NCERT Solutions Class 8 Science Chapter 1

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Science Chapter 1: Crop Production and Management

Class 8 is an essential part of the student’s life as it introduces many concepts that play a key role in the upcoming senior classes. Science becomes a crucial subject for all the students who are planning to take any technical, Engineering, Medical or a similar course.

Class 8 Science Chapter 1 is an exciting chapter that deals with the fundamentals of crop production and its management.  In the initial discussion,  it educates the students about the term crop, along with a few examples. In addition, they will also get to understand some other essential topics such as preparation of soil, sowing, and use of manure and fertilisers. 

Extramarks is India’s renowned and popular online learning platform for students pursuing primary and secondary education. Our NCERT Solutions are built by our team of experienced subject teachers to help students learn the core concepts covered in the NCERT syllabus and prepare them for the exams.

Students can register on our website and get access to NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Science Chapter 1. The NCERT Solutions would guide the students with their detailed answers to the NCERT questions along with relevant illustrations and examples. Extramarks also provide comprehensive study material that would strengthen the concepts of the crop production chapter and help students gain reasonable confidence in the Science subject. 

The solution guide covers essential topics such as types of crops, preparation of soil, tilling, and ploughing. Further, the students will learn about the traditional tools and seed drill, nursery, and germination of seeds. The solution also discusses the differences between manure and fertilisers. It also helps to revise the complete chapters and score more marks in the examinations. 

Students can regularly visit the Extramarks’ website for the latest notifications about NCERT syllabus updates or exam-related updates. In addition, students can also refer to other classes’ solutions, including NCERT solutions class 9, NCERT solutions class 10, and NCERT solutions class 11. 

Key Topics Covered in NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Science Chapter 1

Class 8 Science Chapter 1 deals with the fundamentals of the production of crops and their management. The chapter begins with an introduction to agricultural practices and the basics of crop production. 

The topics covered in our NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Science Chapter 1 are given below: 

Agricultural Practices
Basic Practices of Crop Production
Preparation of Soil
Adding Manure and Fertilisers
Protection from Weeds
Food and Animals

Agricultural Practices

The agricultural practices help cultivate food for the public. With the understanding of science as well as the adaptation in agriculture systems to manage the impact of climate changes, we not only reduce the negative impact of climatic changes, but we are also able to improve crop cultivation. Climatic changes have a negative impact on food production and may hinder the development of crops. The students will get to learn that all living organisms require food. We get energy from food, and it helps the microorganisms to carry out various body functions like digestion, respiration, excretion etc.

Here “crop” refers to when the plants of the same kind are grown and cultivated in one place on a large scale. The different types of crops include cereals, vegetables, and fruits. Wheat was the first crop that humans started growing. There are two types of cropping patterns: Kharif and Rabi crops. 

Basic Practices of Crop Production

This section introduces the conventional agricultural practices with modern values adopted by the Indian farmers. The cultivation of crops includes several activities undertaken by farmers in farming practices. It consists of the preparation of soil, sowing, and adding manure and fertilisers. Students also learn about protecting crops from weeds, and harvesting and storage of food crops. 

Preparation of soil

The soil preparation describes the system of agricultural practices essential for crop production and its growth. The farmers first work is to prepare the soil so that the same is ready for sowing. However, one of the crucial tasks in agriculture is turning the ground and loosening it, known as ploughing or tilling. The soil contains minerals, water, air, and dead plants and animals. Post tilling, the organic things mix well and progressively turn into manure.

The living organisms help to decompose dead plants and animals. In addition, various nutrients are released back into the soil. The plants absorb these nutrients. The turning and loosening of the earth are essential for cultivating crops.

To understand more about crop production and preparation of soil, students are recommended to register on the Extramarks website and get access to NCERT solutions for class 8 Science Chapter 1.


Farmers add manure to the soil before tilling so that while tilling, the manure gets mixed well with the soil which is useful for the crop that gets planted subsequently. Before sowing the seeds, it is essential to break the ground to the size of grain being planted to get the best results. In crop production, sowing plays a vital role as without sowing, one cannot get any plants and grains. Before sowing, good quality seeds are selected, and farmers prefer to use the seeds that would give a high yield. The seeds have to be planted at an appropriate distance from the other seeds as it is essential to avoid overcrowding of plants so that they get sufficient minerals and sunlight to grow. 

