NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Geography Chapter 5: Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

Geography is a crucial part of our day-to-day life which tells us about different places and spaces on earth.. 

Class 9 Geography Chapter 5 discusses Natural Vegetation and Wildlife. The chapter talks about innumerable bio-forms in India, each within a place amongst the diverse climatic conditions and terrains taught through an extensive content full of pictorial representation, map reading, case studies, practical projects etc.

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The chapter study solutions prepared by the Extramarks for Class 9 Geography Chapter 5 encompasses all the critical topics with necessary detailing, keeping CBSE guidelines and the  examination pattern in mind. The professional team has drafted detailed solutions to each exercise and every question including explained concepts with illustrations, statistical data, maps, etc., for students’ easy understanding. Students can register on our website and get access to our NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Geography Chapter 5. 

Extramarks has also developed similar concise course content for other Classes, easily accessible on their website. 

Key Topics covered in NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Geography Chapter 5

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Below are a few of the important topics covered in our NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Geography Chapter 5.


Our country falls in the category of 12 mega biodiversity countries worldwide. The NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Geography Chapter 5 elaborates on flora and fauna, which are the plant and animal life found in an area during a particular period in time. India boasts of an enviable variety of flora and fauna, which results from different factors like climate and physiographic features. 

Factors affecting Flora and Fauna:

The most fertile land is used to cultivate fruits and vegetables. The remaining area of the plains, mountains, deserts, rough grasslands, forests, and plateaus is home to India’s variety of plant and animal life. Climate controls like temperature, humidity, precipitation, and the soil, affect the vegetation growth of a region and the ensuing animal life there. As we ascend altitude from the plains to hills, the vegetation changes from tropical to subtropical and finally alpine or tundra on the mountain top. 

We can learn from the NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Geography Chapter 5 that trees grow faster in the summers due to prolonged exposure to sunlight. Sunlight exposure varies with altitude, latitude, season and day duration. 

Other than soil and sun, water is equally critical for the growth of flora. The areas receiving heavy and regular rainfall develop dense vegetation as compared to others. Forests conserve the water, prevent erosion, modify the climate, provide humus to the soil, provide shelters to animals, bird and insect, support industrialisation, and other needs of man, other than providing panoramic views for recreation. Trees can influence rain-bearing clouds and rainfall by controlling the temperature and winds. Increased deforestation by humans to expand cultivativable land, mining, industries, urbanisation, and overgrazing of pastures has depleted this renewable resource and degraded the environment. The reduced vegetation cover has also affected flora and fauna in India. 

Vegetation found in India.

Five varieties of trees and forest life are found in India, based on the temperature zone, altitude, soil, and precipitation received. We find detailed explanations about each in the NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Geography Chapter 5.

Tropical Evergreen Forests:

Tropical areas receiving maximum rainfall throughout the year (more than 200 cm), with only short periods of dry weather, are best suited for these kinds of forests, for example , the windward side of Western Ghats, the island groups of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar, northern parts of Tamil Nadu and Assam. 

The plantation is thick, with trees reaching heights above 60 metres, as explained in the NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Geography Chapter 5. Trees rarely shed leaves, so the cover is primarily green throughout the year. High-value trees like rosewood, ebony, rubber, mahogany and cinchona are part of these forests. Commonly found animals in this vegetation are one-horned rhinoceroses, elephants, monkeys, lemurs and deers, and various birds, bats, scorpions, sloths and snails. 

Tropical Deciduous Forests:

The NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Geography Chapter 5 describes these forests as monsoon forests for their dependency on rains (70-200 cm). In the dry season, the trees shed leaves for about two months. Animals like lions, tigers, pigs, deers and elephants are commonly found here, apart from different bird species, reptiles, and tortoises. The further subdivision of these forests is based on rainfall received. 

Any area which receives 100 cm or more is commonly known as  moist deciduous trees like teak, sal, shisham, sandalwood, bamboo, mulberry etc. West Odisha, Jharkhand, the eastern side of the Western Ghats and Chhattisgarh are areas where these forests are found. 

