Civics is generally defined as the science of the privileges and rights of the citizens in society. In other words, Civics is the study of political and practical aspects, rights and duties of the citizens. Civics is an important subject for those who want to master Civics to pursue a career in civil services, law, journalism, marketing research, analyst, teaching, public representative, legislative assessment, social media manager, political scientist, and participation and political research.
When looking at civil services, becoming an IAS, IPS and IFS officer is considered the most renowned profession in India. A career in civil services encourages people to play an important role in executing law and order in the country. NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Civics Chapter 2 is the best way to understand the importance of the topic of study.
NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Civics Chapter 2 is constructed professionally to help students understand the concepts of Civics much better. Students are advised to practice creating chapter notes from the NCERT textbook. NCERT Solutions for Class 9 chapter 2 is a unique tool for students to jot down important notes, definitions and concepts.
Students can log in the Extramarks website to access important study materials from NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Civics Chapter 2. In addition, students can also refer to Class 9 Civics chapter 2 questions and answers and Class 9 Civics Chapter 2 key topics and Civics syllabus.
Key Topics Covered in Class 9 Civics Chapter 2
Let us look at the key topics covered by NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Civics chapter 2.
2.1 Democratic Constitution in South Africa
2.2 Need for a Constitution
2.3 Making of the Indian Constitution
2.4 Values of the Indian Constitution
The NCERT Solutions for Class 9 social science Civics chapter 2 highlights the Constitution's importance, the need for a constitution, and various values that shape the Constitution. With the help of this chapter, students will also be able to understand whether changes can be made to the Constitution.
Democratic Constitution In South Africa
- The white South African government tried Nelson Mandela for treason. He was sentenced, along with 7 other leaders, to life imprisonment in 1964.
- He opposed the apartheid system in his country. He spent 28 years in South Africa's prison on Robben Island.
Struggle Against Apartheid
- A system of racial discrimination imposed by white Europeans in South Africa was named apartheid.
- This system of apartheid divided the people based on skin colour.
- The whites who ruled, treated all the non-whites as inferiors and gave them no voting rights.
- In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, trade companies from Europe captured South Africa with arms and force, the same way they captured India.
- A large number of white people had settled in South Africa.
- The apartheid system oppressed the black. They were barred from living in white areas and only allowed to work in white areas if they had a permit.
- Trains, buses, taxes, hotels, and other public places had all been separated for whites and blacks, bringing a system of segregation into existence.
- The blacks and the Indians fought against the apartheid system by launching protests and marches.
- The African National Congress (ANC)conducted a struggle against segregation policies. They included workers' unions, communists and sensitive whites.
- The white racist government, however, continue to rule by torturing, killing and detaining thousands of coloured people.
The Extramarks platform provides NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Civics chapter 2 for better understanding. This aids the students in taking note of all the important points.
Towards a new constitution
- As the struggle against discrimination increased, the government could no longer keep up with the black.
- The white regime finally changed the policies.
- Restrictions on media and ban on political parties were lifted
- On 26 April 1994, at midnight, the new national flag of the Republic of South Africa was unfolded.
- A new democracy was born, giving rise to the formation of a multiracial government. The year 1994 became a turning point in the history of South Africa.
- Africa has worked together to transform The South African Constitution that inspires democrats all over the world.
To summarise each topic, refer to NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Civics Chapter 2.
Why Do We Need a Constitution?
The case of the South African Government stated above is a very good example of why there is a need for a constitution. The black majority desired social and economic rights, while the white minority was only keen on protecting its privileges and property.
Therefore, when defining a constitution, we can say that the Constitution is a set of written rules agreed upon by all people living together in a country. The Constitution is the supreme law regulating the relationship among citizens living in a country and the relationship between the government and citizens.
As there is a need to govern many things, demand for a constitution has arisen:
- It sows the seeds of trust and coordination necessary for diverse individuals to live together.
- It particularised how the government will be constituted and who will be in charge of taking which decisions;
- It adds limits on the powers of the government while keeping us informed of the rights of the citizen.
- It expresses the goals of the people about making a strong society.
All countries that consist of a constitution are certainly not democratic. However, all countries that have democracy will also have constitutions.
Making Of The Indian Constitution
- India is a huge and diverse country. The making of the Constitution for a country like this was not easy. The people of India were new to the status of citizens.
- The country was also facing a partition based on religious differences where the people of India and Pakistan went through a painful experience.
- Many people lost their lives during the partition.
The Path to Constitution
- Our national movement was a struggle to rejuvenate our country and transform our society.
- During the freedom struggle leaders had different views about the approaches India should follow after Independence. Even today, such differences exist.
- The Constitution for India was drafted in 1928 by Motilal Nehru and eight other Congress leaders.
