NCERT Solutions Class 9 Social Science Democratic Politics Chapter 4

Introduction to NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Civics Chapter 4 – Working of Institutions

The term Civics is defined as the study of the rights and privileges of the citizens. Civics form the base of civil services professions like IAS, IPS and IFS officer, law, journalism, marketing and research, teaching, etc. 

Class 9 Civics Chapter 4 provides students with an understanding of how an institution works. To make the learning easy, Extramarks has developed NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Civics Chapter 4. The solutions are presented in an easy to understand format and prepared by teachers with years of experience in Political Science. The solution would cover questions and answers from the NCERT textbook explained in a precise and step-by-step manner. By regularly studying from the NCERT Solutions, you will be able to quickly revise the topics and score good marks in Civics.

Students can further visit the Extramarks website to refer to overall NCERT Solutions, including Class 9 Civics Chapter 4 questions and answers, Class 9 Civics Chapter 4 key topics and the overall Class 9 Civics syllabus.

Key Topics Covered By NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Civics Chapter 4 

We come across three institutions that play an essential role in democracy and its major decision making. They are the legislature, the executive and the judiciary.

Let us look at the key points covered by NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Civics Chapter 4. These key topics are the foundation of our understanding of the Working of the Institutions.

  • How Is a Major Policy Decision Taken?
  • Parliament
  • Political Executive
  • The Judiciary

How Is the Major Policy Decision Taken?

The Government of India issued an order called an ‘Office Memorandum’ (A communication issued by an appropriate authority stating the government’s decision) on August 13 1990. It had a number known by: O. M. No. 37012/31/90-Est (SCT), dated 13.8.1990. 

  • Public grievances and pensions, the joint secretary officer , department of personnel and training and the ministry of personnel signed the order. 
  • The order was relatively short, as an ordinary circular of one page, yet became an essential source of controversy for several years. 
  • Many orders are issued by the government every day.
  • Reservation for socially and educationally backward classes was announced by the order(SEBC)
  • It was a major policy decision where 27% of the vacancies in civil posts and services of India are reserved under the government.
  • This led to introducing a third category after the Schedule Cast and the Scheduled tribe.

The Decision Makers

Who can take major decisions?

Central functionaries in the country are involved in major decision making.

  • The President is the head of the state. They have the highest formal authority in the country.
  • The Prime minister takes significant decisions in cabinet meetings and implements government powers. The prime minister heads the government.
  • Parliament comprises The President, The Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha.

Mandal commission

In 1979, The Government of India appointed the second backward classes commission led by B.P Mandal. The Mandal commission involves the criteria and how to identify socially and educationally backwards classes(SEBC) and steps suggested for their advancement.

Janata Dal promised to implement the ‘Mandal commission report. This took place in the Lok Sabha elections of 1989. Janata Dal formed the government, and it was led by V.P Singh, who became the prime minister. Given below are the developments that took place.

  • The President of India addressed its purpose to implement the recommendation of The Mandal commission.
  • The union cabinet took a decision on August 6 1990, to implement the recommendations.
  • We informed both the houses of the parliament about the decision through a statement by the prime minister V.P Singh the next day.
  • An order was drafted by the department’s senior officers with the cabinet decision and was approved by the minister.
  • On behalf of the union government, an officer signed the order and came to be known as O. M. No. 37012/31/90-Est (SCT) on 13.8.1990. 


Due to inequalities among people of different castes, job reservation was made necessary in India. Many disputes continued to follow, which were settled by the Supreme court and the High courts in India. The Supreme court of India gathered all cases together. This case was named ‘Indira Sawhney’ and others Vs Union of India. Persons doing well among the backward classes were said to be excluded from the benefit of reservation. On September 8 1993, the department of personnel and training issued another Office Memorandum. That year the dispute came to an end.

Need For Political Institutions

The government ensures the citizens’ security, provides health and education facilities and implements various welfare schemes. Some people decide how to proceed with the activities while others implement these decisions. Additionally, there should be someone to differentiate between right and wrong. 

The democracy makes numerous arrangements to attend to all these tasks. Several institutions lay down rules and regulations at work.

  • The Prime Minister and the cabinet make all critical policy decisions.
  • The Civil Servants play a role in the implementation of the ministers’ decisions.
  • The Supreme Court settles the disputes between citizens and the government.

Catch a glimpse of NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Civics Chapter 4


Why do we need a Parliament? In India, a national assembly of elective representatives is called the parliament. In a democracy, the elected representatives exercise political authority on behalf of the people. It is known as the legislature or legislative assembly at the state level. It exercises various functions.

  1. Parliaments have the authority to make laws in the country. They can make laws, change existing laws or abolish existing laws. For this reason, this assembly is also called the legislature.
  2. Parliament monitors the decision taken by the government.
  3. Parliament also controls the money that the government spends. Public money can be spent only when the parliament.
  4. Parliament is the highest forum of discussion on public issues and the national policy of the country.