Adding Manure and Fertilisers

Manures and fertilisers are essential substances added to the soil to increase fertility. Organic substances decompose and make manures; Fertilisers are made of inorganic chemicals. The critical difference between fertiliser and manure, as given in our NCERT solutions for class 8 Science Chapter 1, is as follows:

Fertilisers Manure
Fertilisers are inorganic salt manufactured in factories. Manure is prepared from organic matter, including human waste, cow dung, and farm waste.
Fertilisers do not provide any organic component to the soil.  Manures provide a lot of organic components to the soil. 
They are added comparatively in smaller quantities.   They are added in large quantities as the nutrient content is less.
Long term usage of fertilisers has adverse effects on soil.  Long term usage of manure improves soil fertility. 
Nowadays, there are means to prepare fertilisers artificially as well.   Manure can be prepared by the decomposing animal, plant, and human waste.  


The water supply to crops at different intervals is called “irrigation”. Sprinkler systems are more valuable than traditional systems on uneven land. It is helpful on the ground where there is no sufficient water. Therefore, it gets sprinkled on the crops to keep their crops hydrated. The drip system has the droplets of water falling drop by drop just at the position of the roots, this helps to reduce wastage of water. Students must refer to our NCERT solutions for class 8 Science Chapter 1 to get comprehensive answers including explanations of the irrigation process with diagrams along with various cases of how our farmers use the irrigation system on their farms. 

Protection from Weeds

In many fields and croplands, undesirable plants grow. These plants are known as weeds. It is essential to practise “weeding” because the weeds compete with the crop plants for water, nutrients, space and light and may adversely affect the growth of the crop. 


Harvesting is defined as the cutting of a crop after its maturity. A cereal crop usually takes three to four months to mature. The seeds need to be separated from the stalks, by a process known as “threshing”. After threshing, the winnowing process is followed by the farmers. Winnowing is defined as the process of separation of grain from the chaff using the help of the wind. 

Harvesting can be done with two methods, first is the manual method, where a sickle is used. Another one is a mechanical way where a giant machine called a harvester is used. 


In agriculture, storage of the grain is an essential step after harvesting. It is necessary to store in a dry place that does not have a rodent or fungal infestation. 

Food and Animals

This section educates the students regarding animal husbandry and its management. In addition, it provides information on care for farm animals for milk, egg, and meat production. 

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Science Chapter 1 also include vital definitions which are covered in the chapter:

  • Hoe: A hoe is a tool that helps dig up soil to remove weeds and loosen up the dirt before planting a sapling. 
  • Cultivator: A cultivator is usually attached to the tractor and helps loosen the soil. 
  • Quality of seeds: Selecting good seeds is essential for crop production.. It can be detected by putting the seeds in water as the dead and damaged seeds become hollow and float on water, whereas the good seeds sink. 
  • Seed drill: A seed drill is used for sowing with the help of tractors, it ensures that the seeds are sown uniformly. 
  • Nursery: It is a place where young plants and trees are grown for transplanting, it acts as a repository of saplings. 
  • Germination of seeds: The germination of the seed happens when the seed is sown in the land and watered. 
  • Crop rotation is growing different crops on the same piece of land to avoid the loss of soil fertility Tiling is a process done before sowing crops that helps uproot and kill weeds. 
  • Weedicides: The chemicals used to kill the weeds are known as weedicides. 

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Science Chapter 1: Exercise & Answer Solutions

Extramarks NCERT Solutions have been proven helpful for lakhs of students who have used our learning platform for their exam preparation. Students can start with a trial account by registering on our website.

Our NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Science Chapter 1  cover step-by-step answers to all questions in the NCERT textbook. Chapter 1 – Crop production and management of Class 8 Science has ten exercises. Some additional questions which are given at the end of the solutions will help the students clear their concepts further as they solve these questions. 

