NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Social Science: History- Our Pasts-II, Chapter-6

History couldn’t have been more interesting than ever before. The syllabi and textbook are designed to bridge the gap between the school, home and neighbourhood. Days of bookish learning has given way to experiential learning to generate awareness, creativity and to be participants in learning. Emphasis is more on contemplation and pondering over. Every chapter students need to go through each section which has the following features: i) Definition Box, ii) Additional Information,iii) Source Box, iv) Maps, v) Elsewhere, vi) Imagine  vii) Keywords & viii) Finally -To Recall, Discuss and Understand

Is it possible to cover every section without missing out on any topic? Do I have the answers to all the questions therein? Will I remember everything I have learnt in this chapter? 

Well, we will try to answer these questions in this article and provide more clarity about the subject. Also, why and how it is extremely beneficial for the students.  

Most students find History as one of the most difficult subjects. The subject deals with remembering dates, names of places, rulers, ancient towns, and much more, which students generally find challenging to remember. One of them is Chapter 6 ‘town traders and craftspersons.’ This chapter lets students study mediaeval Indian towns and the abundant traders and commerce of that time. 

NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Social Science: History, Chapter 6 - Towns, Traders, and Craftspersons 

In order to make this learning process more interesting and enjoyable within the limited timeframe, subject matter experts at Extramarks had to dig deeper to understand the child psychology and restructured the information into different formats to enable smooth and deep learning experience so that students need not look elsewhere to supplement their studies to better their performance.

NCERT Solutions have been designed by experienced faculty who can feel the pulse of the  students while writing short and long answers, MCQs, Maps etc. to absorb it like a sponge. Each and every topic has been taken care of to avoid unnecessary stress and anxiety students might face while learning. Subject experts have created several pointwise notes that help students conveniently recall the crucial points in the exam and use these solutions for last-minute revisions. Students can access multiple resources from Extramarks as per their level  from the Extramarks official website.

The solutions do not just provide answers to a particular section but explain the concept behind each question. Understanding basic notions definitely boosts their performance  in the exams and gets high   scores. 

The problems and answers in the NCERT Solutions can help the students work on their assignments and understand the different topics whether it’s from sources, definition or key words etc. in this chapter. In a way, NCERT Solutions is the answer to deal with any kind of questions smartly in less time.

NCERT Solutions of Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 6 

You can take advantage of NCERT solutions for Class 7 Social Science available on Extramarks. These solutions will help students of Class 7 excel in this chapter and score high in the upcoming examinations. It does not help in exams only, but these detailed solutions help students get conceptual clarity of the concept. 

History,Chapter 6: Towns, Traders, and Craftsperson- An Overview

 This chapter discusses how various towns and administrative centres evolved in medieval India. 

Temples were central to the economy and society which financed trade and banking activities. Emergence of temple towns and pilgrimage centres to development of small towns with a samanta or a zamindar who levied taxes on traders. The role played by the Panchalas or Vishwakarma community in the construction of temples and palaces. Furthermore, the rise of three major commercial centres, Hampi, Masulipatnam and Surat and their decline. Finally, this chapter ends with the European countries searching for Indian spices and textiles which had great demand in Europe and West Asia. Not to miss out the section-’Elsewhere’ which briefly mentions Vasco da Gama who reached Calicut in 1498 and Christopher Columbus how he sailed westward to find a route to India!!

Introduction

Class 7 History Chapter 6, Towns Traders and Craftspersons, starts with different types of towns that existed in ancient times and various types of traders and craftspersons associated with specific towns. NCERT solutions for Class 7 History Chapter 6 enable students to get the best summary of the whole chapter and to prepare for the finals effectively. The solutions include the information about the chapter that is commonly asked in the exams.

Administrative Centres

Thanjavur was the capital and the administrative centre of the Cholas. The king Rajaraja Chola built the Rajarajeshwara temple which was famous for its architecture and a massive Shiva linga. Besides the temples, there were palaces with mandapas or pavilions. Grain, spices, cloth and jewellery were sold in the market. The fine cotton cloths for the kings and nobility and coarse cloth for the masses.  

These were the places where the ancient kings ruled primarily. For instance, being the capital of Cholas, Thanjavur is considered an administrative centre. This land was once considered best for farming because of the Kaveri river near this place. As the imperial capital was Thanjavur, there were skilled craftspeople and traders of imperial standards. 

With the NCERT Class 7 History Chapter 6 solutions, you will learn about various administrative centres of the ancient times and the specialities of their traders and craftspersons.

Temples, Towns, and Pilgrimage Centres

Temples have always held special significance in Indian societies from ancient times. Temples were often central to the economy and society. Temple authorities financed trade and banking.  From kings to the common people, temples always kept special importance for all of them. For instance, towns emerged around temples which grew into temple towns such as Somnath in Gujarat Madurai in Tamil Nadu. Gradually traders, workers, artisans etc settled near temples and the centres of pilgrimage developed into townships  for instance Vrindavan ( Uttar Pradesh) and Tiruvannamalai (Tamil Nadu).