Two Houses Of The Parliament

The two houses, also known as chambers, are the council of states- Rajya sabha and the house of people- Lok sabha. Houses make their decisions only after the accent of the president. Given below few powers exercised by the Lok sabha

  • When a law is passed, the final decision is taken in a joint session in which members of both houses come together. However, since the Lok sabha has more members, the view of the Lok sabha creates more significance in such a meeting.
  • The Lok Sabha has more authority over the budget of the government and money-related laws. Rajya Sabha has the ability to delay it by 14 days or suggest changes but cannot reject it.
  • The most important feature of the Lok sabha is that it controls the council of ministers. The person who gets the majority of the support of the Lok Sabha members is appointed the prime minister.
  •  The prime ministers, along with the council of ministers, will step down if the majority of the Lok Sabha members state that they have no confidence in the council of ministers, 

Political Executive

The government has functionaries who take decisions at different levels and is collectively known as the executive. The executive is in charge of the execution of the government’s policies. Hence, the government is referred to as the executive.

Political and permanent executive

Political executive

  • People elect them for a specific period.
  • Includes Political leaders who make big decisions.

Permanent executive

  • People elect them on a long term basis.
  • Includes civil servants who remain in the office even when the ruling party changes.

Prime ministers and council of ministers

  • The most crucial political institution in the country is the prime minister. 
  • Once the prime minister is appointed, the president appoints other ministers on the prime minister’s suggestion. 
  • The prime minister chooses ministers as long as they are members of the parliament.
  • The council of ministers includes 60 to 80 ministers rank at different levels:
  1. Cabinet ministers are the highest leaders of the ruling party. It has 25 ministers and is in charge of the significant ministries who take decisions on behalf of the council of ministers.
  2. Ministers with independent charge – They are in charge of small ministries and participate in cabinet meetings only when particularly invited.
  3. Ministers of state – They are required to assist cabinet ministers.
  • All ministers can’t meet regularly. Hence, decisions are taken in cabinet meetings.
  • Ministers are not permitted to criticize the government’s decision, even if it is about another ministry.
  • The secretaries give essential information to the ministers.

Powers of the Prime Minister

  • The prime minister head’s the government.
  • He chairs the cabinet meetings and coordinates the work of the various departments.
  • His decisions are final
  • He supervises different ministries. 
  • He distributes and redistributes work to all the ministers
  • The council of ministry quits when the prime minister quotes
  • Thus, the prime minister is the most powerful institution in India within the cabinet.

Coalition government

A coalition refers to an alliance formed by political parties for combined action. Coalition politics has led to restrictions on the power of the prime minister. In the presence of a coalition, he cannot take decisions as he likes. 

Powers of The President

  • Being the head of the state, the President exercises only nominal powers.
  • The President supervises functionaries of all political institutions in India.
  • This helps to operate in harmony and achieve the goals of the state.
  • The MPs and the MLAs elect the President. 
  • The President will appoint a candidate with a majority of votes.
  • The President represents the entire nation and remains a nominal executive.
  • The President takes all decisions on government activities, laws and major policies, including the appointment of the judges of the supreme court, the judges of the high court, the governors and the Chief justice of the country.
  • The President appoints a leader who supports the majority of Lok sabha members.

The Judiciary

The judiciary of India consists of a Supreme Court at the national level, state High Courts, District Courts and local courts. The Supreme Court controls the judicial administration, and its decisions are binding on all other courts of the country. It can take up any dispute between:

  •  Citizens of the country;
  • Government and citizens;
  • Two or more state governments
  • Union and state-level governments

The supreme court is the topmost court of appeal in civil and criminal cases. Moreover, the judiciary is independent of the legislature or the executive. The senior judge of the Supreme Court is appointed as the Chief Justice. Once selected as a judge of the Supreme Court or the High Court, it is difficult to remove them from that position. An impeachment motion can remove a judge passed separately by two-thirds of the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha members.

Judicial Review

The power of the Supreme Court and the High Courts to determine the validity of the legislation is known as the judicial review.

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Civics Chapter 4 Exercise &  Solutions

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Key Features of NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Civics Chapter 4

Let us look at the main features of Extramarks NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Civics Chapter 4:

  • The NCERT Solutions makes learning easy and simplified. The Extramarks online platform provides 100% reliability to enable a proper understanding of all complex concepts.
  • Students can access these notes on any device like mobiles, tabs, laptops, etc. It covers all topics with plenty of examples and informative diagrams and graphs.
  • NCERT Solutions for Civics provides good resources for students to prepare for careers in civil services, journalism and law.

NCERT Solutions provide detailed and authentic answers to all the textbook questions. Through those, the students can understand, remember and retain answers to NCERT questions and thus, perform well in exams.

Q.1 If you are elected as President of India, which of the following decisions can you take on your own?

  1. Select the person you like as Prime Minister.
  2. Dismiss a Prime Minister who has a majority in Lok Sabha.
  3. Ask for reconsideration of a bill passed by both the Houses.
  4. Nominate the leaders of your choice to the Council of Ministers.


c. Ask for reconsideration of a bill passed by both the Houses.

Q.2 Who among the following is a part of the political executive?