The dry deciduous forests are spread out in the rain-laden parts of the Peninsular plateau and part of the Bihar and Uttar Pradesh plains, where rainfall is between 70-100 cm. Commonly found trees in these forests are sal, teak, peepal and neem. This forest cover has reduced due to conversion of the forest land for agriculture and animal grazing. 

Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs:

In regions where rainfall is less than 70 cm, the trees and bushes are usually scattered, with deep roots, thorny succulent stems, and small thick leaves. These are the features modified to absorb maximum moisture and retain them. The vegetation is reduced to thorny trees and shrubs in more arid areas. This type of vegetation is found in the dry lands of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana, where plants like palms, euphorbias, acacias and cacti are common. Animals such as rats, rabbits, camels, ox, wolves, tigers, lions, and horses form the fauna. 

Montane Forests:

As the terrain and altitude change, we see a gradual change in the vegetation type. Wet temperate forests with broad evergreen leaves that grow at 1,000 and 2,000 metres, for example , chestnuts and oaks. Up to 3000 metres, like the high altitude northeastern India and southern slopes of the Himalayas, one can find deodar, pine, spruce, silver fir and cedar trees. Above 3,600 metres are suited for montane or Alpine forests of juniper, silver fir, pine and birch. Further up, snow and frost stunt vegetation growth, with only shrubs, scrubs and the Alpine grasslands existing. These regions are common to cattle grazing by nomadic tribes like the Gujjars and the Bakarwals. The tundra vegetation generally houses animal species such as the Tibetan antelope, yak, snow leopard, squirrels, shaggy horned wild ibex, bear, the Kashmir stag, sheep and goats with thick hair.

Mangrove Forests:

These forests are localised to deltaic soil created naturally at the mouth of rivers, near coastal areas, where continuous silt and mud deposits by tidal movements create rich deposits. Tidal mangrove forest trees have their roots submerged under water and the interconnected trees forming dense vegetation. In India, we can find this vegetation in the deltas of the Ganga, the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri rivers, where common varieties of plants are coconut, palm, agar etc. The Sundari trees, known for durable hardwood, are found in the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta. Animal life is mainly crocodiles, turtles, gharials and snakes, with the Royal Bengal tiger being the most famous. 

Indian Wildlife and its conservation

India holds a fair share of fauna, with the birds, fishes, and other animals accounting for 13%, 12% and 8%, respectively, of the world’s total strength, as per the NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Geography Chapter 5. Elephants in the wet forests, one-horned rhinoceroses in the swamp and marshy areas, camels in deserts, yaks and wild oxen in the tundra regions and turtles, crocodiles and gharials in the freshwater bodies are some of the commonly found animals. The forests and wetlands are rich in bird variety like peacocks, cranes, ducks, parakeets etc. 

Eighteen biosphere reserves have been set up in India by our government to protect flora and fauna. Ten out of these, Pachmarhi, the Sundarbans Nanda Devi, Nokrek, Great Nicobar, the Gulf of Mannar, the Nilgiri, Manas, Achanakmar-Amarkantak and Simlipal have been included in the global network of biosphere reserves.

Our dietary requirements in the form of fruits, vegetables, milk, eggs, meat etc., are provided by flora and fauna around us. However, human greed, abuse and overexploitation of nature have created an imbalance in this ecosystem. As a check mechanism, the Indian government has brought out many initiatives, which are stated below:

  • Setting up of eighteen biosphere reserves.
  • Assisting the botanical gardens with finance and technical know-how.
  • Eco-developmental projects to safeguard tigers, rhinoceroses etc.
  • Built 535 wildlife sanctuaries, 103 national parks and multiple zoological gardens across India.

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Geography Chapter 5: Exercises &  Solutions

The notes included in Extramarks NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Geography Chapter 5 will help students revise before the CBSE examination, along with the question and answer solutions prepared by Extramarks. Students are suggested to practise a few questions from the past years’ question papers to get a good understanding about the exam specific question patterns. 

