NCERT Class 9 Geography Chapter 1 India – Size and Location

Geography is the study of places and the relationships between people and their environments. Geographers explore the physical properties of the earth and its political boundaries, and the human societies that inhabit these places. The study of Geography also helps understand why few creatures are found at specific locations, how things in the same or distant places influence one another over time, and why places and their inhabitants adapt to the surroundings in particular ways.

In the NCERT Class 9 Geography Chapter 1, students learn about India’s significant position on the world map. India is one of the forward-looking and fastest developing countries globally, on both social and economic fronts, with excellent progress in technology, agriculture, industries, medicine, education, art, and culture. India is counted as one of the oldest civilizations, positively impacting the world with our many talents, contributions, and innovative products in every field. There is a significant role of India in shaping history books across the globe. 

Extramarks’ NCERT Class 9 Geography Chapter 1 India – Size and Location introduces the children to our country’s geographical position with specific details, maps, and bar graphs to develop a good understanding. Limiting only the critical data, the learned professionals have ensured there is not much cramping in the minds of the young children. Moreover, pictorial representation stays longer in the memory, which is used well in the NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Geography Chapter 1. Therefore, map reading and deducing answers from maps are strongly recommended for children of this age group.

Apart from NCERT Class 9 Geography Chapter 1, Extramarks provides in depth  study material. In addition to these, students can use the Extramarks website to access several other study tools. For example, NCERT books, CBSE revision notes, CBSE sample papers, CBSE past year question papers, and other materials are available to students.

Key Topics Covered in NCERT Class 9 Geography Chapter 1

To make it convenient for the students, Extramarks has listed below the key topics that are covered in the NCERT Class 9 Geography Chapter 1:

India’s location
Size and shape of India
India’s connectivity to the world
India’s neighbourhood


Through the NCERT Class 9 Geography Chapter 1, students will learn about India’s physical attributes, significance, and magnificence regarding the rest of the world. India enjoys certain advantages because of its central position in the Asian continent. This helps it to be strategically located and creates a passage for man and material to transfer across. In addition, the unique shape and indents make it possible to have an extra-long coastline and more borders. These physical features and positioning have worked in India’s favour and given it a varied experience of climate, race, culture, art, and tradition. Unity in diversity is the trademark of India, and that is why it is one of the most respected civilizations in the world. 

India’s location

India is placed above the Equator in the northern hemisphere, with the Tropic of Cancer (23° 30’N) passing in the middle. The coordinates of our boundary as given in the NCERT Class 9 Geography Chapter 1 are latitudes 8°4’N and 37°6’N and longitudes 68°7’E and 97°25’E. We also have two islands towards the south, viz. the Andaman and the Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal fall to the east, and the Lakshadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea are located to the west of the mainland. 

Size and shape of India

Though being the second most populated country globally, India holds only 2.4% of the world’s total landmass. Our country has an area of 3.28 million square km. Hence, India falls in the seventh position among all countries globally in terms of size. The following graph in the NCERT Class 9 Geography Chapter 1 illustrates the same.

Seven largest countries in the world

The land bordering other countries with India is about 15,200 km. The coastal stretch, including the Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep islands perimeters, is approximately 7,516 km. 

NCERT Class 9 Geography Chapter 1 describes how the northwest, north and northeast India are lined with the Himalayan ranges, which are likened to a boundary for our country. The 22° north latitude is the reference below which India tapers downwards, forming a V-shape towards the Indian Ocean. The western side of this V-shape faces the Arabian Sea, and the eastern side looks to the Bay of Bengal. The NCERT Class 9 Geography Chapter 1 also tells us that our mainland has an equal span of 30° between its latitude and longitude extents. It appears as if the north-south is a more extended span than the east-west stretch. There is a measured time difference between Arunachal Pradesh and Gujarat states. Therefore, to have uniform standard time measurement, India uses the midpoint at the town of Mirzapur in Uttar Pradesh, having coordinates of longitude 82°30’E, like the Standard Meridian of India. As a person moves from south to north, the length of day and night is piloted by the latitudinal span. 