Click on the below links to view exercise-specific questions and their solutions as covered in our NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Science Chapter 1:

  • Chapter 1: Exercise 1.1 Solutions: 10 Questions

Along with Class 8 solutions, the students can explore NCERT Solutions for other primary and secondary classes on our Extramarks website: 

NCERT Exemplar for Class 8 Science

Secondary class Science subjects demand a better understanding of crucial topics. Solving various questions of different difficulty levels will help students clarify their doubts and prepare them well for the upcoming exams. NCERT Exemplars are designed to help students with solving a variety of questions. The questions are in the form of multiple-choice questions, short answer questions, worksheets and long answer questions. The exercises in the Exemplar deal with various topics of the chapter. While practising questions from the exemplar, students would be able to revise the concepts and better grasp the subject. Students regularly solving the Exemplars can expect to score good marks in the final science examination. 

Extramarks NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Science Chapter 1 has questions from Exemplars covering the topics of crop production and management, preparation of soil, sowing and harvesting, adding fertilisers and crop maturity, installing irrigation systems, protecting crops from weeds, and lastly, storage of the crops. The Exemplar covers different topics and questions that help students strengthen their concepts.

Key Features of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Science Chapter 1

Extramarks NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Science Chapter 1 offers appropriate solutions for every topic covered in the chapter. It includes modern methods of irrigation, protection from weeds, and preparation of soil. With the help of NCERT Solutions, the students can get accurate answers which will enable a better understanding of essential concepts and finally, score well in exams.

Some of the essential characteristics of our NCERT solutions for class 8 Science chapter 1: 

  • The solutions are based on the latest CBSE syllabus, and it helps the students to build confidence in their exams. 
  • It covers essential topics such as animal husbandry, storage, winnowing, and harvesting methods. 
  • It helps the students clarify their doubts and obstacles by providing them with detailed answers to the NCERT questions.
  • With the help of our NCERT solutions, students can expand their understanding of critical concepts of harvesting and crop rotation. 

Extramarks NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Science Chapter 1 is prepared by a team of subject experts and Science teachers and is considered the most reliable resource for science students. 

Q.1 Select the correct word from the following list and fill in the blanks.
float, water, crop, nutrients, preparation
(a) The same kind of plants grown and cultivated on a large scale at a place is called _______.
(b) The first step before growing crops is _____ of the soil.
(c) Damaged seeds would ______ on top of water.
(d) For growing a crop, sufficient sunlight and _____ and________ from the soil are essential.


(a) Crop
(b) preparation
(c) float
(d) water, nutrients

Q.2 Match items in column A with those in column B.



(i) Kharif crops (a) Food for cattle
(ii) Rabi crops (b) Urea and super phosphate
(iii) Chemical fertlilisers (c) Animal excreta, cow dung, urine and plant waste
(iv) Organic manure (d) Wheat, gram, pea
(e) Paddy and maize





(i) Kharif crops (e) Paddy and maize
(ii) Rabi crops (d) Wheat, gram, pea
(iii) Chemical fertlilisers (b) Urea and super phosphate
(iv) Organic manure (c) Animal excreta, cow dung, urine and plant waste

Q.3 Give two examples of each.
(a) Kharif crop
(b) Rabi crop


(a) Two examples of Kharif crop are paddy and maize.
(b) Two examples of Rabi crop are wheat and gram.

Q.4 Write a paragraph in your own words on each of the following.
(a) Preparation of soil
(b) Sowing
(c) Weeding
(d) Threshing


(a) Preparation of soil: Before growing a crop, a farmer first prepares the soil of the field. During preparation, he turns the soil with the help of a plough or a cultivator and loosens it. Loosening of soil allows the new germinating roots of the plants to penetrate deep into the soil. The loose soil also facilitates easy breathing to the roots even when they go deep into the soil. The loosened soil helps in the growth of earthworms and microbes present in the soil which further turn and loosen the soil and add humus to it. Turning and loosening of soil brings the nutrient-rich soil to the top so that plants can use these nutrients.

(b) Sowing: After soil preparation, the farmer’s next job is to sow the seeds. First, good quality and high yielding seeds are selected. Seeds are sown with the help of a tool called seed drill. This tool facilitates the sowing of seeds uniformly at proper distances and depths and saves time and labour. It ensures that seeds get covered by the soil after sowing. This prevents damage caused by birds.