Network of Small Towns

In the 8th century, some towns emerged from large villages. They usually had mandapika or mandi to sell their produce. They also had market streets called hatta lined with shops. They

became trading hubs for many villagers who started coming to sell their wares and purchase the necessary items for their daily needs in return. There was an abundance of oil pressers, potters, sugarmakers, smiths, stonemasons, and many more traders and craftspeople. Usually a samanta or a Zamindar built fortified palaces levied taxes on the traders and artisans. Some of these taxes were collected in kind, while others were collected in cash. 

Traders and Craftspeople

There were many kinds of traders, especially horse traders who formed associations with headmen who negotiated on their behalf. Most of these traders usually travelled in caravans and formed guilds to protect their interests such as Manigramam and Nanadasi who traded extensively within the peninsula , Southeast Asia and China.

The craftspersons of Bidar became famous for Bidri work. The Panchalas or vishwakarma community excelled in construction of palaces and temples. Some aspects of cloth making became independent crafts.

To enhance the sources of business, traders started hunting for new places to sell their products when kingdoms and villages started coming into contact with one another. The tradition of caravans began due to the difficulty of travelling alone part-time. Traders started to travel in groups to protect themselves. Some of the wealthy traders also started hiring caravan guards. The trading network eventually expanded to European trade.

Hampi, Masulipatnam, and Surat

These three cities became  centres of commercial  and cultural activities.

Hampi was a well fortified city remembered for its architectural marvel which used no cement or mortar in the construction of walls and the technique was to wedge them together by interlocking. Temples were the hub of cultural activities where devadasis- temple dancers performed before the deity on Mahanavami festival also known as Navaratri in the south. However, after the Vijayanagara defeat in 1565, its status declined. One of the rare towns that had walls designed with interlocking pieces instead of bricks and mortar. This created marvellous structures and arches, which made Hampi look magnificent for its time. Trade enhanced in all regards, and all the traders were welcomed irrespective of their religion or caste. Hampi grew because of the regular influx of pilgrims and traders. However, after the Vijayanagara defeat in 1565, Hampi's status fell.

Masulipatnam means “fish port town”,  lying on the delta of the Krishna river was an important port on the Andhra coast which also became a bone of contention between the Dutch and English East India Company. The rulers of Golconda tried to prevent the trade passing into the hands of European traders. Due to fierce competition,it made the city populous and prosperous which was eventually annexed by Aurangzed in 1686-1687.  The East India Company decided to combine its political, administrative and commercial roles and company traders moved to Bombay, Calcutta and Madras, Masulipatnam lost its splendour and prosperity.   

Surat  Surat was often referred to as the “a Gateway to the west” and the Mecca pilgrimage could happen only through Surat. It was a cosmopolitan city with several retail and wholesale shops selling cotton textiles, famous for gold lace borders( Zari) work with markets in West Asia , Africa and Europe. The Portuguese, Dutch and English had set up their factories and warehouses in Europe. At the end of the 17th century, the Mughal Empire declined which also marked the end of bustling commercial centres  like Surat It was through Surat that the Mecca pilgrimage could occur. The town saw people of all castes, creeds, and stations in life living together out of love for trade and profit. Surat is still a booming hub of commerce even today. 

Key Features of NCERT Solution of Class 7 SST: History Chapter 6

NCERT Solutions for Class 7: History Chapter 6  has many features  which makes History a fascinating subject for the students. Let's take a look at the significant features of  Solutions.

  • The language used is easy to understand and therefore students can gain in depth  knowledge by using  these solutions on a regular basis.
  • The answers provided for the questions are written following the CBSE standards by  subject matter experts, making  the History interesting and appealing  subject rather than dull and boring.
  • It covers every section of the chapter including definition, additional information, key words etc. and even provides tips to the students on memorising important  facts.

NCERT Class 7 Social Science : History- Our Pasts-II, Chapter wise Solutions

Students can have NCERT solutions for not only chapter 6 but for all the subjects  of Social Science. The chapter-wise solutions can be accessed from Extramarks official website.  It will  benefit the  students to prepare smartly for their exams without wasting too much of their time, in a planned and systematic manner and to score well. Remember, everything requires time and effort, this is no different. These Solutions are excellent for students who rely on self study. In fact, they can easily bank on Extramarks irrespective of the class and  subject now and  even in the future.

NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Social Science

Students can download the NCERT solutions from the official website of Extramarks. All the files can be viewed and accessed even offline after successfully downloading the files. These solutions are excellent for students who consider self-study. This also makes the revision process convenient and easy. 

We also offer NCERT solutions for all the subjects of class 7 and the subject solutions are available with just one click. Students can score well in their exams by following these solutions. 

Q.1 State whether true or false:

(a) We know the name of the architect of the Rajarajeshvara temple from an inscription.

(b) Merchants preferred to travel individually rather than in caravans.