  1. District Collector
  2. Secretary of the Ministry of Home Affairs
  3. Home Minister
  4. Director General of Police


c. Home Minister

Q.3 Which of the following statements about the judiciary is false?

  1. Every law passed by the Parliament needs approval of the Supreme Court
  2. Judiciary can strike down a law if it goes against the spirit of the Constitution
  3. Judiciary is independent of the Executive
  4. Any citizen can approach the courts if her rights are violated


  1. Every law passed by the Parliament needs approval of the Supreme Court

Q.4 Which of the following institutions can make changes to an existing law of the country?

  1. The Supreme Court
  2. The President
  3. The Prime Minister
  4. The Parliament


d. The Parliament

Q.5 Match the ministry with the news that the ministry may have released:

a. A new policy is being made to increase the jute exports from the country

i. Ministry of Defence

b. Telephone services will be made more accessible to rural areas

ii. Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Public Distribution

c. The price of rice and wheat sold under the Public Distribution System will go down

iii. Ministry of Health

d. A pulse polio campaign will be launched

iv. Ministry of Commerce and Industry

e. The allowances of the soldiers posted on high altitudes will be increased

v. Ministry of Communications and Information Technology


a – iv;

b – v;

c – ii;

d – iii;

e – i;

Q.6 Of all the institutions that we have studied in this chapter, name the one that exercises the powers on each of the following matters.

  1. Decision on allocation of money for developing infrastructure like roads, irrigation etc. and different welfare activities for the citizens
  2. Considers the recommendation of a Committee on a law to regulate the stock exchange
  3. Decides on a legal dispute between two state governments
  4. Implements the decision to provide relief for the victims of an earthquake.


  1. Legislative (the Lok Sabha)
  2. Legislative (the Parliament)
  3. Judiciary (the Supreme Court)
  4. Executive

Q.7 Why is the Prime Minister in India not directly elected by the people? Choose the most appropriate answer and give reasons for your choice.

  1. In a Parliamentary democracy only the leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha can become the Prime Minister.
  2. Lok Sabha can remove the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers even before the expiry of their term.
  3. Since the Prime Minister is appointed by the President there is no need for it.
  4. Direct election of the Prime Minister will involve lot of expenditure on election.

Ans. The most appropriate answer is –

  1. In a Parliamentary democracy only the leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha can become the Prime Minister.

Reason: The President appoints the leader of the majority party or the coalition of parties that commands a majority in the Lok Sabha, as Prime Minister.

Q.8 Three friends went to watch a film that showed the hero becoming Chief Minister for a day and making big changes in the state. Imran said this is what the country needs. Rizwan said this kind of a personal rule without institutions is dangerous. Shankar said all this is a fantasy. No minister can do anything in one day. What would be your reaction to such a film?

Ans. I agree with Shankar’s opinion. The film is just a fantasy. In a democratic system, the ruler is supposed to be elected through a fair electoral process. No one can bring reforms in a single day as it requires a lot of planning.

Q.9 A teacher was making preparations for a mock parliament. She called two students to act as leaders of two political parties. She gave them an option: Each one could choose to have a majority either in the mock Lok Sabha or in the mock Rajya Sabha. If this choice was given to you, which one would you choose and why?

Ans. Mock Lok Sabha

Reason – Lok Sabha has more powers than the Rajya Sabha.

Q.10 After reading the example of the reservation order, three students had different reactions about the role of the judiciary. Which view, according to you, is a correct reading of the role of judiciary?

  1. Srinivas argues that since the Supreme Court agreed with the government, it is not independent.
  2. Anjaiah says that judiciary is independent because it could have given a verdict against the government order. The Supreme Court did direct the government to modify it.
  3. Vijaya thinks that the judiciary is neither independent nor conformist, but acts as a mediator between opposing parties. The court struck a good balance between those who supported and those who opposed the order.

Ans. I agree with Anjiah’s view. The fact that the Supreme Court directed the government to modify the reservation order is a proof that Judiciary is independent.

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FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Does NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Civics Chapter 4 cover all key topics thoroughly?

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Civics Chapter 4 consists of all significant definitions, important points and concepts laid out in a simple manner for better understanding.


Below are the topics covered in NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Civics Chapter 4

  • How Is A Major Policy Decision Taken?
  • A Government Order
  • The Decision-Makers
  • Need for Political Institutions
  • Parliament and Why do We Need a Parliament?
  • Two Houses of Parliament
  • Political and Permanent Executive
  • Prime Minister and Council of Ministers
  • Power of the Prime Minister
  • President
  • The Judiciary

2. Where can I refer to NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Civics Chapter 4?

 You can visit the Extramarks website for the best NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Civics Chapter 4, which is prepared by subject matter experts while adhering to the CBSE guidelines.

3. Is Class 9 Civics Chapter 4 Working of Institutions difficult for students?

No. Class 9 Civics is considered to be a relatively easy subject as compared to Math and Science. If students study regularly from NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Civics Chapter 4, they would develop a thorough understanding of this chapter. The solutions are designed to provide a core understanding of the working of institutions in a democracy which will increase their confidence in achieving a higher grade.