- The resolution of the Indian National Congress at the Karachi session took place in the year 1931. It abided on how India's Constitution should look after Independence.
- In the Constitution of independent India, both these documents were dedicated to the inclusion of the right to freedom and equality, a universal adult franchise, and protecting the rights of minorities.
- Some basic values were received by all leaders much before the Constituent Assembly met to plan the Constitution.
- The British introduced weak legislatures. In 1937, elections were held for ministries and provincial legislatures all over British India.
- The Indian Constitution adopted institutional details and procedures from colonial laws. For instance, colonial laws like the Government of India act 1935
The constituent assembly
- Who made the Indian Constitution? The Constitution document was drafted by an assembly of elected representatives called 'constituent assembly'.
- Elections of the constituent assembly were held in the month of July 1946. Followed by its first meeting that was held in December 1946.
- The country got divided into India and Pakistan.
- The Indian constituent assembly had 299 members. They adopted the Constitution on 26 November 1949, which came into effect on 26 January 1950.
- Hence, 26 January is celebrated as the Republic day every year.
Why should we accept the Constitution made more than six decades ago? To understand this, students must consider referring to the NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Civics Chapter 2.
- Firstly, the Constitution expresses a broad consensus of its time. The legitimacy of the Constitution over the last half-century has not been questioned by a large social group of the political party.
- Secondly, the Constituent Assembly that drafted the Constitution represented the people of India. The Indian National Congress dominated the assembly and led India's freedom struggle.
- Lastly, the constituent assembly works in a manner that gives sanctity to the Constitution.
Dr BR Ambedkar chaired the drafting committee. Some of the basic principles to be followed were sided. He prepared a draft constitution for discussion. Numerous rounds of detailed discussion took place on the draft constitution, clause by clause. The members planned and deliberated for 14 days spread over 3 years, with more than 2000 amendments considered. Each document was put forward, and every word spoken in the constituent assembly was recorded and preserved. These fall under the term 'Constituent Assembly Debates'.
Guiding Values Of The Indian Constitution
The Indian Constitution has its own philosophy. Let us look at the following points in NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Civics Chapter 2 to understand the overall philosophy of our constitution.
The dream and the promise
- Even though Mahatma Gandhi was not a constituent assembly member, his vision was followed for many years. His vision was written down in his magazine young India in 1931. There he shared his view on how the constitution should work.
- The dream of India free of inequalities was shared by Dr Ambedkar. Dr Ambedkar played a key role in making the Constitution.
- He presented different methods of removing inequalities and discrimination d. He often criticised Mahatma Gandhi for his vision.
- Lastly, in his famous speech, Jawaharlal Nehru put forward his vision to the Constituent Assembly on 15 August 1947, where he spoke about the service towards millions of Indians who suffered
Philosophy of the Constitution
The Constitution commences with a short statement of its values called ‘’the Preamble to the Constitution’’.
- The Preamble of the Constitution is similar to a poem on democracy and consists of the philosophy upon which the entire Constitution has been based.
- It provides a principle to examine any law and action of the government and determine whether it is good or bad.
- The Preamble to the Constitution is the symbol of the Indian Constitution.
Constitution lays down an approach for choosing people to govern the
country. It determines the amount of power each one will have to make decisions. It exercises limits on what the government can do by bringing forth rights for the citizens that cannot be violated.
NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Civics Chapter 2 Exercise & Solutions
NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Civics Chapter 2 Constitutional Design can be found on the Extramarks website. NCERT Solutions provide detailed and authentic answers to all the textbook questions. Through those, the students can understand, remember and retain answers to NCERT questions and thus, perform well in exams.
In NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Civics Chapter 2, we have covered contexts about the Constitution, the oppression in South Africa, the need for a constitution, how the Indian Constitution was drafted, leaders of the constituent assembly, and the Constitution's philosophy.
Students are advised to read and revise the chapter a couple of times to obtain a basic understanding of the Constitution.
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Key Features of NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Civics Chapter 2
If you are looking to ace your exams in Civics subject, NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Civics Chapter 2 is a complete guide. You can read the key features below:
- Extramarks NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Civics Chapter 2 are drafted and prepared by experts in political science.
- The explanations provide conceptual clarity to the students. The students obtain a general understanding of all the concepts.
- NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Civics Chapter 2 provides a step-by-step knowledge guide on this chapter as it forms the base of careers like civil services, law, journalism, marketing research, political research, etc.
Q.1 Here are some false statements. Identify the mistake in each case and rewrite these correctly based on what you have read in this chapter.
- Leaders of the freedom movement had an open mind about whether the country should be democratic or not after independence.
- Members of the Constituent Assembly of India held the same views on all provisions of the Constitution.