Students can access questions and answers for Class 9 Geography Chapter 5 from below links:

  • Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Class 9 Questions Answers  
  • Class 9 Social Science Geography Chapter 5: Questions & Answers

Students can register on the Extramarks website to access NCERT Solutions for different classes. 

NCERT Solutions Class 12

NCERT Solutions Class 11

NCERT Solutions Class 10

NCERT Solutions Class 9

NCERT Solutions Class 8

NCERT Solutions Class 7

NCERT Solutions Class 6

NCERT Solutions Class 5

NCERT Solutions Class 4

NCERT Solutions Class 3

NCERT Solutions Class 2

NCERT Solutions Class 1

Key Features of NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Geography Chapter 5

The essential features of the NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Geography Chapter 5 are given below:

  • India stands in tenth place worldwide and fourth in Asia, with 47,000 species of plant. 
  • Six per cent of the world’s flowering plants are found in India, with approximately 15,000 in number. The count of non-flowering plants like algae, fungi and ferns is innumerable. 
  • About 90,000 different animal species exist in our country apart from the abundant varieties of fish in fresh and sea waters. 
  • Five different varieties of forests and vegetation are found in our country based on the latitude, altitude, precipitation and terrain, each with its characteristic flora and fauna. 

Q.1 Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below:

(i) To which one of the following types of vegetation does rubber belong to?
(a) Tundra
(b) Tidal
(c) Himalayan
(d) Tropical Evergreen

(ii) Cinchona trees are found in the areas of rainfall more than
(a) 100 cm
(b) 50 cm
(c) 70 cm
(d) less than 50 cm

(iii) In which of the following state is the Simlipal bio-reserve located?
(a) Punjab
(b) Delhi
(c) Odisha
(d) West Bengal

(iv) Which one of the following bio-reserves of India is not included in the world network of bioreserve?
(a) Manas
(b) Nilgiri
(c) Gulf of Mannar
(d) Nanda Devi


(i) (d) Tropical Evergreen
(ii) (a) 100 cm
(iii) (c) Odisha
(iv) (a) Manas

Q.2 Answer the following questions briefly.

(i) What factors are responsible for the distribution of plants and animals in India?
(ii) What is a bio-reserve? Give two examples.
(iii) Name two animals having habitat in tropical and montane type of vegetation.


(i)The factors responsible for the distribution of plants and animals in India are a relief (land and soil) and climate (temperature, sunlight and precipitation).

(ii)Biosphere Reserves are representative parts of natural and cultural landscapes extending over a large area of terrestrial or coastal (marine) ecosystems. It is an ecosystem with plants and animals of unusual scientific and natural interest. For example, Sunderban and Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserves.

(iii)Biosphere Reserves are representative parts of natural and cultural landscapes extending over a large area of terrestrial or coastal (marine) ecosystems. It is an ecosystem with plants and animals of unusual scientific and natural interest. For example, Sunderban and Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserves.

Q.3 Distinguish between

(i) Flora and Fauna
(ii) Tropical Evergreen and Deciduous forests



Flora Fauna
The natural occurring plant life in a particular region or time is called flora. The indigenous animal life of a particular region is called fauna.
For example, Rubber trees are native to the Equatorial region. For example, Polar Bear is a native animal of the Polar region.


Tropical Evergreen Deciduous forests
  1. They remain green throughout the year.
  1. They shed their leaves in dry season to avoid transpiration.
  1. Grown well in the areas having more than 200 cm of rainfall with a short the dry season
  1. Spread over the region receiving rainfall between 200 cm and 70 cm
  1. Are found in the heavy rainfall areas of the Western Ghats and the island groups of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar, upper parts of Assam and Tamil Nadu coast.
  1. Are found in the northeastern states, along the foothills of the Himalayas, Jharkhand, West Odisha and Chhattisgarh, and on the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats.
  1. The commercially important trees are ebony, mahogany, rosewood, rubber and cinchona.
  1. Teak is the most dominant species of this forest. Bamboos, sal, shisham, sandalwood, khair, kusum, arjun, mulberry are other commercially important species.

