzeb fought a protracted war in the __________.
(b) Umara and jagirdars constituted powerful sections of the Mughal __________.
(c) Asaf Jah founded the Hyderabad state in __________.
(d) The founder of the Awadh state was ___________.
(a) Aurangzeb fought a protracted war in the Deccan.
(b) Umara and jagirdars constituted powerful sections of the Mughal administration.
(c) Asaf Jah founded the Hyderabad state in 1724.
(d) The founder of the Awadh state was Burhan-ul-Mulk Sa‘adat Khan.
FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
The last chapter- Eighteenth -Century Political Formations throws light on the political conditions in 18th century India. How the Mughal Empire was reshaped by the emergence of a number of independent princely states and old Mughal provinces Awadh, Bengal and Hyderabad became independent with the decline of the Mughal Empire. On the other hand the British were strengthening their position in Eastern India. During this economic and political crisis, foreign invasions by Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah Abdali further added to their downfall. Simultaneously, it captures the American and the French Revolutions too- how it challenged the social and political privileges enjoyed by the aristocrats.
Several autonomous kingdoms arose during this time, as did the entry of foreign powers into the subcontinent and the invasions of Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah Abdali. In addition, the chapter provides a brief overview of the French Revolution.
Mughals’ once-invincible empire endured a succession of defeats due to internal and foreign reasons. Aurangzeb’s long-drawn battle in the Deccan exhausted the military and financial resources. Under his successors, the efficiency of the imperial administration broke down. Moreover, it became increasingly difficult to keep a check on their powerful mansabdars.
The governors consolidated their control, and the periodic remission of revenue to the capital declined. Peasants and zamindari rebellions in parts of northern and western India further added to these problems. In the midst of this political and economic crisis, there were foreign invasions. By 1765, the British were strengthening their position in Eastern India which led to the decline of the Mughal Empire.