- A country that has a constitution must be a democracy.
- Constitution cannot be amended because it is the supreme law of a country.
- This statement is true. Despite many difficulties, Indian leaders did not have to create a consensus about what a democratic India should look like.
- Members of the Constituent Assembly of India held different views on various provisions of the Constitution.
- A country with a constitution may not necessarily be a democracy, but a democracy will definitely have a constitution.
- Constitution can be amended to make sure that it is in accordance with people’s aspirations and changes in society.
Q.2 Which of these was the most salient underlying conflict in the making of a democratic constitution in South Africa?
- Between South Africa and its neighbours
- Between men and women
- Between the white majority and the black minority
- Between the coloured minority and the black majority
d. Between the coloured minority and the black majority
Q.3 Which of these is a provision that a democratic constitution does not have?
- Powers of the head of the state
- Name of the head of the state
- Powers of the legislature
- Name of the country
b. Name of the head of the state
Q.4 Match the following leaders with their roles in the making of the Constitution:
a. Motilal Nehru
i. President of the Constituent Assembly
b. B.R. Ambedkar
ii. Member of the Constituent Assembly
c. Rajendra Prasad
iii. Chairman of the Drafting Committee
d. Sarojini Naidu
iv. Prepared a Constitution for India in 1928
a – iv; b – iii; c – i; d – ii;
Q.5 Read again the extracts from Nehru’s speech ‘Tryst with Destiny’ and answer the following:
- Why did Nehru use the expression “not wholly or in full measure” in the first sentence?
- What pledge did he want the makers of the Indian Constitution to take?
- “The ambition of the greatest man of our generation has been to wipe every tear from every eye”. Who was he referring to?
- India had been under colonial rule and suppression for a long time. Therefore, building the nation was going to be a huge task. This task cannot be fulfilled overnight, but it can only be achieved gradually. This is the obvious reason why Nehru uses the expression “not wholly or in full measure”.
- Nehru wanted the makers of the Indian Constitution to take the pledge of service to India. According to him, service of India meant the service of the millions who suffer. He wanted to end poverty, ignorance, disease and inequality of opportunity.
- When Nehru said “ambition of the greatest man” he was referring to Mahatma Gandhi.
Q.6 Here are some of the guiding values of the Constitution and their meaning. Rewrite them by matching them correctly.
i. Government will not favour any religion
ii. People have the supreme right to make decisions
iii. Head of the state is an elected person
iv. People should live like brothers and sisters
a – ii; b – iii; c – iv; d – i;
Q.7 Here are different opinions about what made India a democracy. How much importance would you give to each of these factors?
- Democracy in India is a gift of the British rulers. We received training to work with representative legislative institutions under the British rule.
- Freedom Struggle challenged the colonial exploitation and denial of different freedoms to Indians. Free India could not be anything but democratic.
- We were lucky to have leaders who had democratic convictions. The denial of democracy in several other newly independent countries shows the important role of these leaders.
- There is no doubt that interaction with legislative institutions under the British gave our leaders the idea of how a democracy works. Therefore, we must acknowledge that democracy is one of the many things we learnt from the British rulers.
- Freedom struggle was important in spreading the idea of nationalism in India and inculcating the practice of making decisions by consensus.
- We were fortunate that we did not have a leadership with an autocratic mindset. India’s freedom struggle is the only example of a freedom struggle based on non-violence. This could be possible because our nationalist leaders had the maturity to listen to others’ views.
Q.8 Read the following extract from a conduct book for ‘married women’, published in 1912.
‘God has made the female species delicate and fragile both physically and emotionally, pitiably incapable of self-defence. They are destined thus by God to remain in male protection – of father, husband and son – all their lives. Women should, therefore, not despair, but feel obliged that they can dedicate themselves to the service of men’.
Do you think the values expressed in this para reflected the values underlying our constitution? Or does this go against the constitutional values?
The view presented in the given extract is against our constitutional values. Our constitution regards all human beings as equal. On the contrary, the given extract terms women as delicate, fragile and pitiable. Moreover, it suggests that women were born to serve the men.
Q.9 Read the following statements about a constitution. Give reasons why each of these is true or not true.
- The authority of the rules of the constitution is the same as that of any other law.
- Constitution lays down how different organs of the government will be formed.
- Rights of citizens and limits on the power of the government are laid down in the constitution.
- A constitution is about institutions, not about values.
- Not True; Constitution is the supreme law of a country that determines relationship among people living in a territory and the relationship between the people and government.
- Constitution is not merely a statement of values and philosophy. It embodies these values into institutional arrangements.
- lays down limits on the powers of the government and tells us what the rights of the citizens are;
- Not True; Constitution is based on values. These values are embedded in the Preamble of Indian Constitution.
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