(c) Kabul was a major centre for trade in elephants.

(d) Surat was an important trading port on the Bay of Bengal.

Ans-

(a) True

(b) False

(c) False

(d) False

Q.2 How was water supplied to the city of Thanjavur?

Ans-

Water supplied to the city of Thanjavur came from wells and tanks.

Q.3 Who lived in the “Black Towns” in cities such as Madras?

Ans-

Merchants, artisans such as weavers, native traders and craftspersons lived in the “Black Towns” in cities such as Madras.

Q.4 Why do you think towns grew around temples?

Ans-

(i) Towns grew around temples because they were often central to the economy and society.

(ii) Rulers built temples to demonstrate their devotion to various deities.

(iii) They also endowed temples with grants of land and money to carry out elaborate rituals, feed pilgrims and priests and celebrate festivals.

(iv) Pilgrims visited the temples and made donations.

(v) Temple authorities invested the wealth in trade and banking.

(vi) Gradually, a large number of priests, workers, artisans and traders settled near the temple to cater to its needs and those of the pilgrims. Thus grew temple towns.

Q.5 How important were craftspersons for the building and maintenance of temples?

Ans-

(i) Craftspersons were very important for the building and maintenance of temples.

(ii) For example, the skills and services of the Panchalas or Vishwakarma community, consisting of goldsmiths, bronzesmiths, blacksmiths, masons and carpenters, were essential to the building of temples.

(iii) They were also helpful in the artwork in copper and silver like making idols, designing the walls and the roofs.

(iv) Weavers such as the Saliyar or Kaikkolars were prosperous communities which made donations to temples. They also produced cloth for flags to be used in the temple festival.

(v) At Svamimalai, a temple town, the sthapatis or sculptors made exquisite bronze idols and tall, ornamental bell metal lamps.

Q.6 Why did people from distant lands visit Surat?

Ans-

(i)People from distant lands visited Surat because the city was the emporium of western trade during the Mughal period. It was the gateway for trade with West Asia via the Gulf of Ormuz.

(ii)Surat has also been called the gate to Mecca because many pilgrim ships set sail from here.

(iii)In the 17th century, the Portuguese, Dutch and English had their factories and warehouses at Surat.

(iv)The city had several retail and wholesale shops selling cotton textiles.

(v)The textiles of Surat were famous for their gold lace borders (zari) and the textile was popular in the markets of West Asia, Africa and Europe.

(vi)The local rulers built numerous rest-houses to provide various facilities to the people who visited the city. There were magnificent buildings and many pleasure parks.

(vii)The Kathiawad seths or mahajans (moneychangers) had huge banking houses at Surat. The Surat hundis were honoured in Cairo in Egypt, Basra in Iraq and Antwerp in Belgium.

Q.7 In what ways was craft production in cities like Calcutta different from that in cities like Thanjavur?

Ans-

Craft production in cities like Calcutta was different from that in cities like Thanjavur in the following manner:

(i) Craftspersons in Thanjavur were independent, whereas in Calcutta they were regulated and dominated by European officials. Thus, there was a decline of the independence of craftspersons.

(ii) In Thanjavur, craftspersons were free to produce their creative and specialized crafts at their will, whereas in Calcutta craftspersons worked on a system of advances which meant that they had to weave cloth which was already promised to European agents.

(iii) The Thanjavur craftspersons had liberty to sell their crafts and textiles, whereas in Calcutta they could not sell their own cloth or weaving their own patterns.

(iv) In Calcutta, they had to reproduce the designs supplied to them by the Company agents.

(v) In Calcutta, the native traders and craftspersons now had to move into the Black Towns established by the European companies within these new cities.

Q.8 Fill in the blanks:

(a) The Rajarajeshvara temple was built in _______.

(b) Ajmer is associated with the Sufi saint _______ .

(c) Hampi was the capital of the _______ Empire.

(d) The Dutch established a settlement at _______ in Andhra Pradesh.

Ans-

(a) The Rajarajeshvara temple was built in Thanjavur.

(b) Ajmer is associated with the Sufi saint Khwaja Muinuddin Chishti.

(c) Hampi was the capital of the Vijayanagara Empire.

(d) The Dutch established a settlement at Masulipatnam in Andhra Pradesh.

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FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
1. How was the water supplied to Thanjavur city?

The city of Thanjavur was situated near river Kaveri which supplied water to the city. Wells and tanks were the major sources of water for the people of Thanjavur. The water storage and transportation systems were pretty much sophisticated at that time. Underground plumbing and piping were not generally available.

 

2. What is the name of the Chapter 6 History of Class 7 Social Science?

Class 7 History Chapter 6 is Towns, Traders, and Craftsperson.  It throws light on the towns and cities that existed in medieval India. The emergence and development of these towns and what kind of a town it was – whether it was a commercial centre, a port town, an administrative centre. Many towns combined these activities and the emergence of traders, craftspersons, guilds etc. and how these prosperous cities declined.