Q.4 Name different types of Vegetation found in India and describe the vegetation of high altitudes.

Ans. The major types of vegetation found in India are:

(i) Tropical Evergreen Forests
(ii) Tropical Deciduous Forests
(iii) Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs
(iv) Montane Forests
(v) Mangrove Forests

The Montane forests are found in the high altitude. Their characteristic features are:

1. The wet temperate type of forests is found between a height of 1000 and 2000 metres. They have evergreen broad-leaf trees such as oaks and chestnuts predominately.
2. Temperate forests containing coniferous trees like pine, deodar, silver fir, spruce and cedar are found between 1500 and 3000 metres.
3. These forests cover mostly the southern slopes of the Himalayas, places having high altitude in southern and north-east India.
4. Temperate grasslands are common at higher elevations.
5. The Alpine vegetation is generally found at the altitudes more than 3,600 metres above sea-level.
6. Silver fir, junipers, pines and birches are the common trees of these forests.
7. These grasslands are used extensively for grazing by nomadic tribes like the Gujjars and the Bakarwals.
8. At higher altitudes, mosses and lichens form part of tundra vegetation.

Q.5 Quite a few species of plants and animals are endangered in India. Why?

Ans. Excessive exploitation of the plants and animal resources by human beings has disturbed the ecosystem. About 1,300 plant species are endangered and 20 species are extinct. The main causes of this major threat to nature are

1. Hunting of animals for commercial purposes
2. Pollution due to chemical and industrial waste, acid deposits
3. Introduction of alien species
4. Reckless cutting of the forests to bring land under cultivation and inhabitation are also responsible for the imbalance

Q.6 Why has India a rich heritage of flora and fauna?

Ans. India is rich in its fauna. It is because India has a variety of relief features, soils and climatic conditions. It influences the flora and fauna of the place. It has approximately 90,000 animal species. The country has about 2,000 species of birds. They constitute 13% of the world’s total. There are 2,546 species of fish, which account for nearly 12% of the world’s stock. It also shares between 5 and 8 per cent of the world’s amphibians, reptiles and mammals.

Map Skills

On an outline map of India, label the following.

(i) Areas of Evergreen Forests
(ii) Areas of Dry Deciduous Forests
(iii) Two national parks each in Northern, Southern, Eastern and Western parts of the Country

Q.7 On an outline map of India, label the following.

(i) Areas of Evergreen Forests
(ii) Areas of Dry Deciduous Forests
(iii) Two national parks each in Northern, Southern, Eastern and Western parts of the Country


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FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Are the NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Geography Chapter 5 sufficient to prepare students for the CBSE examination?

The syllabus of the NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Geography Chapter 5 includes every critical topic and data required for the children’s knowledge and understanding, covering important notes and questions to prepare them for the CBSE examination. The frequent use of maps, illustrations, pictures and news clippings in the NCERT Solutions Class 9 Geography Chapter 5 will help retain the portions easily in the students’ minds, thus omitting any chances of blind memorising. 

So along with the NCERT Textbook, NCERT Solutions would suffice for students to revise and score good marks in exams.

2. What are the crucial questions expected from Class 9 Geography Chapter 5?

Few of the critical questions and answers those are covered in Extramarks NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Geography Chapter 5 are as under:

  • On what factors do the flora and fauna of a region depend?
  • What varieties of forests are found in different regions of India?
  • Which type of forests are found maximum in our country, and why is it getting depleted?
  • What are the steps taken by the Indian government to protect our wildlife?

3. What are the highlights of the Class 9 Geography Chapter 5?

Following are some of the highlights of the Class 9 Geography Chapter 5:

  • Based on the available land and climatic conditions, five different types of vegetation are found in India.
  • India falls in the group of 12 mega bio-diverse countries globally.
  • Part of the tropical dry deciduous forests has been converted for cultivation and animal grazing.
  • The Bengal tiger, the Indian elephant and the one-horned rhinoceros are among the famed animals found in our country.
  • India has taken many steps toward the preservation of forests and wildlife.