India’s connectivity to the world

India holds the central position in the latitudinal extent of the Asian continent, falling between the East and West of Asia. The southern snout of India provides an additional stretch to the Asian continent. As highlighted in the NCERT Class 9 Geography Chapter 1, we hold the strategic position for the sea routes, called the trans-Indian Ocean routes, which connect West European countries to East Asia. The protrusion of the Deccan Plateau into the Indian Ocean helps establish direct connectivity to the West Asian, African, and European countries from the western coast and the East Asian and Southeast Asian countries from our eastern coast. Since no other country can boast of this long coastline and India’s enviable position in the Indian Ocean, it’s justified to name the ocean after our country. Since ancient times, this commanding position in the Indian Ocean has helped India maintain good contacts with the world. 

However, the land routes of India are older than the maritime contacts, and these have helped India maintain better relationships and connectivity with the outside world. Where the ocean had been a barrier for travellers, the mountain passes towards northern India have provided a safe passage to numerous foreigners. NCERT Class 9 Geography Chapter 1 shows us how their land routes have helped exchange ideas, technologies, practices, and commodities between various countries and India, thus nourishing the socio-economic development. We have been able to share the stories of Panchatantra and the knowledge and ideas of the Upanishads and the Ramayana, the Indian numerals, decimal system, ancient medicine, yoga, etc., to the outside world. In return, we see a strong influence from the cultures of Greece and West Asia in many of our structures, architecture, cuisine etc., enhancing human bonding between nations and continents.

India’s neighbourhood

The Indian subcontinent brings a different flavour to the world, with India holding the best strategic position in Asia. Our country is divided into twenty-eight states and eight union territories. We learn from the NCERT Class 9 Geography Chapter 1 that seven countries surround us, and we share a land boundary with five of them. Pakistan and Afghanistan have borders with us in the northwest, Bangladesh, and Myanmar in the east and Bhutan, Nepal, and Chinese Tibet towards the north. We are connected through the water towards the south, with Maldives and Srilanka in the southwest and southeast. The narrow sea channel of the Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar separates India from Sri Lanka. The geographical boundaries have helped India establish strong ties with all her neighbours and still stand uniquely apart in the Asian continent. 

NCERT Class 9 Geography Chapter 1 Exercises &  Solutions

There is a requirement to absorb a lot of information in Social Sciences. Therefore, Extramarks have resorted to illustrations, maps, and graphs as far as possible to make it easier for retentivity in students. In addition, there are detailed explanations and statistical analyses to help them with their CBSE examinations. 

NCERT Solutions provide detailed and authentic answers to all the textbook questions. Through those, the students can understand, remember and retain answers to NCERT questions and thus, perform well in exams.

Further, the students should refer to the NCERT Solutions Class 9 Social Science Geography Chapter 1.

Extramarks also provides NCERT Solutions for other Classes through these links. 

  • NCERT solutions Class 12
  • NCERT solutions Class 11
  • NCERT solutions Class 10
  • NCERT solutions Class 9
  • NCERT solutions Class 8
  • NCERT solutions Class 7
  • NCERT solutions Class 6
  • NCERT solutions Class 5
  • NCERT solutions Class 4
  • NCERT solutions Class 3
  • NCERT solutions Class 2
  • NCERT solutions Class 1

Key Features of NCERT Class 9 Geography Chapter 1

The key features of the NCERT Class 9 Geography Chapter 1 are listed:

  • India’s role in shaping history across the world is seen by its geographical position and contributions in various fields.
  • The size and dimensions are measured utilising latitude and longitude, and India is one of the ten most prominent countries globally. 
  • Owing to its unique size and shape, India commands a dominant position in land and water in the Asian continent, as given in the NCERT Class 9 Geography Chapter 1. 
  • India has desirable physical features like a long coastline and multi-fold mountains, creating a natural boundary with neighbouring countries. 
  • Another advantage of its location is that India connects east Asia to the western continents of Africa and Europe.