(c) Weeding: The undesirable plants that grow naturally along with the main crop planted are called weeds. These weeds compete with the main crop plant for water, nutrients, sunshine and space. Weeds can be controlled by weeding. Weeding is the removal of weeds from the field. Weeding can be done by tilling and by using weedicides. Some weeds interfere even in harvesting and may be poisonous for animals and human beings.

(d) Threshing: After harvesting a crop, its grain seeds need to be separated from the chaff. This process of separation of grain seeds from chaff is called threshing. This is done with the help of a machine called combine which is in fact a combined harvester and a thresher.

Q.5 Explain how fertlisers are different from manure.


Fertiliser Manure
It is a chemical substance which is rich in particular nutrients. It is natural substance aquired by the decompostion of organic waste such as cattle dung, human waste and plant residues.
It is decreases the soil fertility. It is increase the fertility of soil by replenishing the nutrients.
It does not provide any humus to the soil. It provides a lot of humus to the soil.
It is very rich in nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and pottasium. It is relatively less rich in plant nutrients.
It is responsible for soil and water pollution. It doesnot cause soil and water pollution.

Q.6 What is irrigation? Describe two methods of irrigation which conserve water.


Irrigation is a process by which water is supplied to crops. The time and frequency of irrigation depends on the seasons, crops and soil types.

Two methods of irrigation that help in conservation of water are:

  • Sprinkler system: In this system, perpendicular pipes with rotating nozzles on top are joined to the main pipe at regular intervals. With the help of a pump, water is allowed to flow through main pipe under high pressure. From the main pipes, the water escapes outside through the rotating nozzles. This system works efficiently in sandy soil where sufficient water is not available.
  • Drip irrigation: In this system, water is dropped at the root of the plants, drop by drop. Water is not wasted in this type of irrigation and this method is used for watering fruit plants and gardens.

Q.7 If wheat is sown in the kharif season, what would happen? Discuss.


If wheat is sown in the kharif season (from June to October), it has to face adverse climatic conditions and the entire wheat crop might get destroyed. Wheat is a rabi crop. Therefore, it requires low temperature, less humidity, less water and moderate sunshine. But if it is sown in kharif season, it would receive lot of water, excess temperature, and humidity. These climatic conditions would not favour the growth of the crop.

Q.8 Explain how soil gets affected by the continuous plantation of crops in a field.


Continuous plantation of crops in a field causes depletion of certain nutrients like phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium etc. Plants are depended on these nutrients for their proper growth and functioning. Depletion of these nutrients from the soil would directly affect the yield of the crops sown in the depleted soil.

Q.9 What are weeds? How can we control them?


The undesirable plants that grow naturally along with the main crop are called weeds. These weeds compete with the main crop plant for water, nutrients, sunshine and space. Weeds can be controlled by weeding. Weeding is the removal of weeds from the field.

Weeding can be done by:

Tilling: In this method, the weeds are either manually uprooted or cut from soil. The uprooted and cut weeds are then left in the field so that they would decay and act as the manure.

Using Weedicides: In this method, certain chemicals called weedicides such as 2, 4-D are sprayed over the fields to kill the weeds. Weedicides are used during the vegetative growth of weeds.

Q.10 Arrange the following boxes in proper order to make a flow chart of sugarcane crop production


Q.11 Complete the following word puzzle with the help of clues given below.
1. Providing water to the crops.
2. Keeping crop grains for a long time under proper conditions.
5. Certain plants of the same kind grown on a large scale.

3. A machine used for cutting the matured crop.
4. A rabi crop that is also one of the pulses.
6. A process of separating the grain from chaff.


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FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
1. How to study from NCERT solutions for class 8 Science chapter 1?

The students can refer to our Extramarks latest NCERT solutions and start their preparation for the exam. They can begin by solving short answer questions and multiple-choice questions. After the concepts are cleared, they can move towards long answer questions.

2. What is chapter 1 in NCERT class 8 Science?

Chapter 1 in NCERT class 8 Science is Crop Production and Management. In this chapter, students will learn about the term crop, its types, and different growing methods.

3. What are the NCERT solutions for class 8 Science chapter 1?

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Science Chapter 1, contain answers to the exercises given in the Science textbook. Students can explore different sub-topics under Crops Production and Management. It helps to clarify students’ doubts and enhances their learning experience.