Q.1 Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

(i) The Tropic of Cancer does not pass through
(a) Rajasthan (c) Chhattisgarh
(b) Odisha (d) Tripura

(ii) The easternmost longitude of India is
(a) 97° 25′ E (c) 77° 6′ E
(b) 68° 7′ E (d) 82° 32′ E

(iii) Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal and Sikkim have common frontiers with
(a) China (c) Nepal
(b) Bhutan (d) Myanmar

(iv) If you intend to visit Kavarati during your summer vacations, which one of the following Union Territories of India you will be going to
(a) Puducherry (c) Andaman and Nicobar
(b) Lakshadweep (d) Daman and Diu

(v) My friend hails from a country which does not share land boundary with India. Identify the country.
(a) Bhutan (c) Bangladesh
(b) Tajikistan (d) Nepal


(i) (b) Odisha
(ii) (a) 97° 25′ E
(iii) (c) Nepal
(iv) (b) Lakshadweep
(v) (b) Tajikistan

Q.2 Answer the following questions briefly.

(i) Name the group of islands lying in the Arabian Sea.
(ii) Name the countries which are larger than India.
(iii) Which island group of India lies to its south-east?
(iv) Which island countries are our southern neighbours?


(i) Lakshadweep is a group of islands situated some 400 km off India’s west coast in the Arabian Sea.
(ii) Russia, Canada, USA, China, Brazil and Australia are larger than India
(iii) The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are a group of islands at the juncture of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea and lie to its south-east.
(iv) The Sri Lanka and the Maldives are our southern neighbours.

Q.3 The sun rises two hours earlier in Arunachal Pradesh as compared to Gujarat in the west but the watches show the same time. How does this happen?

Ans. The latitudinal and longitudinal extent of the mainland is about 30°. The Earth rotates 360˚ in 24 hours in the west to east direction. It means 15˚ in 1 hour or 30˚ in 2 hours. But the watches in all parts of India are run according to standard time measured from 82° 30′ E longitude. So, the watches in Arunachal Pradesh and Gujarat show the same time despite the different sunrise.

Q.4 The central location of India at the head of the Indian Ocean is considered of great significance. Why?

Ans. The Indian landmass has a central location between East and West Asia. It is a southward extension of the Asian Continent. The Trans Indian Ocean routes, which connect the countries of Europe in the West and the countries of East Asia, provide a strategic central location to India. The Deccan Peninsula protrudes into the Indian Ocean, thus helping India to establish close contact with West Asia, Africa and Europe from the western coast and with Southeast and East Asia from the eastern coast. It has a long coastline on the Indian Ocean which gives it eminent position in the Indian Ocean.

Q.5 Identify the following with the help of map reading.

(i) The Island groups of India lying in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal.
(ii) The countries constituting Indian Subcontinent.
(iii) The states through which the Tropic of Cancer passes.
(iv) The northernmost latitude in degrees.
(v) The southernmost latitude of the Indian mainland in degrees.
(vi) The eastern and the westernmost longitude in degrees.
(vii) The place situated on the three seas.
(viii) The strait separating Sri Lanka from India.
(ix) The Union Territories of India.


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FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Have Extramarks covered the NCERT Class 9 Geography Chapter 1 adequately?

The team at Extramarks has covered all the essential data and information as specified by the NCERT in the Class 9 Geography Chapter 1 and prepared the contents simplified for students of any intellect to absorb and retain the subject. This chapter also emphasises map reading, which improves the memory power of the children.  

2. How does the NCERT Class 9 Geography Chapter 1 by Extramarks help students score well in examinations?

The subject matter experts of Extramarks have put together a compact and precise content, accentuated with political maps, bar graphs, census data and analysis in the India size and location. Class 9 Solutions are designed especially to prepare the children well for their CBSE examinations. Moreover, frequent practice on map reading will help the children understand and retain the solutions to most of the questions, as emphasised in the NCERT Class 9 Geography Chapter 1. 

3. What critical questions are expected from the NCERT Class 9 Geography Chapter 1?

Students may refer to the following questions from the NCERT Class 9 Geography Chapter 1 for their CBSE examination.

  • What are the dimensions of India in terms of coordinates?
  • Why is it essential to have a standard Indian time, and which town is considered the reference for it?
  • How many neighbouring countries do we have, and in which positions are they located?
  • Why is an ocean named after India, and what significant role does India play in the world?